KCSE 2012 Agriculture Paper 1 with Marking Scheme

Share via Whatsapp
Download PDF for future reference Get on Whatsapp for 50/-

SECTION A (30 marks)

Answer ALL the questions in this section in the spaces provided

  1. Name the part harvested for each of the following craps:
    1. onions (½ mark)
    2. carrots (½ mark)
    3. coffee (½ mark)
  2. State four biotic factors that influence crop production (2 mark)
  3. Name four methods of controlling Top pests. (2 mark)
  4. State four ways of harvesting water on the farm.  (2 marks)
  5. Name four farm records that should be kept by a poultry farmer.  (2 marks)
  6. State four disadvantages of using organic manure in crop production.
  7. Give two ways in which pastures are classified  (1 mark)
  8. State four disadvantages of organic mulches. (2 marks)
  9. Give five advantages of practising crop rotation.  (2 marks)
  10. State two advantages of earthing up in crop production   (1 mark)
  11. Give four harmful effects of weeds on crop production  (2 marks)
  12. State three advantages of shifting cultivation.   (1½ marks)
  13. Give five advantages of zero grazing in dairy farming. (2½ marks)
  14. State four factors that determine the stage at which a crop is harvested,   (2 marks)
  15. State four ways in which land reform can be implemented in Kenya,  (2 marks)
  16. Give four factors that influence the number of secondary cultivations in seedbed preparation.  (2 marks)

SECTION B (20 marks)

Answer ALL the questions in this section in the spaces provided

  1. The illustration below shows a structure used for controlling soil erosion. Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow.
             KCSE 2012 Agri PP1 Q17
    1. Identify the structure.  (1 mark)
    2. Explain two ways in which the structure helps to control soil erosion.  (2 marks
  2. The diagram below illustrates the law of demand in agricultural marketing. Study it and answer the questions that follow.
             KCSE 2012 Agri PP1 Q18
    1. Give a reason for the shape of the curve labelled A.  (1 mark)
    2. If the price of the commodity remains constant, explain three factors that can cause the curve to shift from A to B  (3 marks)
  3. The diagrams below illustrate common weeds in arable land. Study them carefully and answer the questions that follow.
             KCSE 2012 Agri PP1 Q19
    1. Identify the weed labelled D.   (1 mark)
    2. Classify the weed labelled  according to plant morphology.  (1 mark)
    3. Give one reason why it is difficult to control the weed labelled D.    (1 mark)
  4. The diagram below illustrates an agroforestry practice. Study it and answer the questions that follow
             KCSE 2012 Agri Q20 paper 1
    1. Identify the agroforestry practice illustrated above.   (1 mark)
    2. Explain three benefits of the practice illustrated above.    (3 marks)
  5. The diagram below shows a pest and the damaged crop. Study it and answer the questions that follow.
             KCSE 2012 Agri PP1 Q21
    1. Identify the crop pest illustrated above.  (1 mark)
    2. Explain two ways of controlling the pest.   (2 marks)
  6. The diagram below illustrates an investigation on a property of soil using soil samples labelled J. K and L.
             KCSE 2012 Agri PP1 Q22
    1. If the levels of water shown in the diagram were observed after three hours, name the property of soil being investigated.  (1 mark)
    2. What is the relationship between the soil property named in (a) above and the size of soil particles?(1 mark)
    3. Which soil sample would be suitable for growing paddy rice?  (1 mark)

SECTION C (40 marks)

Answer any TWO questions from this section in the spaces provided after question 25.

  1.  
    1. Explain five factors that should be considered in farm planning. (10 marks)
    2. Describe the transplanting of tomato seedlings.   (10 marks)
  2.  
    1. Explain five factors that should be considered when siting a vegetable nursery (5 marks)
    2. Explain six factors that should be considered when selecting seeds for planting (6 marks)
    3. Explain the different ways in which each of the following environmental factors influence crop production:
      1. temperature;   (4 marks)
      2. wind. b (5 marks)
  3.  
    1. Outline the information contained in a Purchase Order  (5 marks)
    2. Describe the harvesting of tea.  (6 marks) 
    3. Explain the importance of irrigation in crop production (5 marks)
    4. Describe the role of magnesium in crop production. (4 marks)  

MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A

  1. Name the part harvested for each of the following crops:
    1. onions - bulb/ leaves
    2. Carrots - roots
    3. coffee - berry/ chimes/ fruits
      (3 x ½ = 1½marks)
  2. Biotic factors that influence crop production.
    • Pests
    • Decomposers
    • Pathogens
    • Nitrogens
    • Pollinators
    • Weeds
    • Predators
      (4 x ½ = 2 marks)
  3. Methods of controlling crop pests.
    • Chemical
    • Biological
    • Cultural
    • Physical/ mechanical
    • Legislation
      (4 x ½ = 2 marks)
  4. ways of harvesting water on the farm.
    1. Roof catchment
    2. Rock catchment.
    3. Weir/ dam
    4. Retention ditches/ level terraces.
    5. Micro – catchment.
    6. Water parts/ ponds
      (4 x ½ = 2 marks)
  5. Farm records that should be kept by a poultry farmer.
    1. Egg production
    2. Labour records
    3. Feeding records
    4. Health records
    5. Marketing records
    6. Inventory records
      (4 x ½= 2 marks)
  6. Disadvantages of using organic manure in crop production
    1. Low nutritive value per unit volume/ weight.
    2. Livelihood of spread of disease/pest/weeds.
    3. Bulky are difficult to store/transport/apply.
    4. Looses nutrients if poorly stored
    5. Variable in nutrient content.
    6. Difficult to qualify amount of nutrients per unit volume.
      (4 x ½ = 2 marks)
  7. Ways in which pastures are classified.
    1. Pasture stand; Pure/mixed.
    2. Pasture establishment/ natural artificial
    3. Ecological zone/altitude.
      (2 x ½= 1mark)
  8. Disadvantages of organic mulches.
    1. Expensive to transport and apply/bulky
    2. Could be a fire risk.
    3. Provides breeding ground/hiding place for pests
    4. Intercepts light showers of rainfall.
    5. Can spread pests/weeds/diseases
      (4 x ½ = 2 marks)
  9. Advantages of practicing crop rotation.
    1. Ensures maximum utilization of nutrients.
    2. Controls build –up of pests/diseases/controls pests/diseases
    3. Controls weeds that are specific to particular crops/ controls weeds.
    4. Improves soil fertility when leguminous crops are included.
    5. Controls soil erosion when cover crops are included
    6. Improves soil structure if grass lay included
      (5 x ½ = 2½ marks)
  10. Advantages of earthing up in crop production.
    1. improves tuber formation/ tuber expansion/ root formation
    2. Improves drainage around the crop
    3. Conserves water/soil
    4. Facilitates harvesting of tuber crops
    5. Root protection
      (2x ½ = 1 mark)
  11. Harmful effects of weeds on crop production.
    1. Lower crop yields
    2. Lower quality of crop products
    3. Some harbor crop pests/diseases
    4. Increase the cost of production
    5. Suppress growth of crops through competition for light, space.
    6. Some are parasitic to crops
    7. Some block irrigation channels
      (4 x ½ = 2 marks)
  12. Advantages of shifting cultivation.
    • No pest and disease build-up
    • Low capital requirement
    • No land disputes as land ownership is not individualized.
    • Soil structure is maintained
    • Give time for land fore gain fertility.
      (3 x ½ = 1 ½marks)
  13. Advantages of zero grazing in dairy farming.
    • Quick accumulation of manure
    • Animal produce high yield due to less wastage of energy.
    • Its easy to control diseases/parasites.
    • Requires little land
    • Allows higher stocking rate.
    • Animal use feeds without wastage.
      (5 x ½= 2½ marks)
  14. Factors that determine the stage at which a crop is harvested.
    • Market price
    • Weather conditions
    • Market demand
    • Purpose /intended use.
    • Concentration of required chemicals
      (4 x ½ = 2 marks)
  15. Ways in which land reform can be implemented in Kenya.
    • Land consolidation
    • Land adjudication and registration
    • Land settlement and resettlement
    • Tenancy reform
    • Redistribution of land.
    • Improved land legisltation
    • Sub – division
      (4 x ½ = 2 marks)
  16. Factors that influence the number of secondary cultivation in seedbed
    • preparation.
    • Type of crop to be established/size of seed
    • Moisture content of soil
    • Type of soil
    • Conditions of land after primary cultivation/ implements used for primary cultivation
    • Amount of organic matter on the surface.
    • Vulnerability of soil erosion/ slope of land/topography.
      (4 x ½ = 2 marks)

