1. Which group below consists only of legal drugs in Kenya?
    1. Khat, alcohol, tobacco
    2. Bhang, cocaine, mandrax
    3. Tobacco, inhalants, miraa 
    4. Cocaine, tobacco, bhang
  2. Which one of the following is a common sign between symptomatic and incubation stages of HIV infection? At both stages
    1. the patient can transmit the virus knowingly
    2. the patient has AIDS
    3. signs and symptoms are visible 
    4. a HIV test shows negative results.
  3. The chart below shows immunisation schedule for infants.
    C8 ET2 SCI Q3
    Which pair of vaccines below are not all correctly classified?
    1. BCG and Hepatitis B 
    2. 3rd OPV and 1st DPT
    3. Hepatitis B and 2nd DPT 
    4. 1st DPT and 1stOPV.
  4. Which one of the following is not an interdependence between plants?
    1. Habitat 
    2. Shade 
    3. Food 
    4. Shelter
  5. All the following plants have the same type of root except
    1. sweet potatoes
    2. banana 
    3. mango 
    4. irish potatoes.
  6. Some pupils destroyed all the anthers in a certain flower before pollination. Which one of the following is most likely to take place after some time in the same flower?
    1. The ovary developed into a fruit 
    2. Pollination did not take place 
    3. Pollen tube did not develop 
    4. The whole flower withered.
  7. The diagram below shows a method of separating mixtures.
    C8 ET2 SCI Q7
    Which mixture below cannot be separated using the above method?
    1. Maize and millet
    2. Wheat flour and husks 
    3. Rice and sand particles
    4. Sorghum and beans.
  8. The following are signs and symptoms of a certain water-borne disease;
    1. Blood in urine 
    2. Fever 
    3. Diarrhoea or constipation
      Which one of the following is the best method of preventing the above disease?
      1. Wearing protective clothing when handling stagnant water. 
      2. Maintaining high standards of hygiene
      3. Vaccination against the disease during outbreak.
      4. Drinking boiled or treated water.
  9. Which method of food preservation below makes the bacteria inactive?
    1. Canning 
    2. Freezing
    3. Salting
    4. Drying
  10. All the following are importance of water in a diet except
    1. helps in food absorption
    2. helps in removal of waste products 
    3. water forms part of blood 
    4. prevents constipation.
  11. Which one of the following is not a major protective food?
    1. Milk 
    2. Pumpkin
    3. Mutton
    4. Kales
  12. On a very cold day, a boy covered himself with a blanket. The main function of the blanket was to
    1. provide him with warmth 
    2. produce enough heat 
    3. allow his body to generate heat
    4. reduce heat loss from his body.
  13. In between a burning jiko and a boy standing close to the jiko there is air. Heat from the jiko mainly reaches the boy through
    1. radiation only
    2. convection only
    3. conduction only
    4. convection and radiation.
  14. Which one of the following is not a reason for lighting a room?
    1. To improve safety 
    2. To provide warmth 
    3. To see clearly 
    4. To discourage pests.
  15. In which of the following activities is water least conserved?
    1. Discharging treated sewage into water ways. 
    2. Providing shade to growing seedlings
    3. Channeling rain water into a dam 
    4. Cultivating close to river banks
  16. Which set up below is used to investigate refraction of light?
    C8 ET2 SCI Q16
  17. A class four pupil placed a ball bearing and a metallic bowl on water. After the observation, the pupil concluded that
    1. size does not affect floating and sinking 
    2. type of the material affects floating and sinking 
    3. shape of an object affects floating and sinking
    4. weight does not affect floating and sinking.
  18. The following are the steps to following when investigating if part of air supports burning
    1. Pour water into the basin 
    2. Cover the burning candle with a glass jar
    3. Fix the burning candle at the bottom of the basin using wax
      Which one of the following shows the correct procedure?
      1. ii, ii, i 
      2. ii, iii, i 
      3. i, ii, iii 
      4. iii, i, ii
  19. In which of the following is friction force least required?
    1. Running
    2. Flying a kite 
    3. Cycling
    4. Digging
  20. Which one of the following is not a common characteristic between the vertebrates drawn.
     C8 ET2 SCI Q20
    1. They breathe through lungs 
    2. They have constant body temperature
    3. They have internal fertilisation 
    4. They lay eggs.
  21. Ticks and tapeworms in livestock can both be controlled by
    1. deworming 
    2. dipping 
    3. practising rotational grazing
    4. spraying the livestock with acaricides.
  22. Which one of the following farm animals can produce both beef and milk?
    1. Dairy cows
    2. Goats
    3. Sheep
    4. Poultry
  23. The best method a person infected with tuberculosis can prevent the spread of the disease is by
    1. immunisation against the disease 
    2. isolation and immediate treatment
    3. living in a well ventilated room 
    4. drinking properly boiled milk.
  24. Which one of the following is not a myth and misconception about HIV/AIDS?
    1. People living with HIV/AIDS are always thin.
    2. All people with HIV have AIDS 
    3. HIV is caused by sexual intercourse
    4. HIV/AIDS weakens the body's immunity.
  25. Which group of crops below are correctly classified?
    1. Oil crops - sunflower, coconut and cotton
    2. Cereals - maize, sorghum and peas
    3. Fibre crops - sisal, barley and cotton 
    4. Tubers - onions, cassava and potatoes
  26. Which one of the following is not a physical change in adolescent girls?
    1. Rapid body growth 
    2. Hair grows on chest 
    3. Pimples may appear on the face
    4. Hips broaden.
  27. The diagram below shows the parts of the urinary system.
    C8 ET2 SCI Q27
    Which letter represents the part that produces urine?
    1. W
    2. Z
    3. X
    4. Y
  28. Which blood vessel transports blood from,the lungs to the heart?
    1. Pulmonary vein
    2. Aorta 
    3. Pulmonary artery
    4. Venacava.
  29. Which type of teeth is one not likely to use when eating sugarcane?
    1. Incisors 
    2. Molars 
    3. Premolars 
    4. Canines
  30. Which type of manure is prepared from all forms of organic waste?
    1. Farmyard manure 
    2. Green manure 
    3. Compost manure 
    4. Artificial manure
  31. The diagram below shows a way of grazing animals.
    C8 ET2 SCI Q31
    Which statement is false about the above method of grazing?
    1. It can best be used with few livestock 
    2. The livestock can only feed on pasture
    3. It helps in controlling livestock parasites 
    4. It is a type of rotational grazing.
  32. In which part of the digestive system is water absorbed?
    1. Mouth 
    2. Stomach
    3. Large intestine
    4. Small intestine
  33. Which one of the following substances does not have indefinite shape?
    1. Ice
    2. Water 
    3. Oxygen
    4. Smoke
  34. Which of the following instruments is used to compare the quantity of matter in objects?
    1. Spring balance
    2. Beam balance
    3. Kilograms 
    4. Newtons
  35. The gravitational pull in an object is equivalent to its
    1. mass
    2. inertia 
    3. friction 
    4. weight
  36. Two liquids were mixed in a container as shown below.
    C8 ET2 SCI Q36
    Liquid E and F are most likely to be _______ and _______ respectively.
    1. water, kerosene 
    2. milk, methylated spirit 
    3. methylated spirit, petrol 
    4. petrol, milk
  37. What is the percentage of the gas that is used by some green plants to make protein?
    1. 0.03%
    2. 0.97% 
    3. 21%
    4. 78%
  38. Which one of the following is not a major component of the environment?
    1. Water 
    2. Animals
    3. Light
    4. Soil
  39. The following are all signs and symptoms of marasmus except
    1. wrinkled skin 
    2. severe loss of weight 
    3. sores at the corner of the mouth 
    4. almost all the muscles disappear.
  40. All the following materials are required when modelling the solar system except
    1. bottle tops 
    2. manila paper 
    3. thorns 
    4. plasticine. .
  41. The arrow of a windvane was seen pointing towards the direction of the sunset. From which direction was the wind blowing?
    1. East
    2. North 
    3. West 
    4. South
  42. Which type of soil is correctly matched to its characteristics in the table below?
       Clay   Sand 
     Largest particles 
     Spreads easily when dry
     Has poorest capillarity 
     Cracks when dry
     Makes shortest ribbons  
     Sticks when wet
     Retains a lot of water
     Has best drainage
  43. All the following animals live in soil except
    1. ants
    2. moth
    3. millipede
    4. slug.
  44. Which one of the following is not a storage pest?
    1. Mite
    2. Weaver bird
    3. Mole
    4. Weevil
  45. The diagram below shows the development of the foetus in the womb.
    C8 ET2 SCI Q45
    Which letter represents the part that is correctly matched to its function?
    1. T-allows for free movement of the foetus 
    2. Q - protects the foetus from injuries
    3. R - prevents direct contact of blood 
    4. S-facilitates transfer of food nutrients,
  46. Which one of the following sources of electricity is odd?
    1. Bicycle dynamo 
    2. Wind - driven turbines 
    3. Solar panels 
    4. Petrol - driven generators.
  47. Which lever below has effort between ioad and fulcrum?
    1. Wheelbarrow
    2. Claw hammer 
    3. Crowbar 
    4. Spade
  48. Which one of the following is not a use of water in the farm?
    1. Watering plants
    2. Cooling parts of machines
    3. Washing farm tools 
    4. Keeping some farm animals.
  49. Which material below is a poor conductor of electricity?
    1. Rubber band 
    2. Pin
    3. Razor blade 
    4. Staples
  50. Which one of the following is not a commercial feed?
    1. Maize germ 
    2. Pollard
    3. Molasses
    4. Desmodium.


  1. A
  2. A  
  3. D
  4. D
  5. B
  6. A
  7. C
  8. B
  9. B
  10. D
  11. C
  12. D
  13. A
  14. B
  15. A
  16. C
  17. C
  18. A
  19. B
  20. D
  21. C
  22. A
  23. B
  24. D
  25. A
  26. B
  27. A
  28. A
  29. A
  30. C
  31. B
  32. C
  33. A
  34. B
  35. D
  36. D
  37. D
  38. C
  39. C
  40. A
  41. C
  42. D
  43. B
  44. B
  45. A
  46. A
  47. D
  48. B
  49. A
  50. D

Soma vifungu vifuatavyo. Vina nafasi 1 mpaka 15. Kwa kila nafasi, umepewa majibu manne. Chagua jibu lifaalo zaidi kati ya yale uliyopewa.

Ili kuwa na jamii ___1___kila mmoja wetu anahitajika___2___, ___3___mstari wa mbele katika kuzungumza tu___4___ pia katika matendo yetu. Inaeleweka na kila mtu kuwa___5___ya mja hunena muungwana ni vitendo. Ni___6___letu kuhakikisha kuwa jamii yetu___7___. Hili linawezekana tu iwapo tutakuwa___8___katika kila tulitendalo. Kwa mfano, hatuwezi tukatarajia kuwa na jamii yenye bidii iwapo sisi ndisi___9___ Hilo haliwezekani.

