History Paper 1 Questions and Answers - KCSE 2021 Past Papers

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SECTION A (25 marks)
Answer all the questions in this section in the space provided after question 24.

  1. Identify two linguistic groups in Kenya. (2 marks)
  2. State two ways in which the Agikuyu interacted with the Akamba during the pre-colonial period. (2 marks)
  3. Give the main economic activity of the Plain Nilotes during the pre-colonial period. (1 mark)
  4. Highlight two factors which led to the increase in demand for slaves along the East African Coast during the 19th Century. (2 marks)
  5. Name the document which contains the Bill of Rights for Kenyan citizens. (1 mark)
  6. Give the meaning of the term 'conflict'. (1 mark)
  7. Identify the type of constitution that is used in Kenya.
  8. Identify two colours of the national flag in Kenya. (2 marks)
  9. State two causes of the Bukusu resistance against the British. (2 marks)
  10. Identify the Cushitic community wlicli allacked the Bantu al Slunywaya Uuring the pre-colonial period. (1 mark)
  11. Name the political party that led Kenya to independence. (1 mark)
  12. State one common political characteristic of the National Philosophies in Kenya. (1 mark)
  13. Give two types of elections held in Kenya. (2 marks)
  14. Highlight two branches of the National Government of Kenya. (2 marks)
  15. Give one reason for the adoption of African Socialism in Kenya. (1 mark)
  16. Identify the commission that recommended cost-sharing in education sector in Kenya. (1 mark)
  17. State two ways in which the National Government of Kenya spends its recurrent expenditure. (2 marks)

SECTION B (45 marks)
Answer any three questions from this section in the space provided after question 24.

  1.      
    1. State five causes of migration of the Highland Nilotes into Kenya during the pre-colonial period (5 marks)
    2. Describe the social organisation of the Borana in the 19th Century (10 marks)
  2.      
    1. Identify five categories of special groups of people whose rights are enshrined in the Constitution of Kenya
    2. Explain five challenges faced by African political organisations in Konya up to 1939. (10 marks)
  3.      
    1. Highlight five features of the independence Constitution of Kenya. (5 marks)
    2. Discuss five factors which led to the collapse of the Imperial British East African Company (IBEAC) in 1894. (10 marks)
  4.      
    1. State five characteristics of independent churches during the colonial period in Kenya. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five roles played by women in the Mau Mau liberation movement in Kenya. (10 marks)

SECTION C (30 marks)
Answer any two questions from this section in the space provided after question 24.

  1.      
    1. Give the three members of the Executive Committees of County Governments in Kenya (3 marks)
    2. Discuss six functions of a County Governor in Kenya (12 marks)
  2.      
    1. State the Composition of the Cabinet in Kenya. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six functions of the National Assembly in Kenya(12 marks)
  3.    
    1. Name the three branches of the Kenya Defence Forces. (3 marks)
    2. Discuss six functions of the Kenya Police Service. (12 marks)

MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A (25 MARKS)

  1. Identify two linquistic groups in Kenya
    1. Bantu
    2. Nilotes
    3. Cushites
  2. State two ways in which the Agikuyu interacted with the Akamba during the Pre-colonial period
    1. Through intermarriage
    2. Through trade
    3. Through warfare
    4. Through raiding
    5. Through sporting activities/wrestling
  3. Give the main economic activity of the plain nilotes during the pre-colonial period
    Pastoralism /Livestock keeping
  4. Highlight two factors which led to increase in demand for slaves along the East African Coast during the 19 century
    1. Demand for cheap African labour in Portuguese/French plantations
    2. Demand for domestic workers in Arab world/Arabia
    3. Establishment of plantation agriculture at the Coast
  5. Name the document that contains the Bill of Rights for Kenyan Citizens
    The constitution of Kenya
  6. Give the meaning of the term ‘conflict’
    It is a situation where people/groups/countries are involved in a disagreement/fight/war between people/state of disharmony
  7. Identify the type of the constitution used in Kenya
    Written
  8. Identify two colors of the national flag in Kenya
    1. Green
    2. White
    3. Red
    4. Black
  9. State two causes of the Bukusu resisistance against the British
    1. They were against imposition /recognition of Nabongo Mumia as their leader
    2. They were opposed to British demand to surrender their guns
    3. They wanted to safeguard their independence
    4. They were opposed to taxation
    5. They detested the European interference with their cultural practices
  10. Identify the Cushitic community which attacked the Bantu at Shungwaya during the pre-colonial period
    Oromo/Orma/Galla/Wagalla
  11. Name the political party that led Kenya to Independence
    The Kenya National African Union (KANU)
  12. State one common political characteristic of the National Philosophies in Kenya
    1. They promote Nationalism/patriotism
    2. They promote national unity/cohesion
    3. They promote democratic practices
  13. Give two types of elections held in Kenya
    1. General elections
    2. By-elections
  14. Highlight two branches of the National Government of Kenya
    1. Legislature/ parliament(Not National Assembly /Senate)
    2. Judiciary
    3. Executive
  15. Give one reason for the adaptation of the African Socialism in Kenya
    1. The desire to promote unity in the country
    2. The desire to create a society free from inequality/oppression/racism
    3. The desire to create just/humane society
  16. Identify the commission that recommended cost sharing in education sector in Kenya
    The Kamunge Commission
  17. State two ways in which the National Government of Kenya spends its recurrent expenditure
    1. It repairs/maintains infrastructure
    2. It establishes /maintains security organs
    3. It pays salaries for state/public officers
    4. It services domestic/external debts
    5. It maintains foreign embassies
    6. It provides for social services/health care/education/cash transfers to elderly
    7. It caters for emergencies
    8. Contributes to international organizations i.e UNO,COMESA,AU,EAC etc