SECTION B

  1.  
    1. Identify the structure
      • Gabion/porous dam (1mark)
    2. Ways in which the structure helps to control soil erosion.
      • Slows down the spread of water thus reducing its erosive power.
      • It traps the detached soil particles. (2 x 1 = 2 marks)
  2.  
    1. Give a reason for the shape of the curve labelled A.
      • As the price of the commodity increases the quantity demanded decreases and vice versa.(1x1=1mark)
    2. If the price of the commodity remains constant, explain three factors that can cause the curve to shift from A to B.
      1. If there is an increase in the income of consumers.
      2. Effective advertisement/sales promotion
      3. Increase in the price of a related/substitute
      4. If there is an increase in population
      5. Taste and preference
      6. If the quality of the commodity goes up
        (3 x 1 = 3marks)
  3.  
    1. Identify the weed labelled D.
      • Oxalis spp./ oxalis latifolia/oxalis (1mark)
    2. Classify the weed labelled C according to plant morphology.
      • Broad – leaved weed. (1mark)
    3. Reason why it is difficult to control the weed labelled D. (1mark)
      • Presence of underground bulbs.
  4.  
    1. Identify the agroforestry practice illustrated above. (1mark)
      • Alley cropping/hedge row/ hedger row intercropping.
    2. Benefits of the practice illustrated above. (3 x 1= 3marks)
      • source of folder when tree foliage is cut and fed to livestock.
      • Improves soil fertility through nitrogen fixation/nutrients re-cycling
      • Facilitates soil and water conservation when roots bind soil particles/ improves soil structure
      • Source of mulch/ material/ compost material.
  5.  
    1. Identify the crop pest illustrated above. (1mark)
      • Cutworm/ agrotis spp.
    2. Ways of controlling the pest
      • Early planting for crop to establish early and outgrow the pest.
      • Application of appropriate pesticide/ insecticide/ chemical to kill it
      • Field hygiene to prevent transmission from previous crop residues.
      • Physical killing and destruction (2marks)
  6.  
    1. Name the property of soil being investigated. (1mark)
      • Soil capillarity
    2. What is the relationship between the soil property named in (a) above and the size of soil particles? (1mark)
      • The smaller the size of the particles the greater the force of capillary.
    3. Which soil sample would be suitable for growing paddy rice? (1mark)
      • soil labelled L.

SECTION C (40 marks)