    1. thabiti
    2. dhabiti
    3. mathubuti
    4. dhaifu
    1. kutolewa
    2. kujitoa
    3. kujitia
    4. kujitolea
    1. Usiwe
    2. Tuwe
    3. Mwe
    4. Tusiwe
    1. ingawa
    2. bali
    3. lakini
    4. mbali
    1. afua
    2. desturi
    3. ada
    4. kawaida
    1.  toleo
    2.  wajib
    3.  dhima
    4. jukumu
    1.  imeidilika
    2. imeadilika
    3.  imebaidilika
    4. imebainika
    1. vielelezo
    2. tegemeo
    3. vielezo
    4. vigezo
    1. tunaolaza damu
    2.  tunaokufa kikondoo
    3. tunaopiga moyo konde
    4. tunaojitolea mhanga

Baada ya___10___ na darasa la nane, niliamua kudurusu zaidi ili nifaulu. Sikutaka kuvuta mkia ___11___, ___12___kuhusu aina___13___maneno kama vile nomino, vitenzi na vielezi ambavyo pia huitwa ___14___ . Kuna vielezi vingi___15___ polepole, upesi, nyumbani na sokoni.

    1. kuungana
    2. kuunganishwa
    3. kujiunga
    4. kuunga
    1. tena
    2. asilani
    3. yamkini
    4. angalau
    1. Nimesoma
    2. Ninasoma
    3. Nilisoma
    4. Ningesoma
    1. ya
    2. wa
    3. na
    4. za
    1. viigizi 
    2. viarifa
    3. visifa
    4. viingizi
    1. :
    2. ;
    3. -
    4. ,

Kutoka swali la 16 - 30, chagua jibu sahihi kulingana na maagizo.

  1. Chagua ukanusho wa: Mgeni aliyewasili ana kofia.
    1. Mgeni asiyewasili ana kofia.
    2. Mgeni asiyewasili hana kofia. 
    3. Mgeni aliyewasili huna kofia. 
    4. Mgeni aliyewasili hana kofia.
  2. Tambua sentensi iliyo na kivumishi cha idadi katika orodha.
    1. Barabara zote zimejaa magari.
    2. Miti mingi imepandwa na wanafunzi.
    3. Mwalimu amesahihisha insha mbili.
    4. Kitabu hiki ni cha mwanafunzi wa pili.
  3. Tambua matumizi ya 'ki' katika sentensi.
    Mpishi yule alipika akiimba.
    1. Kuonyesha vitenzi sambamba.
    2. Kuonyesha hali endelezi.
    3. Kuonyesha kufuatana kwa vitendo. 
    4. Kuonyesha hali ya masharti.
  4. Sentensi ipi iliyo katika hali ya mazoea kati ya hizi?
    1. Wewe hukufika mapema tulivyoelewana.
    2. Mtoto atikaye shuleni mapema ndiye huyu.
    3. Alitembea huku ameangalia.
    4. Hungesoma kwa bidii hungefaulu.
  5. maji, chai, uji' ni mfano ya nomino za aina gani?
    1. Nomino za hali
    2. Nomino za wingi 
    3. Nominoambata
    4. nomino za jamii.
  6. Tambua nomino ambayo haijalinganishwa kwa usahihi na ngeli.
    1. moyo - U - ZI, U-I 
    2. kipepeo - KI-VI, A - WA
    3. ua - LI-YA, U - ZI
    4. moto - U-T; U-U
  7. Chagua maelezo ambayo ni sahihi.
    1. Kitengele ni kiungo cha mkono kati ya kiwiko na bega. 
    2. Kwapa ni kiungo cha mwili kilicho juu ya bega. 
    3. Nyongo ni kiungo cha mwili kinachopatikana juu ya kiuno.
    4. Goko ni mfupa wa mbele unaotoka kwenye kifundo cha mguu mpaka kwenye goti.
  8. Orodha ipi ambayo ni ya vihusishi pekee?
    1. langu, vyao, zake
    2. kabla ya, juu ya, baada ya
    3. licha ya, fauka ya, minghairi ya 
    4. ala, ebo, afanalek
  9. .'a, e, i, o, u' ni mifano ya
    1. konsonanti
    2. silabi funge 
    3. vokali
    4. sautighuna.
  10. Teua umoja wa: Vita huharibu maendeleo ya mataifa.
    1. Vita huharibu maendeleo ya taifa 
    2. Kita huharibu maendeleo ya taifa 
    3. Vita huharibu endeleo la taifa 
    4. Kita huharibu maendeleo la taifa.
  11. Jibu lipi ambalo halijalinganishwa kwa usahihi? 
    1. fuma - fumua 
    2. chimba - chimbua
    3. pakia - pakua
    4. funga - fungua
  12. Maamkizi gani yatumikayo wakati uliotofauti na mengine?
    1. Sabalheri
    2. Chewa
    3. Umeamkaje 
    4. Umeshindaje
  13. Tambua sentensi iliyotumia kiunganishi kwa usahihi.
    1. Nipe aghalabu shilingi hamsini ninunulie kitabu.
    2. Umeshindwa kuandika aya moja sembuse insha nzima. 
    3. Mathalani umewasili, tutaanza safari.
    4. Bighairi ya kumnunulia nguo, pia alimnunulia kalamu.
  14. Jibu lipi lenye kitenzi kilichoundwa kutokana na sifa? 
    1. cheka - mcheshi 
    2. mwalimu - funza
    3. vumilivu - vumilia
    4. mjuzi - ujuzi.
  15. Mtoto ni kwa binadamu kama vile __________ ni kwa ndege.
    1. kinda 
    2. kifaranga 
    3. kiota 
    4. kizimba

Soma taarifa ifuatayo kisha ujibu maswali 31-40.

Siku moja, mume na mke wakiwa wamekaa pamoja, mume alimwambia mke wake, "Mke wangu nimewakumbuka sana ndugu zangu (kaka zangu, dada zangu na hata baba na mama) tujumuike pamoja na kula pamoja. Kesho nitawaalika ili tufurahie nao katika chakula cha mchana, itabidi uandae chakula kwa ajili yao."

Mke alijibu kwa unyonge, “Sawa, Mungu akipenda."

Asubuhi ya siku iliyofuata, mume alitoka kwenda katika shughuli yake lakini baada ya saa kadhaa alirejea nyumbani. Alimsaili mke wake, “Mke wangu, umeandaa chakula cha mchna kwa ajili ya wageni? Baada ya saa moja watakuwa wameshafika." Mke alijibu, "La. Sijapika madhali ndugu zako sio wageni hapa. Watakula chochote wakipatacho." Mumewe alimwambia kuwa Mungu amsamehe. Alitaka kujua kwa nini mkewe aliyasema hayo ilhali alikuwa amemweleza kuhusu wageni tangu siku iliyotangulia. Aliuliza kwa nini mke wake hakumwambia kuwa asingepika ilihali wazazi wake wangewasili baada ya muda mfupi.

Basi mume ilimbidi aondoke pale nyumbani ili aibu isimfunike na kumzamisha. Baada ya dakika kadhaa, mlano ulibishwa. Mke alienda kuufubgua mlango. Alipigwa na butwaa alipokuta kuwa wageni waliokuja ni wazazi wake: baba yale, mama yake, dada zake pamoja na kaka zake. Alishtuka nusura azimie. Hata hivyo, aliwakaribisha ndani.

Baba yake alimwuliza alikokuwa mume wake. Mke alimjibu kwamba alikuwa ametoka dakika chache zilizopita. Baba alimwambia "Mumeo jana alitupa taarifa kuwa leo anatualika hapa tuje kula pamoja chakula cha mchana. Sasa vipi yeye ameondoka? Tendo hili si la busara." Mwanamke yule alishangaa kwa taarifa hiyo. Alianza kufikicha mikono yake huku akipigapiga mguu chini kwa kuchanganyikiwa. Ilimbidi aingie ndani na kumpigia mume wake simu. Alimwambia, "Kwa nini hukuniambia kuwa wazazi wangu ndio wanaokuja?"

Mume alimjibu, "Wazazi wangu na wazazi wako wote ni kitu kimoja, hawana tofauti."

Mke alimwambia mumewe, “Leta chakula huku. Chakula kilichokuwepo ni kichache. Hakitawatosheleza."

Mume alimjibu, "Mimi nipo mbali na hao si wageni. Watakula chochote kilichopo namna wewe ulivyokuwa ukitaka kuwalisha wazazi wangu." Mke alibabaika sana. Mikono yake ilitetemeka huku akimwomba mumewe msamaha. Aliwaelezea wazazi wake yote yaliyojiri. Nao waliamuru kuwa wazazi wa mume watafutiwe siku ya kuwatembelea wana wao ili waandaliwe mlo.

  1. Kulingana na aya ya kwanza, mume
    1. alikumbushwa kuhusu ndugu zake na mkewe. 
    2. alijua kuwa mke angekataa kuwahudumia wageni. 
    3. alinuia kuwatendea wema wakwe wake. 
    4. alimwekea mkewe mtego ili amnase.
  2. Maneno yaliyosemwa na mke, “Sawa,Mungu akipenda", yanaonyesha
    1. udhaifu wa mke
    2. kutojali kwa mke 
    3. jinsi mke alivyomtegemea Mungu 
    4. uaminifu wa mke.
  3. Makala haya yamendhihirisha mke kuwa
    1. mwenye tamaa, katili 
    2. mkakamavu, goigoi 
    3. mwenda nguu, mchoyo 
    4. mbinafsi, kaidi
  4. Methali gani isiyoweza kumrejelea mke katika makala haya?
    1. Ndugu ni kufaana si kufanana.
    2. Mkuki mtamu kwa nguruwe kwa binadamu uchungu:
    3. Mchimba kisima huingia mwenyewe.
    4. Kila mwamba ngoma, ngozi huivuta kwake.
  5. Maneno 'itabidi uandae chakula' yanatoa maana zifuatazo isipokuwa
    1. una hiari ya kuandaa chakula 
    2. ni lazima uandae chakula 
    3. huna budi kuandaa chakula 
    4. ni faradhi uandae chakula.
  6. .... aibu isimfunike na kumzamisha' yametumia fani gani ya lugha?
    1. Chuku
    2. Istiara 
    3. Tashhisi 
    4. Kinaya
  7. Hali ya mke kupata kwamba wageni waliokuja walikuwa ni wazazi wake badala ya wazazi wa mume inaweza ikaelezewa kwa nahau ipi? Mke
    1. alikula mwande
    2. alikula mwata 
    3. alikula muku 
    4. alikula mori
  8. Makala haya yameonyesha kuwa mume
    1. aliwahusudu wazazi wa mkewe
    2. aliwastahi wazazi wa mkewe
    3. aliwahadaa wazazi wa mkewe
    4. aliwadhalilisha wazazi wa mkewe.
  9. Neno 'alimsaili' lina maana gani jinsi lilivyotumika katika kifungu?
    1. Alishangazwa
    2. Alimwuliza 
    3. Alimtuliza 
    4. Alimwagiza
  10. Kwa mujibu wa aya ya mwisho, si kweli kuwa
    1. huenda mume hakuwa mbali ila alikasirishwa na tabia ya mkewe. 
    2. mume alikuwa amegundua kuwa wazazi wa mkewe hawakuwa wageni pale nyumbani.
    3. mke alitetemeka kuonyesha kujutia yale aliyoyatenda. 
    4. mume alimwelewa mkewe na kumpa nafasi nyingine.

Soma taarifa ifuatayo kisha ujibu maswali 41 - 50.