SECTION B (45 marks)

  1.      
    1. State five causes of migration of the Highland Nilotes into Kenya during the pre-colonial period(5 marks)
      1. There was outbreak of diseases
      2. There was population pressure
      3. Due to their love for adventure/spirit of adventure/curiosity
      4. Due to natural calamity/drought/famine
      5. They were searching for land for cultivation
      6. They were running away from hostile neighbors/external attacks
      7. Due to internal conflicts /family feuds
      8. They were searching for pasture/water
    2. Describe the social organization of the Borana in the 19th century(10 marks)
      1. It was a patrilineal society where first born son inherited the fathers property
      2. Basic social unit was a family with the most senior married man as the head of the family
      3. They practicised circumcision for boys which marked a higher stage in life
      4. It had ageset system/Gada which comprised of people initiated at the same period
      5. They practiced polygamous and exogamous marriage where one would marry from a different clan
      6. They were religious/worshipped God called Wak/Waq who was the creator of the universe
      7. They had religious leaders/Qaalu through whom they worshipped their God
      8. They performed social ceremonies/marriages/religious rituals/offering sacrifices to mark/celebrate important events in life/community
      9. Women were incharge of household chores/built houses/cared for the children/Division of labour
      10. The society was divided into clans consisting of related families
      11. Related/unrelated families lived in camps
  2.    
    1. Identify five categories of special groups of people whose rights are enshrined in the constitution of Kenya (5 marks)
      1. The youth
      2. Persons living with disabilities
      3. Children
      4. The minority/marginalized
      5. Older members of the society
      6. The Arrested/detained/held in custody/imprisoned
    2. Explain five challenges faced by African political organization in Kenya up to 1939(10marks)
      1. The leaders/members were arrested deported in order to disconnect them from the people/curtail their political activities.
      2. Their members were harassed by colonial authorities through the introduction of Kipande system/to monitor their movements
      3. They experienced leadership wrangles/competition which weakened their fabric/undermined their activities
      4. They lacked the requisite/necessary leadership experiences/skills which made them less effective
      5. Some of them were banned/proscribed by the colonial government (Kikuyu
        Central Association) thus hindering their operations
      6. Disunity /Tribalism/ethnicity among the organizations which facilitated divide and rule scheme by the colonial government.
  3.      
    1. Highlight five features of the independence constitution of Kenya(5marks)
      1. It provided for the position of the head of stte/Governor General
      2. It provided for a Bicameral government/Senate and the House of Representative
      3. It provided for a public service commission/civil service
      4. It provided for automatic citizenship for all Kenyans
      5. It provided for a coalition government/power sharing between political parties
      6. It provided for multipartism
      7. It created an independent/impartia judiciary/judicial service commission
      8. It provided for regional/majimbo/federal system of government
      9. It created an independent Electoral Commission/Electoral Commission of Kenya
      10. It provided for the Bill of Rights
      11. It provided for the position of the Prime Minister who was the head of Government
    2. Describe five factors which led to the collapse of the Imperial British East African Company(IBEAC)in 1894(10marks)
      1. Resistance by Africans who undermined the company’s operations
      2. There was poor communication between it and the Head office in Britain hence poor coordination of activities.
      3. There was lack of strategic natural resources/minerals for export leading to poor/weak revenue base
      4. Many of the company officials lacked requisite/necessary administrative skills/experience
      5. Inadequate finds made it difficult for it to effectively carry out its operations
      6. Poor transport/lack of navigable rivers hampered movement of goods/administrators
      7. Corruption among some company officials led to misappropriation /loss of funds/resources
      8. Some company personnel experienced health challenges/tropical diseases/harsh climatic conditions which made them less productive
      9. Rivalry from German East African Company(GEACO) which hindered its operations
      10. The area was too vast for the few officials to manage
  4.    
    1. State five characteristics of the independent churches in Kenya during the colonial period(5marks)
      1. They worked closely with the African political associations
      2. They opposed the westernizing influence of the missionaries
      3. They allowed the practice of African culture/values
      4. Positions of leadership were held by Africans
      5. Most of the founders were educated/trained by the missionaries
      6. They had their following from rural masses
      7. They retained some of the aspects of mainstream churches in Kenya
    2. Explain five roles played by women in the MAUMAU Liberation movement(10marks)
      1. They acted as spies/provided intelligence/information to MAUMAU fighters by befriending the home guards/passed information to fighters.
      2. Some women took up arms/fought alongside men
      3. They coordinated supplies/food/weapons/medicine for MAUMAU fighters
      4. They encouraged people to join/continue with the struggle
      5. They composed/sang songs to mobilize/support/motivate fighters/ridicule collaborators
      6. They participated in the administration of oaths which bound the fighters to stay on course
      7. They cared /managed the families as men went into the forest to fight

