KCSE 2019 Art & Design Paper 1 Questions with Marking Scheme

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Art & Design Paper 1 (442/1)

SECTION A (20 arks)
Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

    1. Define the term art.(2 marks)
    2. Which are the two basic characteristics of line that convey a specific mood?(1 mark)
    3. In three points, contrast between the elements: shape and form.(3 marks)
    4. What is sketching?(2 marks)
    5. Outline two ways of spacing in typography.(2 marks)
    6. What is the value of ornamentation in art?(2 marks)
    7. State two reasons for washing fabric before dyeing(2 marks)
    8. Distinguish between ascenders and descenders in lettering. Cite one example for each.(2 marks)
    9. Explain the function of an armature in a sculptural process.(2 marks)
    10. Describe photomontage techniquc in art.(2 marks)

SECTION B (25 marks)
Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. The artwork below represents a landscape.
    1. Mark the horizon and middle ground.(2 marks)
    2. Discuss how atmospheric perspective has been achieved in the painting.(3 marks)
  2. The sketch below represents a cylindrical container.
    Illustrate the container lying on its side, with the top opening facing the viewer who is seated below the eye level. (5 marks)
  3. Study the weave structure and answer the questions below.
      1. Name the problem labelled X.(1 mark)
      2. Outline three ways of avoiding the problem.(3 marks)
    2. List two main purposes of sizing the warp in a weaving process.(1 mark)
    1. Analyse the CD and album cover above with reference to:
      1. Lettering(1½ marks)
      2. Imagery(1½ marks)
    2. Outline two functions of a CD cover. (2 marks)
  5. The illustration below represents equal tiles decorated with a single floral motif.
    Sketch the composite panel of the tile in the space provided below. (5 marks)

SECTION C (15 marks)
Answer any one question in this section in the spaces provided after question 9.

    1. Name two types of posters (1 mark)
    2. Outline four characteristics of a good advertisement poster. (4 marks)
    3. Analyse five methods of advertising. Give an example of each. (10 marks)
  2. Describe the process of developing a two colour full repeat floral design, using batik technique. (15 marks)
  3. Study the wooden sculpture below. (2 marks)
    1. Name the type of sculpture.
    2. Discuss the steps of producing the sculpture, mentioning the tools. (13 marks)


    1. Definition of the term art;
      • Art is a form of communication where an artist uses skills and imagination to express their feelings, thoughts and observations and use them to create aesthetic objects, environments or experiences through drawing, painting, sculpture etc.
        2 x1 = 2 marks
    2. Two characteristics of line that convey a specific mood are its;
      • direction or movement,
      • Quality or weight.
        ½ x 2=1 mark
    3. Three contrasts between the elements shape and form;
      Shape Form
      Basic figures/outlines like rectangles,
      circles, triangles, and squares
      Complex structures like sphere, cube, cone, etc. 
      2 Dimensional (has basic dimensions
      of length and width)
      3 Dimensional (has length, width, and a 3rd dimension - the height).
      Described depending on the number
      of its sides
      Described by virtue of the area of space bordered by the lines.
      exist in the space of flat and simple
      drawings, prints and painting surfaces
      exist outside the confines of a flat paper or canvas space
      Any 3 x 1=3 marks