Wakenya zaidi ya elfu kumi na tano walihusika katika ajali za barabarani mwaka jana. Kati yao elfu tatu na mia nne walifariki huku wengine zaidi ya elfu sita mia sita wakipata majeraha mabaya. Jambo la kuhuzunisha mno. Hata hivyo, imebainika kuwa huenda magari yaliua watu wengi zaidi mwaka jana kuliko idadi hiyo iliyotolewa na Mamlaka ya Usalama wa Barabarani. Utafiti umekuwa ukifanywa kila uchao. Wanasayansi sasa wanasema kuwa moshi unaotolewa na magari yanayotumia mafuta ya dizeli huenda unachangia katika ongezeko la vifo vinavyosababishwa na hora ya mapofu (nimonia).

Watafiti kutoka chuo kikuu kimoja walibaini kwamba hewa iliyochafuliwa na moshi wa mafuta ya dizeli inaweka watu katika hatari ya kupatwa na maradhi ambayo ni hatari ya nimonia. Aidha, utafiti huo unasema kuwa watu wanaopumua hewa iliyo na moshi wa mafuta ya dizeli wanakuwa na uwezekano mkubwa wa kupatwa na nimonia ambayo husababishwa na bakhteria wanaojulikana kama 'Streptococcus pneumonia.

Bakhteria hao ndio husababisha maradhi ya nimonia na homa ya uti wa mgongo. Magonjwa haya huchangia kwa kiasi kikubwa vifo vya watoto wachanga walio chini ya miaka mitano. Kadhalika, husababisha vifo vya maelfu ya watu wazima kote duniani. Takwimu zilizotolewa zinaonyesha kuwa tangu mwaka wa elfu mbili kumi na tano, maradhi ya nimonia yamekuwa yakiongoza kwa kusababisha idadi kubwa ya vifo humu nchini. Licha ya hayo, kulingana na ripoti kuhusu hali ya kiuchumi ya mwaka wa elfu mbili, kumi na nane iliyotolewa na Shirika la Takwimu Nchini, waliouawa na maradhi ya nimonia ni karibu mara nne kuliko waliofariki kutokana na ukimwi.

Ugonjwa wa nimonia uliua watu elfu ishirini na moja, mia mbili tisini na watano na elfu ishirini na mbili, mia nne sabini na watatu katika mwaka wa elfu mbili kumi na sita na elfu mbili kumi na tano mtawalio. Ni wazi kama mchana kuwa magonjwa mengine yaliyoangamiza idadi kubwa mwaka wa elfu mbili kumi na saba ni malaria ulioua watu elfu kumi na saba, mia tano hamsini na watu elfu kumi na sita, mia tisa hamsini na watatu.

Mnamo mwaka wa elfu mbili na kumi na nane, watu milioni moja na elfu mia nne walienda hospitalini kutibiwa nimonia na mwaka uliotangulia wa elfu mbili, kumi na saba, watu milioni moja na elfu kumi na saba. Watu milioni moja na elfu mia mbili waliitafuta matibabu ya nimonia katika hospitali kote nchini. Takwimu za wizara ya afya zinaoonyeha kuwa watoto elfu mia saba hutibiwa maradhi ya nimonia kila mwaka. Licha ya takwimu hizo zilizotelewa, jambo la kusikitisha ni kwamba karibu asilimia ishirini na tano hufariki kwa sababu huchelewa kupelekwa hospitalini wanapougua maradhi hayo.

Ripoti iliyotolewa na shirika moja lisilo la serikali mnamo mwaka wa elfu mbili kumi na saba, ilionyesha kuwa vipimo visivyotoa matokeo sahihi na uhaba wa dawa za kukabiliana na bakhteria ni miongoni mwa sabab zinazochangia katika ongezeko la vifo vinavyotokana na nimonia. Wanasayansi waliohojiwa walisema kuwa ugonjwa huo ukigunduliwa mapema unatibika kwa dawa inayouzwa kwa shilingi mia mbili. Isitoshe chanjo ya kukabiliana na maradhi ya nimonia ilianza kutumika humu nchini mnamo mwaka wa elfu mbili, kumi na moja kwa watoto wa kati ya umri wa wiki sita na kumi na nne.

Lakini takwimu zilionyesha kuwa zaidi ya watoto elfu mia nne na kumi na nane wa umri wa miczi kumi na miwili na ishirini na mitatu hawakupewa chanjo hiyo mnamo mwaka wa elfu mbilli kumi na saba. Vifo vilivyotokana na nimonia huenda vikaendelea kushuhudiwa humu nchini kwani takwimu zinaonyesha kuwa kiwango cha mafuta ya dizeli yanayotumiwa humu nchini kinaongezeka kila mwaka.

  1. Kulingana na aya ya kwanza, imebainika kuwa
    1. wakenya takriban elfu kumi na tano walihusika katika ajali za barabarani mwaka jana.
    2. wakenya zaidi ya elfu kumi na tano walihusika katika ajali mwaka jana. 
    3. wakenya zaidi ya elfu sita na mia sita walijeruhiwa katika ajali za barabarani mwaka jana.
    4. utafiti umekuwa ukifanyika kila uchao ili kutambua idadi ya walioumia katika ajali ya barabarani.
  2. Ni kweli kuwa moshi unaotolewa na magari yanatumia mafuta ya dizeli.
    1. umechangia katika ongezeko la ajali barabarani.
    2. umeongeza maambukizi ya nimonia.
    3. yanawezekana kuwa umechangia katika ongezeko la vifo visababishwaVyo na nimonia. 
    4. umechangiwa na kukithiri kwa vifo vya homa ya mapafu.
  3. Neno 'walifariki' halimaanishi kuwa
    1. waliaga dunia 
    2. walienda na ulele ngoma
    3. walifumwa na mvi wa manaya 
    4. walienda nguu.
  4. Kifungu kimedhihirisha kuwa vifo vya watoto
    1. wachanga kwa kiasi kikubwa husababishwa na homa ya mapafu na homa ya uti wa mgongo. 
    2. wachanga walio chini ya miaka mitano husababisha maambukizi ya nimonia.
    3. wachanga walio juu ya miaka mitano husababishwa na nimonia na homa ya uti wa mgongo.
    4. wachanga na watu wazima walio chini ya miaka mitano husababishwa na nimonia na homa ya uti wa mgongo.
  5. Maneno ni wazi kama mchana' yametumia fani gani ya lugha?
    1. Nahau 
    2. Chuku
    3. Tashbihi
    4. Tasfida
  6. Makala yameeleza kuwa watu waliouawa mwaka wa elfu mbili kumi na tano kutokana na nimonia ni 
    1. 21295 
    2. 22473 
    3. 17553 
    4. 16953
  7. . ... asilimia ishirini na tano hufariki kwa sababu huchelewa kupelekwa hospitalii...' kauli hii inaweza ikaelezwa kwa methali ipi? 
    1. Simba mwenda pole ndiye mla nyama. 
    2. Fisi akimla muwele mzima funga mlango. 
    3. Kifo cha wengi harusi.
    4. Akutanguliaye chanoni hukuzidi tonge.
  8. Kulingana na aya ya sita, ni kweli kuwa
    1. ongezeko la vifo vinavyotokana na nimonia husababishwa na ukosefu wa damu za kukabiliana na bakhteria. 
    2. ukosefu wa dawa na vipimo visivyotoa matokeo ni sababu zinazochangia ongezeko la vifo vya nimonia.
    3. upungufu wa dawa na vipimo visivyotoa matokeo sahihi na sababu zingine huchangia ongezeko la vifo vitokanavyo na nimonia.
    4. vifo vinavyotokana na nimonia huchangia uhaba wa dawa na vipimo duni.
  9. Ongezeko la matumizi ya mafuta ya dizeli
    1. litaongeza matumizi ya magari 
    2. linaweza likaongeza vifo vinavyotokana na nimonia 
    3. limesababishwa na maambukizi mengi ya ugonjwa wa nimonia.
    4. limechangia kutokea kwa ajali nyingi za barabarani.
  10. Ili kupunguza vifo vinavyotokana na maambukizi ya nimonia 
    1. tunafaa kubuni vifaa vinavyotoa matokeo sahihi.
    2. tunafaa kutafuta mikakati kabambe ya kuzuia maambukizi ya ugonjwa wa nimonia. 
    3. tunafaa kutafuta dawa za kutosha ili kutibu ugonjwa wa nimonia.
    4. tunafaa kuimarisha usafiri ili wagonjwa wafikishwe hospitalini mapema.


  1. A
  2. D
  3. D
  4. B
  5. C
  6. D
  7. B
  8. A
  9. A
  10. C
  11. B
  12. C
  13. D
  14. D
  15. A
  16. D
  17. D
  18. A
  19. B
  20. B
  21. D
  22. D
  23. B
  24. C
  25. D
  26. B
  27. D
  28. B
  29. C
  30. A
  31. C
  32. B
  33. D
  34. A
  35. A
  36. A
  37. A
  38. B
  39. B
  40. B
  41. C
  42. C
  43. D
  44. A
  45. C
  46. B
  47. D
  48. C
  49. B
  50. B

Read the passage below. It contains blank spaces numbered 1-15. For each blank space choose the BEST answer for the choices given.

It was twenty minutes to ___1___ in the afternoon and I was eager to ___2___ home. I wanted to tell my mother___3 ___, ___4___ play we had ___5___ in my drama festival.

Just as I was preparing to 6 the classroom, our class teacher came___7___the room looking very ___8___ and suddenly the whole room became___9___still. I then ___10___ that she was looking at me ___11___ She walked ___12___. me, "Andrew, come with me for a moment, I need to tell you something."

Everyone turned and looked at me. I ___13____ anything wrong, and___14____imagine what she wanted and there was this total silence as if something terrible had happened, and everyone knew____15____ me. I followed her obediently and when we were outside, she smiled and said, “There's nothing to worry about. I was just acting." I felt so relieved.

    1. eleven
    2. four
    3. fore
    4. forth
    1. arrive
    2. reach at
    3. enter in
    4. stay
    1. off
    2. for
    3. about
    4. concerning
    1. some 
    2. an
    3. a
    4. the
    1. performed
    2. played
    3. acted
    4. done
    1. disappear
    2. leave
    3. run from
    4. enter
    1. in
    2. by 
    3. into
    4. to 
    1. excited
    2. happy
    3. . upset
    4. sad 
    1. too
    2. very
    3. so
    4. quite 
    1. realised
    2. released 
    3. assumed
    4. thought
    1. careful
    2. angrily
    3. smoothly
    4. slowly 
    1. besides
    2. to 
    3. towards
    4. Dear
    1. can'dt
    2. hadn't done
    3. couldn't do
    4. haven't done 
    1. couldn't
    2. wouldn't
    3. won't
    4. didn't 
    1. accept
    2. apart
    3. except
    4. about

For questions 16-18 choose the correct alternative

  1. When we reached the border, he ran __________ difficult.
    1. across
    2. into
    3. through
    4. upon
  2. They said there _______ an accident on the new Thika road previously 
    1. had been 
    2. will be 
    3. was 
    4. have been
  3. At dinner, we had
    1. well tasty cooked meat 
    2. cooked well tasty meat.
    3. . tasty well cooked meat
    4. well, cooked, tasty, meat

For question 19 choose the sentence which means the same as the one given. 