SECTION C (30 MARKS)

  1.        
    1. State three members of the County Executive Committee of County Governments in Kenya(3 marks)
      1. County Governor
      2. Deputy County Governor
      3. Members appointed by the Governor
    2. Discuss six functions of the County Governor in Kenya(12 MARKS)
      1. he/ she is the Chief Executive of the county as public servants in the county Government are accountable to him/her
      2. He/she appoints members of County Executive Committee who are Chief Officers in charge of various departments in the County Government
      3. He/she assigns responsibilities to the Deputy Governor who is his/her principal assistant in the running of the county
      4. He supervises the County Executive Committee members to ensure service delivery in the respective departments
      5. He/she assents to the bills which have been passed by the County Assembly into by-laws
      6. He/she is in charge of implementation of the county and National legislations in his/her respective county
      7. Delivers state/county address in the County Assembly
      8. Submits to the County Assembly plans/policy approvals
      9. In the event of death /resignation/impeachment of a sitting governor ,the new governor will appoint a deputy governor
  2.    
    1. State the composition of the cabinet in Kenya(3 Marks)
      1. The president
      2. The Deputy president
      3. The Attorney General
      4. Cabinet secretaries 
    2. Explain six functions of the National Assembly in Kenya (12 marks)
      1. It makes/amends laws of the land which are used to govern the country
      2. It determines the allocation of public revenue between the National government and the County Governments
      3. It represents the interests of the people through their elected members.
      4. It deliberates on national/international issues of concern with a view of addressing them
      5. It exercises oversight over public revenue and its expenditure through its watchdog committees /Parliamentary Accounts Committee/Public Investment Committee
      6. It checks the conduct of public/state officers/president/Deputy president/other state officers/can initiate the process of removing them if need be.
      7. It approves declaration of war/state of emergency
      8. It vets senior government/public officers appointed by the president/presidential nominees/appointees before they take office.
      9. It participates in National budget marking by scrutinizing sources of revenue/expenditure by National government
  3.    
    1. Name the three branches of the Kenya Defense Forces (3marks)
      1. The Kenya Army
      2. The Kenya Air Force
      3. The Kenya Navy
    2. Discuss six functions of the Kenya Police Service (12 marks)
      1. It liaises with international police/Interpol in order to prevent/combat international crime
      2. It maintains law/order by arresting law breakers
      3. It controls crowds during public gatherings so as to ensure peace
      4. It entertains the public during national days/madaraka Day/ Mashujaa Day/Jamhuri Day through mounting parades
      5. It confines suspected criminals in custody/cells as they wait to be arraigned in court
      6. It regulates traffic by directing/arresting traffic offenders/inspecting vehicles to determine their road-worthiness
      7. It conducts driving tests for trainee drivers/recommends persons to be issued with driving licenses by National Transport Safety Authority(NTSA)
      8. It investigates reported crime/suspected crime with a view to gathering evidence to help in court cases
      9. It protects property/government installations/provides security to senior government officers/VIPs/VVIPs
      10. Prevent corruption and promote /practice transparency and accountability

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