    4. Sketching is a rapidly executed free hand drawing with little concern for accuracy that is not intended as a finished work.2 x1= 2 marks
    5. Two ways of spacing in typography;
      • Letter spacing
      • Line spacing
      • Word spacing
        Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks
    6. Value of ornamentation in art;
      It embellishes/decorates and adds detail to an object, interior or architectural structure which makes it more interesting, arresting and beautiful. 
      Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks
    7. Two reasons for washing fabric before dyeing;
      • helps assure even colour and good penetration of dye.
      • To remove hidden waxes, oils and dirt. 
      • To soften the fabric by removing starch.
        Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks
    8. Distinction between ascenders and descenders in lettering & examples.
      Ascender's  Descenders
      Strokes above body of lowercase letters  Strokes below body of lower case letters
      An ascender is the portion of a minuscule letter that extends above the mean line of a font. That is, the part of a lower-case letter that is taller than the font's x-height Descender is the portion of a letter that extends below the baseline of a font. The line that descenders reach down to is known as the beard line.
      The ascenders are the parts of lowercase characters that lie above the mean line. Descenders are parts of a character that lie below the baseline 
      e.g., d, f, h, k e.g.g.j.p, y,
      Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks
    9. The function of an armature in a sculptural process;
      • It provides structure and stability/ framework, when a plastic material such as wax, paper or clay is being used as the medium. It helps make the initial model three-dimensional.
        2x1 = 2 marks
    10. Description of photomontage technique;
      • It involves use of cut up or whole photographs that are superimposed and pasted to create a composition.
        2 x 1 = 2 marks
    1. Mark of the horizon and middle ground
      Horizon ½ mark
      Middle ground 1½ mark
      Total = 2 marks
    2. How atmospheric perspective has been achieved in the painting;
      • As the distance between the objects and the viewer increases, the contrast Im between the object and its background decreases,
      • Vegetation detailsIm within the painting also decreases.
      • The colours of the painting also become less saturated as it shifts towards the background colours fade off to a bluish greyish shade which is dull and hazy.
        Any 3 x 1 = 3marks
        Total = 5 marks
    Positioning of the two circles 2 marks
    Positioning of body of cylinder 2 marks
    Overall placement 1 mark
    Total = 5 marks
      1. Problem labelled X is; a waist or draw-in (1 mark)
      2. Three ways of avoiding the problem:
        • The warp tension should not be too tight, but needs to be tight enough to get the sheds to open.
        • There must be enough slack in the weft that it can bend as it goes over and under the warps.
        • The weft should not be pulled tight as it is passed through the shed, this may cause the selvedges to draw in.
          Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks
    2. Two main purposes of sizing the warp in a weaving process:
      1. to increase the strength of the yarns,
      2. to reduce the yarn hairiness that would cause problems in weaving process,
      3. to increase the abrasion resistance of the yarn against other yarns and various weaving machine elements, 
      4. to reduce fluff and fly during the weaving process
        Any 2 x 1=1 mark
        Total = 5 marks
  5. CD and Album cover with reference to;
      1. Lettering:
        • font is stylized, in varied colours, jumbled up and in 3D connoting the artist's Surname;
        • The title is in lowercase and in very small font size that is barely legible; it doesn't dominate the CD cover connoting that it's not the most important element of the album's identity.
          Any correct explanation = 1½ marks
      2. Imagery;
        • The image is very girly with the artist in a pink dress, long hair and all stretched out seated atop letter A which is in 3D;
        • the fact that she is looking at the camera connotes that she is confident and engaged with the audience despite the title of the song; the fear'.
          Any correct explanation = 1½ marks
          Any well justified opinions should be rewarded
      3. Two functions of a CD cover
        • Protect the CD from general wear and tear.
        • Designed for the artist to advertise the content.
          2 x1 = 2 marks
          Total = 5 marks
  6. Composite panel of the tile
    Floral motif drawing = 1MRK
    Tiles correctly aligned each 1 x 4= 4 marks
    Total = 5 marks
    1. Two types of posters
      1. Advertisement poster
      2. Political poster
      3. Educational poster
      4. Event poster
      5. Religious poster
        Each ½ x2= 1 mark
    2. Four characteristics a good advertisement poster should have
      1. Type large enough to be viewed to 10-15 times your format width.
      2. Simple and clear layout for the reader to find the information.