  1. Mary told me, "I cannot come with you."
    1. Mary told me I cannot go with you
    2. Mary told me that she could not come with me 
    3. Mary told me that she could not go with you 
    4. Mary told me that she could not go with me

For question 20 choose the sentence which is grammatically correct.

    1. Did you think that was a very good film? 
    2. My father would have beaten me, but I begged him.
    3. If you drop that dish, it will brake.
    4. Roy thought that the examination questions were cheap.

For questions 21-23 choose the best alternative

  1. What______about?
    1. are these good news 
    2. is this good news 
    3. are these good news 
    4. was those good news
  2. It was not until yesterday
    1. as Moreu reported back to school
    2. when Moreu reported back to school 
    3. that Moreu reported back to school 
    4. for Moreu to report back to school
  3. _______live in the same house
    1. I and they 
    2. me and they
    3. . they and I 
    4. them and me.

For question 24 choose the word which means almost the same as the underlined word

  1. The teacher cannot compel us to work hard, but it is to our own advantage to do so
    1. order
    2. force. 
    3. urge 
    4. drive

For question 25 choose the best alternative 

  1. Let us pull together,______?________
    1. shall we? yes, we shall 
    2. shan't we? yes, shan't 
    3. will we? yes, we will
    4. won't we? no, we won't

Read the passage below carefully and then answer questions 26-38

One day, we landed on an island, and while my companions were gathering flowers and fruits, I took my wine and provisions and made a good meal near a stream between two high trees. Then I fell asleep and when I awoke the ship had gone.

I climbed to the top of a lofty tree to see if I could discover anything hopeful, and looked landward, I saw something white at a great distance, so I descended from the tree and made my way towards it. As I drew nearer, I thought it to be a huge white dome, and when I touched it, I found it was so smooth that there was no climbing to the top.

It was almost sunset. The air suddenly grew dark as if a huge cloud had come over the sun. I was surprised, but then I saw the cloud simply by a bird of monstrous size. I then remembered hearing sailors speak of a miraculous bird called the Roc and concluded that the great dome must be in reality its egg.

The bird alighted and sat over the egg and I noticed that its leg was as thick as the trunk of a tree. I tied myself securely to it with mu turban in the hope that when the Roc flew away the next morning, it would carry me with her out of this desert island. Fortunately, the bird was not aware of my presence.

My plan succeeded because at dawn, the Roc flew away but it went to such a height that I could not see the earth and when it descended it came down so rapidly that I almost lost my senses. I then immediately untied the knot that bound me to its leg. Scarcely had I donc so when the Roc picked up a large serpent and flew away with

I then found myself in a very deep valley surrounded by very high mountains which were too steep for me to climb. As I walked along the valley, I saw that it was strewn with diamonds some of which were very large. But then I saw a great number of serpents. When it was daylight, they disappeared in caves so as to be free from the Roc. It was then I left my place still trembling and walked for a long time on diamonds without feeling the least desire to possess the. After a time, I fell asleep as I had not slept at all the previous night.

  1. What did the writer do while his friends were collecting fruits and flowers? 
    1. He had a good meal then fell asleep 
    2. He waited for them near the stream C
    3. He found that his ship had gone
    4. He kept a watch on the wine and provisions 
  2. Why did the writer climb to the top of a lofty tree?
    1.  To see his ship which was nearby 
    2. To get a better view of his surroundings 
    3. To see if his friends were till gathering fruits
    4. To see the great desert island.
  3. What did the writer see in the distance on the landward side?
    1. His ship sailing away
    2. A monstrous bird covering the sun
    3. An enormous white dome
    4. Two high trees
  4. What caused the sudden darkening of the sky?
    1. The huge white dome
    2. The sun setting
    3. A huge cloud covering the sun
    4. A bird of enormous size covering the sun
  5. Why was the writer unable to climb to the top of the white object?
    1. It was too huge for him to climb
    2. It was too smooth for him to climb
    3. It was too fragile for it to break
    4. He was very afraid of mother Roc
  6. What did he do when the bird was resting on the egg?
    1. He tied himself to the bird's leg . 
    2. He noticed that its leg was very thick 
    3. He hoped that Roc would carry him away 
    4. He hid himself between two huge trees
  7. The writer's hopes were realised
    1. at day break 
    2. at sunset
    3. when the serpent disappeared during day time
    4. when he regained his senses
  8. Why was the writer not glad to be in the valley?
    1. There were very high mountains 
    2. There were very large diamonds
    3. There were a great number of serpents
    4. There were very many caves
  9. The word descend is used in the passage. What is the opposite?
    1. Ascent
    2. Ascend
    3. Towards.
    4. Ascended 
  10. Why did the serpent hide in the caves during daylight?
    1. To avoid being stepped on by the Roc
    2. To avoid being seen by the writer .
    3. To shelter from the hot sum
    4. To avoid being caught by the Roc
  11. The word "tremble" is used in the passage. Give the synonym
    1. tremor
    2. shake
    3. terror
    4. frightened 
  12. Why didn't the writer possess the diamond?
    1. He was trembling with snake bites
    2. They were of no use to him. He wanted to get out the valley C
    3. They were too large for him to carry
    4. Roc would kill him for stealing his diamonds
  13. What is not true according to the passage?
    1. The writer did not meet his companions after gathering fruits 
    2. Roc did not know that the writer had tied himself on its legs 
    3. Roc flow away with the writer very early in the morning
    4. The valley had many serpents

Read the passage below and then answer questions 39-50.

Obesity is defined as the excessive accumulation of body fat. Obesity is becoming a problem in the wealthy countries. It is most common among the middle aged but childhood obesity is also on the increase. Obesity occurs when the energy taken in exceeds the energy used.

The main and most obvious symptom of obesity is being overweight. Severe obesity may lead to difficulty in moving about and tiredness. It certainly reduces the life-span of the individual

Recent evidence suggests that overfeeding of infants and young children may lead to production of increased amounts of fats in the body. This makes the individual have a higher chance of becoming obese in adulthood.

Obese people are at a higher risk of suffering from the following diseases: heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, back problems and athritis. These diseases may in turn result in early death or disability, Consequently, it is important to prevent obesity so as to live long healthy life. Prevention is better than cure. Treating obesity is difficult, therefore, it is easier to prevent it. The following are the various ways of preventing obesity. First, we should eat meals that contain plenty of fibre and not too much fat or sugar. These are meals with vegetables and legumes. We should also ensure that the snacks we take are not rich in fat. We should also avoid alcohol, do regular exercises and eat only what is enough for our body. This way, we will kick obesity out of our lives.

  1. Which one are commonly affected by the obesity?
    1. Children
    2. Middle aged
    3. Infants
    4. The aged 
  2. From the passage you have read, the words "excessive accumulation" are underlined. They are likely to mean
    1. increased storage 
    2. type of fat
    3. decreased amounts
    4. low amounts
  3. Which one is the best answer to show when obesity occur?
    1. When we cat and do nothing at all 
    2. When we do not exercise 
    3. When the energy we take in is more than the energy we need
    4. When we do not eat at all
  4. According to the passage, the word individual is used in the passage. It means
    1. the writer of the passage
    2. anybody
    3. person suffering from obesity
    4. personal
  5. Those people who are obese are at risk of suffering from
    1. HIV/AIDS
    2. typhoid
    3. Rout
    4. diabetes
  6. Which one is an obvious symptom of obesity
    1. slow in movement and exercises 
    2. excess weight in the body
    3. coughing and sneezing
    4. less excess weight in the body 
  7. It is true to say that obesity can be 
    1. incurable
    2. preventable
    3. curable
    4. not preventable
  8. Which one of the following is NOT TRUE about the obese people?
    1. They exercise a lot
    2. They eat a lot of food
    3. They eat a lot of snacks
    4. They eat a lot of fatty foods
  9. According to the passage, prevention is better than cure are used. They are likely to mean
    1. we wait till we are obese to start preventing 
    2. we wait till obesity strikes so as to prevent - and cure it 
    3. when we are obese, it is easier to prevent than to cure
    4. we prevent being obese long before we become obese
  10. Why has the writer advised us to protect ourselves against obesity? 
    1. To eat less food 
    2. To exercise a lot 
    3. To live long healthy lives among us
    4. To cut on costs of treating the disease
  11. We should not avoid_____and_____ to prevent obesity
    1. snacks and alcohol
    2. fat and alcohol
    3. cabbages and kales
    4. cabbages and fat
  12. It is good to ensure that we eat only what is enough for our body so that
    1. we replace only the energy used
    2. we are able to store energy for future use
    3. we have less energy in the body.
    4. save on amount of food