  1.  
    1. factors that should be considered in farm planning.
      • Environmental factors/climate/soil types because these will determine the specific enterprises that are possible in an area.
      • Size of the farm as this will determine the size/number of enterprises that are possible.
      • Farmer’s objectives and preferences; so that the farmer will have a sense of ownership of the farm for motivation.
      • Government regulations or policy to ensure that laws are not flouted.
      • Availability and cost of farm input to select on an enterprise that is affordable
      • Security of enterprises so as to ensure safety.
      • Trends in the labour market/skills and the cost of labour to ensure availability throughout.
      • Existing market conditions and price trend so that whatever is produced is sold and at appropriate prices.
      • Communication and transport to ensure that produce reach markets and inputs are easily accessed.
      • Possible production enterprises so as to choose the most profitable and convenient.
        (5x1=10 marks)
    2. Transplanting of tomato seedlings.
      • Should be done when seedlings are pencil size thick/ one month old
      • Nursery should be watered before to ease lifting of seedlings
      • Use garden trowel to ensure that seedlings are lifted with lump of soil around roots
      • Apply appropriate pesticide or the planting holes and thoroughly mix these with the soil.
      • Lift only healthy and vigorous seedlings from the nursery
      • Plant one seedling per hole at the same depth as was in the nursery
      • Transplanting is preferably done in the evening or on a cloudy day
      • Provide temporary shade to the transplanted seedlings.
      • Water the seedlings as necessary.
      • Place the soil around the seedlings and firm
      • Holes dug are spaced at 60 – 100cm by 50 – 60cm
      • Transplant onset of the rains/ when the soil has enough moisture (water transplanting holes)
      • Transport the seedlings carefully/use a wheelbarrow
      • Planting holes should be dug at 15cm deep.
        (10x1=10 marks)
  2.  
    1. Factors that should be considered when siting a vegetable nursery. (5 marks)
      • Near a water source for easy watering
      • In a well sheltered place to prevent strong winds which can uproot seedlings and cause excessive evaporation
      • Security so as to protect them from theft and destruction by animals/ birds
      • On a gentle slope to prevent erosion through run-off and to prevent flooding
      • Type of soil, should be well drained and fertile
      • Previous cropping/avoid an area where same crop family had been planted to avoid pest and diseases attack/build up
      • Near the seedbed/main field to minimize damage to seedlings during transplanting
      • Accessibility for ease of movement
      • Away from shading effect to allow sunshine
        (5x1=5marks)
    2. Factors that should be considered when selecting seeds for planting.
      1. Adaptability – should be adapted to local ecological condition
      2. Physical deformities/damages – should be free from physical deformities/damages
      3. Health – should be free from pests/diseases
      4. Viability /germination percentage-should have high viability/germination percentage
      5. Parent plant – should be from high yielding/healthy parents/ high quality/early maturing
      6. Purity – should be clean/free from impurities
      7. Maturity – should be of correct maturity stage
      8. Age – storage period – seeds stored for long periods have low viability/germination percentage hence should not be selected
      9. Size of seeds – seeds should be of correct size
        (6x1=6marks)
    3. Environmental factors influence crop production:
      1. temperature; (4 marks)
        • Affect quality of certain crops eg pineapples, pyrethrum.
        • Influence the rate of physiological processes in a crop, hence faster growth rate
        • Cause increase in incidences of diseases.
        • Low temperatures cause frost injury
        • High temperatures increase rate of evatranspiration hence wilting
        • Influence distribution of crops
      2. wind. (5 marks)
        • Strong winds increase the rate of evaporation/evapotranspiration/wilting
        • Influences amount of rainfall in the given area
        • Help in pollination of crops
        • Strong winds have a cooling effect which influences rate of physiological processes.
        • Strong winds may cause soil erosion
        • Strong winds may cause lodging/destruction of certain crop structures
        • Winds can spread diseases/pests/weeds.
        • Winds help in seed dispersal
        • Winds is fed in crop cleaning/winnowing of grains
  3.  
    1. Purchase Order. (5 marks)
      • Quantities of goods
      • Type of goods required
      • Date of order
      • Date within which the ordered goods should be delivered
      • Person who orders the goods
      • Person who authorized the order
      • Purchase order serial number
      • Total cost amount/cost involved
      • Cost of the good cost of each good
    2. Harvesting of tea. (6 marks)
      • Leaves are picked selectively for the highest quality
      • Pluck top two leaves and the bud
      • Use a plucking stick to maintain the plucking table
      • Pluck at 5 – 7 days intervals in rains and 10 – 14day in dry periods/ cold period.
      • Put plucked tea in woven baskets to facilitate air circulation/prevent fermentation
      • Do not compress the leaves in this baskets to prevent heating up/browning.
      • Put plucked tea in cool and shaded place
      • Deliver to the factory on the same day
    3. Importance of irrigation in crop production. (5 marks)
      1. Irrigation increases crop yields and ensure a steady supply of food throughout the year
      2. Maximizes the utilization of resources eg in places where the soil is fertile but the water / rain is inadequate
      3. Important for the reclamation of arid and semi-arid land.
      4. Provides a regular reliable and adequate supply of water in areas with little rainfall.
      5. Source of employment in areas where it is used extensively.
      6. Promotes crop production for the export market and therefore contributes to a country’s revenue
      7. Allows production of paddy rice
      8. Allows growing of crops n green houses
      9. Facilitates irrigation in crop production
      10. Controls pests
    4. Role of magnesium in crop production. (4 marks)
      • Important in chlorophyll formation
      • Promotes the formation of fats and oils in crops eg soya beans, sunflower, ground nuts.
      • Aids in the absorption and translocation of phosphorous
      • Enhances the nitrogen fixing power of the legumes
      • Activates the synthesis and translocation of carbohydrates and proteins in plants.
      • Activates enzymes in crops

Download KCSE 2012 Agriculture Paper 1 with Marking Scheme.


Tap Here to Download for 50/-





Join our whatsapp group for latest updates
Read 216 times Last modified on Monday, 15 November 2021 07:34
Print PDF for future reference