      3. Include all important information such as date, time, location, and contact name and telephone number. 
      4. Dominate elements such as a headline or image that will quickly catch reader's eye. This can be emphasized by size, colour or value.
      5. Artwork/ illustration that is related to the message.
      6. The types/letters and imagery arranged in a logical, functional sequence.
        Any 4x1 = 4 marks
    3. Five methods of advertising with examples of each
      1. Online advertising (aka digital)
        Via the Internet (World Wide Web)
      2. Cell Phone & Mobile Advertising
        This uses cell phones, iPads and other portable electronic devices with internet connectivity. Current trends in mobile advertising involve major use of social media such as Twitter, Instagram, Snapchat and Facebook.
      3. Print advertising; print can be split into three sub-categories:
        1. Periodical advertising magazine, a newspaper, or anything else that comes out at regular intervals, 
        2. Brochures, Leaflets, Flyers, Handouts and Point of Sale Advertising, novelties; pens, cups, key holders,
        3. Direct Mail Advertising.
      4. Guerrilla Advertising
        Also referred to as ambient media, Guerrilla advertising (or marketing). It is a broadly used term for anything unconventional, and usually invites the consumer to participate or interact with the product in a way.
      5. Broadcast Advertising
        A mass-market for of communication including television and radio, broadcast advertising (Television Advertising/ telemarketing)
      6. Outdoor Advertising Also referred to as out-of-home (OOH) advertising, billboards, bus shelter posters, fly posters and large digital boards
      7. Public Service Advertising (PSA) Primarily designed to inform and educate rather than sell a product or service. They traditionally appear on TV and radio.
      8. Product Placement Advertising
        These are promotional branded goods and services within the context of a show or movie.
        Any method 5x1= 5 marks
        Examples 5x1 = 5 marks
        Total = 10 marks
        Total = 15 marks
  8. Process of developing a two colour full repeat floral design using batik technique.
    1. Step 1: Pre-wash fabric to remove any impurities that might interfere with dyeing, 
    2. Step 2: Design the floral pattern, 
    3. Step 3: Choose the colour scheme, 
    4. Step 4: Transfer the pattern,  directly on the material using a pencil or cut the pattern out from the paper and sprinkle the edges with powdered graphite from the pencil.
    5. Step 5: Melt premixed wax" (paraffin & beeswax] in a double boiler Y m.
    6. Step 6: Stretch the fabric on a wooden frame or hoopim (which will keep the fabric flat and horizontal or work on some newsprint paper or a piece of cardboard]
    7. Step 7: Apply melted wax with a tjanting tool to create detail and fine line designs or with a small brush or with a stick ended with a sponge or cotton wool, 
    8. Step 8: Prepare the dyebath for first colour which should be the lightest colour; according to the manufacturer's instructions 
    9. Step 9: Dip the fabric in the dye bath Im Step 10: Rinse and allow to dry. Im Step 11: Repeat steps 5-8 above for the 2nd colour, waxing areas after dyeing that should remain the 1st colour, dye darkest colour 
    10. Step 12: Remove the wax using one of these methods: 2mBoil the wax out in boiling water. OR Iron the wax out in between layers of absorbent paper/newsprin
    11. Step 13: Wash fabric with a detergent or white vinegar to remove any leftover wax. dry and iron fabric.im
      Award correct sequence of steps as allocated
      Total = 15 marks
    1. Type of sculpture; high relief
      2 x1= 2 marks
    2. Steps of producing the wooden sculpture
      1. Sketch the design.
      2. Outline and transfer the sketch im to the piece of wood using a pencil to lightly mark the intended cuts and gouges, this will aid in more precise, and prevent un-fixable mistakes.
      3. Remove the background im
      4. Cut the basic shapes, Im Remove as much wood as possible until the basic shape of the final piece be visualized within the block of wood using a chisel and mallet.
      5. Rough out the form/define the basic shapes m for grounding after obtaining the basic shape, use a large u-gouge im to remove as much excess material as possible until the overall form of the piece develops, undercut for depth im
      6. Carving the face im, identify the largest planes and work on those forms first. As the larger shapes come into focus, gradually ease way to the smaller, more well defined forms, the hand Refine the facial features and fingers 
      7. Detailing: "madd fine details, using a riffler file'm once the overall form is complete, switch to the smaller tools and add detail to the carving in this case the fore lines, folds on the face fingers, eyebrows, beard.
      8. Sharpen edge using a raspim
      9. Finish by sanding a smooth surface, along the grain, to protect the finished piece apply a polyurethane wood finish.
        Correct sequence of steps as highlighted = 13 marks
        Total = 15 marks
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