  1. B
  2. A
  3. C
  4. D
  5. A
  6. B
  7. C
  8. C
  9. B
  10. A
  11. B
  12. C
  13. B
  14. B
  15. C
  16. C
  17. A
  18. C
  19. D
  20. C
  21. B
  22. C
  23. C
  24. B
  25. A
  26. A
  27. B
  28. C
  29. B
  30. B
  31. A
  32. A
  33. C
  34. D
  35. D
  36. B
  37. B
  38. A
  39. B
  40. A
  41. C
  42. C
  43. C
  44. B
  45. B
  46. AC
  47. D
  48. C
  49. C
  50. A
  1. Which one of the following is 47665210 in words?
    1. Forty seven million, six sixty five thousand two hundred and ten.
    2. Four million seven hundred and sixty five thousand two hundred and ten.
    3. Forty seven million six hundred and sixty five thousand two hundred and ten.
    4. Forty seven million six hundred and fifty six thousand two hundred and one.
  2. What is the difference between the largest number and the smallest number formed by the digits 4, 5, 1, 0, 2?
    1. 43965
    2. 55455
    3. 52965
    4. 54455
  3. Work out twice the value of:
    12− (196÷14) x 2 + 26
    1. 10
    2. 20
    3. 44
    4. 22
  4. Round off 499.9972 to the nearest hundredths.
    1. 499.99
    2. 499.00
    3. 500
    4. 500.00
  5. What is the largest capacity of a bottle that can be used to completely empty three containers each holding 48L, 60L and 72L without a remainder?
    1. 24L
    2. 12L
    3. 720L
    4. 360L
  6. In the figure below line AB is parallel to line CD and XY is a straight line, angle CKR = 110°, line RT RY.
    C8 ET2 maths Q6 2021
    What is the measure of angle YTB?
    1. 125°
    2. 55°
    3. 70°
    4. 110°
  7. 24 workers can take 30 days to complete the construction of a bridge. How many more days will it take to complete the work if 4 workers failed to turn up?
    1. 36
    2. 32
    3. 2
    4. 6
  8. A man deposited sh 60000 in a bank. After 2½ years he withdrew a total of 68250. At what rate per annum was the money earning the interest?
    1. 5½%
    2. 5%
    3. 11.4%
    4. 7½%
  9. Njuguna and Mercy shared the profit of sh 20000 in the ration 3:1. How much did Njuguna get?
    1. Sh 5000
    2. Sh 10000
    3. Sh 15000
    4. Sh 12000
  10. A grazing farm in a rectangular shape was drawn using a scale of 1:50000. Calculate the distance round the rectangular farm as accurately drawn below.
             C8 ET2 maths Q610 2021
    1. 13m
    2. 26m
    3. 1300000m
    4. 13km
  11. Electric poles were erected to connect electricity between two towns 3.75km apart. If the poles were placed 50m apart, how many poles were used?
    1. 75
    2. 76
    3. 3700
    4. 38
  12. What is the value of
    ½ of 4½ ÷ 22/x 7/9 − 2/5?
    1. 7/20
    2. 8/20
    3. 3/4
    4. 9/20
  13. In a meeting there were 7354 people. The number of men was 1022 more than that of women. How many men attended the meeting?
    1. 6332
    2. 5210
    3. 4188
    4. 3166
  14. Josphine bought the following items from a shop
    2½bars of soap @sh 120
    1¼kg of sugar @sh 320
    2 - 2kg packets of flour at sh 80
    0.5kg of rice at sh 80
    How much did she pay for the items?
    1. Sh 1060
    2. Sh 980
    3. Sh 1100
    4. Sh 900
  15. A square piece of land has an area of 12.25 ha. It was fenced round using 5 strands of wire. What is the length of the wire used?
    1. 350m
    2. 7000m
    3. 1400m
    4. 70m
  16. The figure below represents a gate. Line AB=ED=12m, line AF=FE 5m, line FC = 15m.
    C8 ET2 maths Q16 2021
    Both sides of the gate were painted. Calculate the area that was painted.
    1. 67.5m2 
    2. 120m2 
    3. 135cm2
    4. 270m2
  17. Given that m=12, n=½m and w=5. What is the value of:
    ½(2m+nw) - n2 +2m?
    1. 15
    2. 27
    3. 9
    4. 21
  18. Jerome paid sh 840 for a shirt after he was given a discount of 30%. How much more was the marked price than the selling price?
    1. Sh 1200
    2. Sh 1140
    3. Sh 300
    4. Sh 360
  19. Tamara can sweep a room in 8 minutes, Jane can sweep the same room in 12 minutes. How long would the two girls take to sweep the same room together?
    1. 4 min 48 seconds
    2. 20 minutes
    3. 5 minutes
    4. 4 minutes, 4/5 seconds
  20. The pie chart below shows how pupils chose their favourite games and sports.
    C8 ET2 maths Q20 2021
    If 18 pupils chose football, how many pupils were there altogether in that class?
    1. 36
    2. 48
    3. 54
    4. 60
  21. A motorist left town A for town B a distance of 120km at a speed of 60km/h. After 30 minutes he got a puncture which took 30 minutes to repair. After repair he travelled the remaining distance at a speed of 45km/h. What was his average speed for the whole journey?
    1. 52½ km/h
    2. 40km/h
    3. 60km/h
    4. 45km/h
  22. Find the value of x in x − 1 + 3x + 3 = 11
                                         5           4
    1. 6
    2. 8
    3. 9
    4. 11
  23. The table below shows the amount of milk produced by cows in the Okoloi's farm in one week 
     Days   Mon   Tue   Wed   Thur   Fri   Sat 
     Amount in lItres   ____  73  ____   78  80   76

    The average amount of milk produced in the six days was 75 litres. If 5 more litres were produced on Monday than on Wednesday. How many litres were produced on Monday?
    1. 74 
    2. 69
    3. 143
    4. 138
  24. A closed cylinder has a diameter of 28cm and a height of 30cm. What is the surface area when open at the top?
    1. 2640cm2
    2. 3256cm2
    3. 1184cm2
    4. 3872cm2
  25. Mr Mugo spends 25% of his salary on food, 35% on rent, 16% on fees and saves the rest which is sh 6000. What is his monthly salary?
    1. Sh 24000
    2. Sh 18000
    3. Sh 25000
    4. Sh 30000
  26. A car travelling at a speed of 72km/h took one minute to cross a tunnel. How long is the tunnel in kilometres?
    1. 1200
    2. 1.2
    3. 7.2
    4. 72
  27. Construct triangle EFG in which angle EFG = 60°, line EF = 6cm and FG = 7cm. Draw a circle touching the 3 vertices of the triangle. What is its radius?
    1. 7.6cm
    2. 2.1cm
    3. 4.2cm
    4. 3.8cm
  28. The temperature of ice was 15°C below the melting point. After heating for 5 minutes the temperature rose to 48°C. What was the rise in temperature?
    1. 48°C
    2. 33°C
    3. 63°C
    4. 38°C
  29. A room measured 8m in length, 6m in width and 5m in height. Windows and doors covered 14m2. If the inner walls were painted what was the area painted?
    1. 140m2 
    2. 236m2
    3. 126m2 
    4. 222m2
  30. The sum of the area of the two squares formed on the two shorter sides of a right-angled triangle is 42.25cm2. If its base length is 2.5cm. Calculate height of the triangle?
    1. 6.5cm
    2. 4cm
    3. 8cm
    4. 6cm
  31. How many cubes are used to make the stack below?
    C8 ET2 maths Q31 2021
    1. 88
    2. 84
    3. 80
    4. 120
  32. In a school, lessons take 45 minutes. The lessons start at 8:20 am and ends at 3:20 pm. All the breaks take 2½ hours. How many lessons are there in a day?
    1. 7
    2. 8
    3. 6
    4. 9
  33. Joseph is twice as old as Sarah and Hillary is 6 years younger than Joseph. If Sarah is y years. Write an expression to show the sum of their ages in two years time?
    1. 5y + 6
    2. 5y− 6
    3. 5y
    4. 5y + 12
  34. Work out 45.6 + 0.24 x 7.2  − 4.5
                              0.36 x 0.96
    1. 46.1
    2. 123.92
    3. 63.62
    4. 41.1
  35. Simplify:2/5 (25x − 20) − 3(1/3x+1)
    1. 11x − 11
    2. 11x − 5
    3. 9x − 11
    4. 9x− 5
  36. The sum of three consecutive odd numbers is 111. Which is the smallest number among them?
    1. 36
    2. 35
    3. 37
    4. 39
  37. What is the area of the shaded part in the figure below?
              C8 ET2 maths Q37 2021
    1. 56cm2
    2. 112cm2
    3. 196cm2
    4. 98cm2
  38. In a class two fifth are boys. If there are 18 girls, how many more girls than boys are in that class?
    1. 12
    2. 3
    3. 9
    4. 6
  39. A trader bought 500 oranges for sh 4000.During the transportation 20 of them got spoilt. She sold the remaining in piles of 3 at sh 30. What percentage profit did she make?
    1. 10%
    2. 25%
    3. 20%
    4. 15%
  40. A family uses three - 200ml packets of milk everyday. How many litres of milk does the family use in the month of January and February 2020?
    1. 36
    2. 360
    3. 18
    4. 35.4
  41. After a salary increase of 20%, Jane now earns sh 10728. How much did she earn before the increase?
    1. Sh 7152
    2. Sh 8940
    3. Sh 1788
    4. Sh 12873.60
  42. In the figure below line WX is parallel to YZ. Line YX bisect angle WYZ. Line MW = MX, angle WYX = 25°.
    C8 ET2 maths Q42 2021
    Find angle YXZ.
    1. 50°
    2. 750°
    3. 1050°
    4. 80°
  43. The hire purchase price of a TV set is 15% more than the marked price. The marked price is sh 20000. When buying through hire purchase, a deposit is required followed by monthly instalments of sh 1050 for 18 months. How much deposit is required?
    1. sh 1100
    2. sh 2100
    3. sh 3100
    4. sh 4100
  44. What is 12.5% as a fraction in simple form?
    1. ¼
    2. 1/80
    3. 1/8
    4. 1/40
  45. The net below was folded to form a solid.
    C8 ET2 maths Q45 2021
    What is the sum of faces and vertices of une solid forined?
    1. 11
    2. 10
    3. 12
    4. 9
  46. What is the sum of the next two numbers in
    7, 14, 25, 38,___,___
    1. 129
    2. 124
    3. 123
    4. 127
  47. The perimeter of the figure below is 50cm.
    C8 ET2 maths Q47 2021
    Calculate its area.
    1. 60cm2
    2. 120cm2
    3. 80cm2
    4. 90cm2
  48. What is the capacity of the through drawn below in dl?
               C8 ET2 maths Q48 2021
    1. 2.31
    2. 2310
    3. 231
    4. 23100
  49. A lorry was loaded with 40 bags of beans each weighing 110kg. When half of the was off loaded, the lorry weighed 5.7 tonnes.  What is the mass of the empty lorry? 
    1. 3.5t
    2. 3t
    3. 3.2t
    4. 3.7t
  50. The graph below shows thea number of pupils who were present in a class of 50 pupils in one week.
    Maths C8 ET2 2021 Q50
    What is the average number of pupils who were present that week?
    1. 231
    2. 3.8
    3. 19
    4. 46.2


  1. C
  2. A
  3. B
  4. B
  5. B
  6. A
  7. D
  8. A
  9. C
  10. A
  11. B
  12. A
  13. C
  14. D
  15. B
  16. D
  17. C
  18. D
  19. A
  20. C
  21. B
  22. D
  23. A
  24. B
  25. C
  26. B
  27. D
  28. C
  29. C
  30. D
  31. B
  32. C
  33. C
  34. A
  35. C
  36. B
  37. A
  38. D
  39. C
  40. A
  41. B
  42. C
  43. A
  44. C
  45. B
  46. A
  47. B
  48. D
  49. A
  50. B

Element Of Music

The following are musical instruments

Pitch – the highness or lowness of sound. The combination of varied pitches produces a melody e.g pitch pipe
Melody – should be done keenly as it is difficult to correct once mastered. Use melodies or songs familiar for the start.
Dynamics – relates to the volume of sound. This can either be loud or soft. Dynamics influence the expressiveness in a performance.
Beat /Pulse – regular through of music. The following activity helps in identifying beat.

  • Clapping/tapping
  • Chanting the words of familiar songs rhythmically
  • Conducting learners

Tempo – refers to pace or sped of music.
Activities such as clapping, tapping, marching can be use when teaching about tempo
Responses to tempo are communicated through by running, walking jogging, or skipping.
Mood- this involves feeling about the songs, whether happy or sad
Form – is the structure or shape of piece of music, it is dictated by the melody. The rhythms and repetition on the piece
It is always shown with letters such as //A// OT //B// or //AB//
Grade 5 focuses on //ab//. The part is always the stanza while the B part represents the chorus.



Wind Instrument

  • They are also called aero phones. They are played by blowing
    These instruments have a permanent tuning which is acquired during construct
  • This is because upon constructions, wind instruments remain of fixed length, have a fix number of holes and a fixed blowing hole.
  • They vary in shape, size and material used to make them. They are grouped in the following sub- classes”
  1. Horns- made from animal horns or natural hollow or hollowed out wooden tubes. Among some communities horns are joined to a gourd. E.g.
    • Oluika- luya
    • Lalet-kalenjin
    • Oporo/tung’-Luo
    • Coro-kikuyu
    • Kikundit-kipsigit
    • Adet-turkana
    • Aluti-Teso
  2. Flutes-Are made from materials such as bamboo, swamp reeds, twig or wooden tubes. Currently improvised using plastic tubes.
    Flutes vary in length and number of finger / pitch holes from one community to another.
    Other features that can be used to distinguish or differentiate flutes are:
    • closed at both ends
    • Open at both ends
    • Open at one end and closed at another end
    • Notched at the blowing end (part of the end is v-shaped)
    • Round at the blowing end
    • End blown (also oblique)

      Side blown (also traversely blown-this means the blowing hole is at the side of the flute.)
      Indigenous flutes from the diverse Kenyan communities include:
      End blown flutes (oblique)
      • Muturiri-Gikuyu
      • Auleru-Teso
      • Asili/Odundu-Luo
      • Ndererut-Kalenjin
      • Ebune/Elamaru-Turkana

        Traversely held flutes
      • Chivoti-Digo, Rabai, Duruma
      • Ekibiswi-Kuria
      • Emborogo-Kuria
      • Umwere-Kuria
      • Mulele-Luhya
        Grade 5 Music fig 1
        Grade 5 Music fig 2. PNG
  3. Whistles – these wind instruments are made from hollow tubes or reeds which are bound together. The different length makes it possible to produce different varied pitches when the instrument is blown e.g. biringi of Agikuyu, vilingi of the Akamba.
  4. Reed instruments – double reed instruments have two reeds at the mouthpiece which is made from reeds. The two reed instruments have a tip shield made out of a coconut shell of metal coin
    The lip shield- holds the reed in place and prevents air from escaping. The reeds vibrate when air is blown into the instrument thus producing sound. The Nzumari and the Bung’o played among some of the mijikenda community such as Digo and Rabai.

Functions of parts of flutes

  • Bamboo reed - this is the main framework of the instrument and it also serves as the resonator
  • Blowing hole – it is a hole through which air is blown causing the production of sound
  • Pitch hole – are closed and opened with alternating finger movements to produce varied pitch when playing the melody.
  • Closed – end = this part direct the sounds towards the open end.
    Grade 5 Music fig 3
    Grade 5 Music fig 4
    Music RN Fig 5


  • Hollow bamboo reed – this is the main body of the instrument which act as a resonator
  • Bell - it is used to make the sound louder or amplify the sound
  • Neck - use to attach the double reeds and the lip shield
  • Double reeds - when blown, they vibrate to produce sound
  • Lip shield – this is where the lip rest when blowing


  • Some are held traversely while others are end blown
  • Positioning of the lips – the lower lip is placed on the lower part of the blowing hole
  • Blowing- air should be blown across the blowing hole. The amount of air being blown depends of the wind instrument.
  • Tonguing - the tongue is used to put the accent on
  • Fingering – closing and opening of finger holes in an alternating manner assist to produce varied pitch.
  • Breath control – it’s also referred to as phrasing and should be done at appropriate places when playing the wind instrument.

Western Musical Instrument

Descant Recorder

Grade 5 Music fig 6

                                Recorder fingering chart

Skills of playing the recorder

  • Posture – correct poster will help in breathing deeply in order to get good sound out of the recorder.
  • Breath control – enables them to achieve the good phrasing when playing the descant recorder.
  • Holding – should be held properly with both left handed and right handed learners. The recorder is end blown.
  • Embouchure - refers to the position and the use of the lips and teeth in playing wind instrument. It includes shaping the lips to the mouthpiece of the musical wind instrument
    Embouchure is important because it affect the production of quality of sound
  • Articulation – (preparing the tongue) air flow is critical to the production of good tone or sound on the descant recorder. Blowing too much air will leard to production of squeaking sound.
  • Fingering – the left hand should be placed in the first three holes, while the right hand should be placed in the rest of the holes. Holes should be covered completely, failure to which will cause air to escape and a squeaking sound will be produced.
    When holes on the descant recorder are covered completely, small round marks will be imprinted on the fingers
    Grade 5 Music fig 7PNGTHE NOTES B, A AND G
    They are played using the left hand and are organized logically with fingers moving in a sequential order.

Music Staff Notation

 Grade 5 Music fig 8PNG

THE STAFF- this is a set of five parallel line and four spaces on which music is written.
The lines and spaces are named using the seven letters of the English alphabets A,B,C,D,E,F, and G.
Naming is made possible using clef. The treble or G clef is used to establish the pitches of the staff
Music for the descant recorder is written on the staff using the treble Or G clef.

Fingering notes is illustrated below

Grade 5 Music fig 8PNGPNG



  • They are fingered using the left hand as shown below
  • The left hand thumb hole is left open when playing the note D
    Grade 5 Music fig 9 PNGPNG

Kenyan Folk Dances

Dance - a form of art involving rhythmic movement’s f the body in response to music
It is an expression of norms, values, belief, attitudes and customs of the community.
In traditional African society dances are for specific groups of the performance e.g. boys, girls, boys and girls, young women and

Categories of participants

  1. Soloist – introduces dances, it is also known as Solo choral response or call response singing.
    Roles of a soloist
    • Starting the dance
    • Ending dance
    • Help capture the message and the mood of the dance
    • Pitching the dance songs
    • Cuing dance on the change of melodies, movements and dance formations.
    • Dancers – perform dance movements, create formations
  2. Dancers – perform dance movement. create formations
  3. Lead dancers – remind dancers the next dance style and formation. Guide other dancers in creating the varied dance styles/movement and formations to ensure transitions to ensure transitions are smooth.
  4. Singers - respond to the call of soloist. Make performance lively. Communicate the message and the mood of the dance
  5. Instrumentalist – make the dance performance lively.
    Melodic instrument helps in pitching the performance.
    Help in keeping the steady beat of the songs.
    Assist to cue singers and dancers on the change of melodies, dance styles and formations to ensure smooth transition.
    Provide rhythmic and melodic support to the rhythms and melodies in dance.
  6. Audience and onlookers – make participants feel appreciated
    Their participations bring the dance to life


This involves styles of dress or clothes worn by the participants in dance performance. Roles of costumes in dance performance include:

  • To depict the cultural community it is drawn from.
  • To adorn the participant
  • To distinguish the different roles played by various participants of the dance
  • Influence the participant level of confidence
  • Allow dancers or the wearers freedom of movement and formation
  • Give information about certain role or characters due to elaborate details of the costumes
  • They give the participant of the dance aesthetic appeal
  • Are associated with the costumes and habits of a group of people
  • Gives the participant dignity
  • Help the identify the community the song originates from
  • Create uniformity among the participant
  • In modern times dance performance use uniform costumes made of sisal and banana leaves
  • In each community there are items of value which the participants use during dancing. These items are also known as artifacts which includes shields, swords, skis and traditional tools.

Body Adornment

  • It is an art which involved decorating the body, these vary across communities and can be permanent or temporary
  • Permanent body adornment is done by piercing, scarification or tattoos, both are used to enhance beauty and also have social and ritual significance
  • Some adorn using temporary designs using pain, ochre and henna to decorate the skin. The decoration can symbolize a variety of meaning e.g. social, economic or marital or even political status of the wearer.
  • In some communities it is used to enhance the feminity or masculinity of an individual.
  • The most common method used nowadays is by water emulsion pain
    The type of body adornment used is influenced by the occasion /event or an individual’s stage in life.


Are accessories, articles or items used to add beauty or decorate the appearance of the participants in dance.
In some communities’ beadwork is an integral part of making ornament, beads used in making ornaments can vary in shape, size and colour. The ornaments include.

  • Earring
  • Armlets/armbands
  • Anklets
  • Necklaces
  • Feathers

Creating /composing

Is a succession of sound with long, short or equal duration. It is the pattern of the music in a given time. It can exist without a rhythm.
The long and short the French rhythm names are used to create different rhythms and represented by different matching symbol. These musical symbol are the musical notes.

 French rythm name    Length of sound 
 Taa  1 long sound
 Ta-te  2 long sounds
 Taa-aa  2 long sounds
 Taa-aa-aa-aa  4 long sounds


French rythm name   Note symbol  Note  name   Length of sound  Number of beats 
 Taa        crochet note symbol  Crochet  1 long sound    1 beat
 Ta-te     quavers note symbol  Quavers  2 long sounds  ½ a beat for each quaver 
 Taa-aa      minim note symbol  Minim  2 long sounds   2 beats
 Taa-aa-aa-aa       semibreve note symbol  Semibreve    4 long sounds   4 beats

Words have their natural speeches style which dictates whether to be given either along or a short beat. Syllables in words can be stressed while others are not.
The stressed syllables occurs as strong beats while the unstressed syllables as week beats.
The beats are divided into groups of two beats, three beats or four beats

Grade 5 Music fig 10 PNGPNG

Is a sequence of pleasant sounds that makes up musical phrase
It is a tune that sound nice or pleasant to the ears
An understanding of high and low sounds is essential in identifying melodic variations within a song. Variation to simple melodies can be created by

  • Repetition
  • Changing doh
  • Changing rhythms
  • Changing note
  • Changing words

          Grade 5 Music fig 11 PNGPNG

Hand Signs

It is a good way of understanding and recognizing pitch. These are gestures used to indicate pitch in sol –fa.
When using hand gestures to guide the pitch of the ‘’doh’ is movable (it is not fixed)

Grade 5 Music fig 12 PNGPNG

                                       Hand signs showing sol-fa syllables


Music RN Fig 13

                                     Hand signs showing sol-fa syllables



Repertoire - This is a wide collection of songs. It varies in language, events or occasions and activities relevant to the learners.
There are various categories of songs to be learnt in Grade 5
They include

  • Religious songs
  • Patriotic songs
  • Topical songs
  • Popular songs

The criteria for choosing songs should include

  • Simplicity in text and, rhythm and melody
  • Stepwise movement of melodies
  • Call and responsorial.
  • Songs with catchy appealing melodies.
  • Strophic infrastructure (songs with different verses which are sung to the same music).
  • Full appropriate activities / actions for the learners.

Types of Songs

  1. Patriotic songs – They are sung in praise of a county and its leaders. They emphasize on patriotism and social cohesion eg Kenya, Kenya Taifa Leo.
  2. Topical songs – they are used to convey special message on pertinent and contemporary issue. These include safety, personal hygiene, health and nutrition, importance of education environmental conservation and values. Corona Ni Atari, wash your hands.
  3. Religious / sacred songs – They are imposed for religious purpose e.g. Christianity, Islam and Hinduism use their sacred songs to worship and praise a divine.
  4. Popular songs – They have great appeal to listeners. Such songs cause an audience to easily dance or sing along. The lyrics. Rhythm, melody or genre can influence the popularity of the songs.

The East African Anthem

  • It is also known as wimbo wa Jumuiya ya Africa Mashariki in Kiswahili
  • It has three verses which are sung in Kiswahili
  • It is also commonly or simply referred to as EACA (EAST AFRICAN COMMUNITY ANTHEM)
  • The anthem is sung among the east African community members states namely: Kenya, Rwanda, South Sudan, Tanzania and Uganda.
  • The music of EAC anthem is presented in two scores namely:
    1. A choral music score written for Soprano, Alto ,Tenor and Bass
    2. Brass band music score written for the western brass musical instrument.
  • In grade 5 it is limited to being sung in unison using Soprano melody.
  • It is to be sung once the East African Communities has been hosted in all government and public learning institutions in Kenya.
  • Both the Kenya National Anthem and the EACA should be performed at public events with the aim of boosting the East African Community integration and also as a symbol of unity among the East African community member states.

Guidelines of Performing the EACA

  1. During and the occasion of the performance, everyone present should stand to show a sign of respect.
  2. EACA citizens shall sing or play the anthem during the occasions or regional significance.
  3. Individuals playing or singing the EACA should ensure that the tune and the lyrics (words) are sung with the dignity it deserves.
  4. Either the instrumental or sung version will be performed.

Occasions during which the EACA is performed

  • During all the EACA summit meeting and commemoration days.
  • During any occasion of the community where the head of the state is present, two verses of the anthem shall be sung or played
  • Any other occasion

Skills and concepts to be developed in singing

Accuracy in pitch, rhythm and words should be observed while singing the various types of songs.
Learners should observe the natural speech rhythm of the words of the songs which define the rhythmic pattern of the songs

There are indicators to show that learners are ready to sing in parts, they include:

  1. Singing in tune and unison without support of either the voice or instrumental accompaniment.
  2. Accurate imitation of melodic phrases and phrases and rhythmic patterns.
  3. Confidence while singing alone with others.


  1. Name three types of songs?
  2. Write occasions when patriotic songs are performed?
  3. When should the East African Community Anthem should be sung in Kenya?
  4. Write the Kenya National Anthem verse 1 in Kiswahili?
  5. Name any three voices in a three part song?

Kenya Folk Songs

  • Singing is part and parcel of everyday life in any community. This habitual practice is deeply embedded in every cultural activity within the community.
  • It plays and integral part in ritual and social event within a community.
  • Folk songs are songs sung in particular community.
  • It originates among the people of particular are or locality.
  • They are sung in the local dialect or language of the community they originates from.
  • The songs are handed down from singer to singe or from one generation to another by oral tradition
  • Folk song starts at welcoming of birth once new born baby takes the first breath.
  • As an individual, he or she celebrates rite of passage which introduce them to adult responsibilities as captured in work songs, wedding songs, initiations songs, praise songs and when an individual dies, dirges (funeral songs)
  • The circumstance/events/occasions within which the folk songs are performed dictate the message, gender and aged of the participant.
  • Folk songs tell stories, give a snippet of the past life and highlight various areas of life shared across the cultures and shed life don similarities between people.

Folk songs serve the following roles

  1. Preserves community culture
  2. Define cultural identity/helps to distinguish one community from the other.
  3. Used as a medium of communication
  4. Enhance or strengthen unity or solidarity within the community.
  5. Enhances conformity to social norms of the community.
  6. Creates/provides a medium forum of emotional expression


    life is punctuated by different events or occasions. The events are influenced by community tradition, customs and history e.g ritual and social occasions such as birth of baby, work, marriage, funerals initiations and religious ceremonies. Each occasion has its own special song.
    Folk songs play a communicative role. The various occasions dictate that the song sung have messages that are appropriate to the ceremony or event. The messages as communicated through text, dictate the mood of the folk songs.
    Folk songs are appropriate and uphold community values, virtues, customs and norms
    Community diversity is also evident through the varied array of musical instruments.
    In most community, musical instruments are used to accompany folk songs. Music instruments can either be melodic or rhythmic.
    During the performance of folk songs, music instruments can be played for the following reasons:
    1. To support the melody/tune
    2. To pitch the performance
    3. Make the performance interesting /lively
    4. To provide rhythmic support
    5. To fill up the interludes during the performance
    6. Help in keeping the steady beat
    Folk songs are performed in groups or as solo. Participants vary in age and gender. They include; soloist, singers and instrumentalist.
    The occasions during which folk songs are performed influences the age group and gender of participants e.g. boys and girls, men and women
    African folk songs are largely responsorial in style also referred to as solo choral response
    A soloist can either be male or female. A good soloist should be confident and audible.

Roles of a soloist in a folk song

  • Pitching singers so that they sing without straining
  • To cue singers on the change of melody or body movements
  • Address the audience while commanding singers
  • To coordinate the movements during the performance.
    The choral groups/response sings the same tune/ melody throughout the performance of folk song. This referred to as singing in unison
    The vocal power of the choral response must match the vocal strength of the soloist


  • Dress appropriately
  • Talking – this distracts the performance
  • Reactions to others - e.g. during a mistakes, it is wrong to stare, mock or boo.
  • Maintain enough space between the participant to avoid collision
  • Always accept and acknowledge the applause from any audience.


  1. The participant who leads a folk song is known as ………………..
  2. A folk song belongs to ………….. of community
  3. Name any other occasion when a folk song is performed.

Mounting Artwork -window Mounting

  • Artworks are mounted for the following reasons:
    • To make them look better
    • Protect and make them last longer
    • To make them stiff while hanging on a wall
    • To prevent them from bending, wrinkling or creasing.
  • Artworks that can be mounted include drawings, paintings, crayon etching, fabric decoration, mosaic and collage. These types of artwork are referred to as “two dimensional” (2 D) artwork.
  • They are artwork that can be done on a flat surface such as paper, board or cloth.
  • Mounting - is the process of attaching a drawing, photograph or other work art done on paper to a cardboard or other backing by using adhesive.
  • There are surfaces for mounting which include conventional and unconventional surfaces used for mounting 2D artwork. It includes:
    1. Conventional - refers to commonly used surfaces e.g. various papers
    2. Unconventional - surfaces manufactured for a given use but re-use for another purpose e.g. Hessian, plastic, hardboard, soft board or canvas.

Art and Craft RN Fig j

Mounting Artwork

Window mounting using conventional and unconventional surfaces.

Mounting Art Using A Conventional Surface

  1. Identify and select your paper. Ensure the paper is strong to withstand the weight of your artwork.
  2. Select the artwork that they would like to mount.
  3. Use a blade or pair of scissors to trim and cut the edges of the artwork so that they are neat and straight.
  4. Creating the window place artwork on the mounting surfaces and mark at the edges as illustrated.
    Place other marks inside from the first set of marks that you had made. Make sure they are just inside enough not to cover any important part of the artwork as shown.
  5. Draw a margin around the second set of marks that you have made, then cut the margin line you have drawn. This will create a window on the mounting surface. The window should be slightly smaller than the artwork to be mounted.
  6. Flip the mounting surface on the reverse side then apply adhesive along the window space as shown.
  7. Fix the artwork using glue on each mounting surface and press it firmly in place as shown.

Mounting Artwork Using Unconventional Surface Procedure

  1. Identify an old fabric and cartons from the environment. Ensure the fabric is larger than the carton by at least 5 cm on each side by measurement.
  2. Select the artwork that they would like to mount
  3. Use a blade or pair of scissors to trim and cut the edges of the artwork so that they are neat and straight.
  4. Create the window on the carton surface.
  5. Apply glue on their cut-out window and attach it to the fabric as shown.
  6. Draw marks at the four corners and two diagonal lines across the window as shown below. Using scissors, trim off the small square marks at each of the four corners. Cut through the diagonal lines you made using a sharp blade then apply glue on the carton.
  7. Start by folding the outer flaps of the fabric to cover the carton as shown. Then fold the middle pieces fabric over to completely cover the carton.
    Art and Craft Rn Fig k
  8. Apply glue on the created window frame then attach the artwork.

Exhibition Skills - 2d And 3d Artwork Exhibition.

  • To a greater extent and exhibition is a culmination of artwork done over a period of time.
  • To exhibit is to display items so that they are clearly seen by others. The main reason for exhibiting items are to enable people to have a clear view of the items, appreciate and admire them and also to buy the item.

Exhibition Skills

Skills required to exhibit include:

  • Use of space
  • Placement of the artwork
  • Colour and contrast of background
  • Labelling of 2D and 3D artwork.

Letter Construction

  • Graphic design is the art of combining words and pictures to pass a message.
  • Roman letters are letters based on the Roman alphabet. E.g. A B C D E F G H
  • Block letters refers to straight letters constructed individually, with no letters joining.
  • 3 Dimensional - this is having length, height and depth. Raised from the surface.

Construction Of 3 Dimensional Letters

Art and Craft RN Fig c

  1. Draw guidelines in the drawing book using a ruler and a pencil
  2. Write the alphabetical letters using a pencil.
  3. Draw an outline around using freehand or a ruler. Rub the inner lines after drawing the outline. These will now be two dimensional letters.
  4. Draw small projected lines to represent the shadows as they would appear. They can choose to use freehand or a ruler.
  5. Connect the ends of the projected lines using freehand or with a ruler. Practice constructing simple words like Baraka, Pendo, Amani, NEEMA

Decorating 3 Dimensional roman letters

  1. Decide on the decoration method to use.
  2. Prepare or acquire the tools and materials
  3. Decorate the face of the letters
  4. Decorate the shadow
  5. Finish by erasing any unwanted pencil marks

Book Craft

Book jacket - is a removable cover made of paper used to protect the cover of a book A book jacket contains the following:

  • Illustration - which is a picture showing what the book is about.
  • Author - this is the writer of the book
  • Title of the book.

Measuring and cutting the book jacket

  1. Place the book on the manila paper to get the right measurement.
  2. Draw the measurement on the book jacket on the hard paper then trim off the excess paper. Mark the flaps, front , spine and back
  3. Write the title of the book and author’s name on the front cover using block letters.
  4. Fold out the two flaps and the spine as shown below.

Making the applique and attaching to the book cover

  • Applique - decorative designs in which pieces of fabric are sewn or stuck on to a large piece of fabric to form a picture or pattern.
  • The following are the steps to decorate the book jacket with applique
    1. Make a sketch design that goes with the title and then draw their desired shape on a hard paper.
    2. Cut out the shape and place it on a fabric of their choice.
    3. Cut out the shape on the fabric
    4. Place the cut-out shape of fabric on larger fabric.
    5. Attach the cut out fabric to the larger fabric using running stitches.
    6. Arrange the beads on the fabric to see how they fit.
    7. Apply glue on the beads, then rearrange the beads on the fabric and allow them to dry.
    8. Use glue to attach the applique onto the book jacket and allow it to dry before folding.


  • It is the art of making and manipulating puppets in a performance. A puppet is a toy or figure in the shape of a human or animal that is moved by a human to make them appear like they are alive.
  • There are several types of puppet. They include:
    • Glove puppets
    • Stick and rod puppets
    • Marionettes

                       Art and Craft RN Fig d


  • A marionette is a toy of a person or animal, controlled from above by strings attached to its movable body parts.
  • Marionettes are used as characters in performances in entertainment. The person manipulating a marionette is known as a marionettist. They may be hidden or seen by the audience.
    Art and Craft RN Fig e
  • A marionette has 3 parts
    1. Model - thi is the main puppet that may be of human or animal figure with movable body parts.
    2. Handle - this is the part the puppeteer uses to control the marionette. The most common one is a horizontal bar with others attached to it at right angle it is connected to the marionette using strings.
    3. Strings - these are attached from the handle to different body parts of the marionette. They are used to control the movement of the body parts during a performance.
  • A marionette can be made from different materials ranging from wood, cloth, paper and even clay. The main techniques of making a marionette are construction and assemblage.

Making a marionette

  1. Draw and colour the full figure of the puppet on paper as they would want it to look like.
  2. Collect pieces of timber for each part of the body, two arms, two legs, the main body section and the head. The pieces should look very close to the parts of the body to minimize carving.
  3. Measure each piece of timber according to the body part it will form.
  4. Cut and carve using a knife or adze the piece of timber to look like the parts of the body. Follow the steps they used while carving the cooling stick or ladle in sculpture.
  5. Assemble the carved pieces by laying out the torso piece down first, then arrange the arms and legs on the marionette so that a section of each overlaps with the torso (the trunk or the part of the human body that doesn’t include the head, arms or leg) piece.
  6. Creating the joints and dressing the puppet: drill holes using nails or any sharp object and push a wire through each joint in the pupper as shown. The joints should remain loose and flexible enough for the limbs to move easily.
  7. Dressing the puppet. Sew simple clothing, dress the puppet and attach other details such as the hair using sound materials and objects such as buttons or seed to fix eyes.
  8. Creating the handle or control bar - lay down two sticks or pencils to form a cross. Tie the sticks together where they intersect using strong strings.
  9. Attaching the strings - thread a needle with a string (fishing line is best because it is transparent). Know and cut the string after making each attachment. The length of the string extending from each section needs to be long enough to reach the sticks.
  10. Connecting the strings - knot the fishing line extending from the puppet’s shoulders to the centre of the cross. Knot each of the four strings connected to the puppet’s limbs to an individual arm of the cross.
  11. Perform for a friend to test the marionette by manipulating the control bars at intervals.


  • Photography is the art of taking pictures with a camera. Cameras range from digital camera and mobile phone camera.
  • In photography certain elements needs to be taken into consideration. They include:


which includes: background, image quality, center of interest viewpoint, 3 views perspective lightning.
Focus is very important in photography. A focused image is sharp and clear. It involves adjusting the camera lens and the distance from the subject, that is the object being photographed. In digital cameras this can be done automatically

art and Craft RN Fig f

Art and Craft RN FIg g


refers to what is behind the main subject being photographed.
Choose a background that will make the subject stand out
tell where the background is standing out Image quality - refers to the sharpness and the brightness of a photograph.
Make sure your photograph is well focused, hold your camera firmly to avoid shaking. Take time until the image looks clear on the screen.

Art and Craft RN Fig h

Centre of interest - is the most outstanding part or object in a photograph.

Choose one center of interest where possible. This should be the main subject in the picture.

No centre of interest

Art and Craft RN Fig i

Grade 5 AC fig 2

Clear Centre of interest

Viewpoint - in photography or point of view is the position of the camera in relation to that of the subject being photographed.
There are three most common points of seeing objects. These are
When the camera is at the same level with what is being photographed. This is called Eye level.
When the camera is above what is being photographed. This is called Bird’s eye view.
The camera can be below what is being photographed and that is called Worm’s eye view.
Lighting - lighting is important in photography as you cannot see without light.
One should consider the following when taking your photographs.

  • Avoid bright light behind your subject
  • Avoid very dark shadows
  • Where possible avoid taking photographs when the sun is very bright like at noon. Mornings and evenings have better light for taking photography.
  1. Framing (placement of forms within the frame)
    Framing is the placement of forms within the photograph.
    • Choose the object to include in the picture carefully making sure the subject is clearly seen and well placed within the frame.
    • The main subject of the photograph should be the center of interest.
    • Avoid having too many objects in the photograph.
  2. composition
    This refers to making something by arranging several things to form a whole. The composition of your photograph is done by combining different things to make the whole photograph.
    These includes the lines, shapes and object such as people or animals


Plain And Twine Techniques.

  • The weaving process involves interlacing two sets of thread. The two sets are known as
    1. Warp - threads that form the framework of a woven article. The warp are the threads fixed on a loom during the weaving process.
    2. Weft - the threads that interlace over and under the warp.
  • The warps are the threads that form the framework on the woven item.
  • The wefts are threads that interlace over and under the warp. To interlace means to pass one set of weaving material over and under another.
  • The weaving technique can be used to make different items such as clothes, mats, curtains and wall hangings.
  • The weaving process takes place in a machine called loom- this is a machine used for weaving.
  • The process by which weft threads close together during the weaving process is called Beating. The purpose of beating is to compact weft so as to make the woven article firm and tight.
  • There are two methods of weaving:
    1. Plain weave - a weaving technique where the weft interlace over one under one warp across a fabric.
    2. Twine technique - a weaving technique where two sets of weft interlace by warping around a warp thread.
  • Weaving materials are categorized into two:
    a. Flexible weaving materials which are easy to bend - they include bamboo, maize stalk, millet stalk, reeds and twigs.
    b. Stiff weaving materials - are the ones that are relatively hard to bend - they include bamboo, maize stalk, millet stalk, reeds and twigs.

Weaving Loom

  • This is a device or tool used to weave an article
  • A loom is used to hold warp in place and thereby speeds up the weaving process.
  • There are many types of loom. They include:
    • Frame loom
    • Serrated card loom
    • Back strap loom.
  • The easiest type of loom to make is the dowel loom. A dowel loom is made up of 4 posts or sticks tied to form a frame shape.
    Art and Craft RN Fig a
    Weaving a mat in two colours using plain and twine technique.
    To start weaving you need to tie the warp on the loom.

Use the procedure below to start.

  1. Identify strong weaving materials for the warp,.
  2. Tie the warp on one end of the dowel loom and then wind it across the loom as shown.

Procedure of weaving a mat

  1. Sketch the design of the two colour floor mat showing how plain and twine weave will be used. Select two colours you will use to weave.
  2. Select weaving materials of two colours of their choice. These will be used as the weft.
  3. Interlace the weft over and under threads to make a plain weave.
  4. Press the weft threads close together after weaving each line. Use the fingers or stick to press the wefts close together. This process of pressing the wefts close together is known as beating.
  5. Fold the weft to pass behind and in front of the warp and then twist it before the next warp. Keep repeating the process until they reach the end. Once at the end of the first row, return back with the same process.

Leather Work

Thonging Method.

  • Many communities in Kenya use leather to make functional and decorative items such as belts, sandals, shoes, bags, hats, quivers, drums, ornaments, sleeping mats and clothes.
  • Leather, which is the basic material, is obtained from animal hides and skins.
  • These hides and skin undergo a process known as tanning to prevent them from decomposing, rotting and removes bad smell.
  • The tanning process also makes the leather soft and improves its texture. Colour can also be added in the process/
  • Thonging is one of the techniques used in leather work. In this technique strips of cut leather are used to lace or join two or more pieces of leather together. Thonging method can also be used to decorate an item made out of leather.
  • Therefore thonging - is the process of lacing or tying leather pieces together using thongs. And thongs are narrow strips of cut leather used to lace or tie pieces of leather together.
  • The tool used for making holes on the leather is known as Awl.
    Grade 5 AC fig j

Making a pencil case using the thonging technique

  1. Draw a sketch of a pencil case to be made out of leather.
  2. Make a paper cut out to show how the parts of the pencil will look like as shown below.
  3. Trace the template on the leather and cut out the desired shape.
  4. Cut out thonging strips of even thickness from leather as shown below. The thonging strips will be used to lace or join the parts of the pencil case.
  5. Fold the leather according to your design and make holes on the sides. Make sure the holes are evenly spaced. The holes can be made using a nail and a hammer.
  6. Join the pieces of leather using the overcast stitch. Start by tying a knot at the hole at the edge, pass the leather strip into the hole on the second piece and back through the next hole. Continue until the whole side is held on the second piece and back through the next hole. Continue until the whole side is held in place with the thongs. Make sure they are tightly held.

Decorating the pencil case

There two methods that can be used to decorate the pencil case:

  1. Decorating by stitching
    • Decide on the beads to use and choose their colour. Place the beads on the pencil case to check their fit.
    • Thread the needle, push through the leather from the inside and tie a knot on the inside.
    • Push the needle from the back of the leather to the front and a few more beads before making another stitch.
    • Push the needle through to the underside of the leather . secure the thread with a knot and trim the excess thread.
    • Continue stitching with the beads until the end.
  2. Decorating by pasting
    • Decide on the beads to use and choose their colour. Place the beads on the pencil case to check their fit.
    • Apply glue on the marked areas of the pencil case.
    • Place the beads on the pencil case according to your design.
    • Leave the pencil case to dry.


Coil Method.

  • Pottery is the art of modelling functional articles and containers using clay. Articles that can be modelled are items such as pots, cups, spoons, flower vases and plates.
  • Clay is mixed thoroughly in order to make it even and to remove air bubbles through a process called kneading.
  • In order to apply decoration in pottery in some sections of the modelled container is cut out through the Incising method
    Modelling pottery items using coil technique.
    Grade 5 AC fig k       
     Grade 5 AC fig l


  1. Make a drawing sketch of the coil pot you want to model.
  2. Take a little clay from the lump of clay and roll it on a flat surface or in between the palms of their hands to make a coil.
  3. Continue rolling more clay coils. To ensure that the coils are of even thickness, they should not apply pressure at the same place of even thickness, do not apply pressure at the same place continuously. Move your hand in different areas of the clay as they roll the coils. Keep the coils moist by covering them with a damp cloth.
  4. Add successive coils to the required shape and size. To join one coil to another, press two ends of the coils and smoothen the coils with their fingers.

To decorate the pot use the method below.

  • Stamping/embossing -is the pottery decoration technique now being used where an object with a pattern is pressed firmly on leather hard clay. The pattern is then transferred to the walls of the modelled article.



  • Sculpture involves three dimensional forms or figures . Some common techniques used to make sculptural work include modelling, casting and carving.
  • Modelling technique involves shaping forms using malleable materials such as clay or plasticine.
  • In casting a liquid material that can solidify is poured into a mould. The material takes the shape of the mould when it solidifies.
  • Carving refers to cutting away or chopping off parts from a solid material. This is done until the shape you want is formed.
  • Materials that can be carved include: wood, stones, styrofoam, rubber and clay. Slab. to carve the materials you will need sharp cutting tools like the knife, pangas, axe or blades.
    Art and Craft RN Fig b

Materials and tools used in sculpture

Some common softwood that can be used to carve wooden sticks include; cypress, pine, podo, grevillea and cedar.

How to carve wooden stick or ladle

Use the following procedure to carve cooking stick or ladle

  1. Cut the piece of wood to the length of the cooking stick.
  2. Mark the position where the handle of the cooking stick or ladle will be as shown below.
  3. Cut the unwanted parts to form the general shape of the cooking stick
  4. Refine the shape of the cooking stick or ladle.
  5. Sand the cooking stick or ladle to make it smooth. E.g. by using sand paper.

Decorating a wooden cooking stick

A variety of techniques can be used to decorate the cooking sticks. They include:

  1. Smoking - this involves placing the cooking stick over a lit flame from a candle or burning stick. You can then move the stick over the flame to create patterns as shown below. Be careful to avoid burns.
  2. Polishing - this can be done by rubbing the carved wood using sandpaper, a sharp blade or broken piece of glass. This should be done repeatedly until the cooking gets a smooth polished finish. You can add wax and rub or buff with a soft cloth. This will leave the wood smooth and shiny.
  3. Texturing - this involves creating different textures on the wooden cooking stick. This can be done by scratching or engraving into the cooking stick with a sharp object or tool as shown.
  4. Burning - this involves placing a hot metal rod over the cooking stick or ladle. The metal rod can be placed repeatedly in different ways to create interesting patterns on the cooking stick as shown in the picture.
  5. Incising - this involves cutting out lines to form shapes lines or grooves on the wooden sticks.
  6. Embossing - this process involves pressing an object firmly on the cooking stick. The pattern on the object is then transferred onto the cooking stick by stamping as shown.