History Paper 1 Questions and Answers - KCSE 2020 Past Papers

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THE KENYA NATIONAL EXAMINATIONS COUNCIL
Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education
311/1
HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
Paper 1

Instructions to candidates

  • This paper consists of three sections; A, B and C.
  • Answer all the questions in section A, three questions from section B and two questions from section C. 
  • Candidates should check the question paper to ascertain that all the pages are printed as indicated and that no questions are missing.
  • Candidates should answer the questions in English.

SECTION A (25 marks)

Answer all questions in this section.

  1. Name two Eastern Cushitic communities who migrated into Kenya during the precolonial period. (2 marks)
  2. Identify two forms of Oral Traditions used as sources of information in History and Government. (2 marks)
  3. Give one reason for the coming of the Arabs to the Kenyan Coast before 1500 AD. ( 1 mark)
  4. Give two commodities obtained from the Kenyan Coast during the Long Distance Trade. (2 marks)
  5. Apart from Fort Jesus, which other historical monument was built by the Portuguese in Kenya ? (1 mark)
  6. Highlight two National Days celebrated in Kenya. (2 marks)
  7. State the main reason for the formation of the Inter-Party Parliamentary Group (IPPG) in 1997.(1 mark)
  8. Outline two ways through which African communities in Kenya responded to the British colonisation.(2 marks)
  9. Highlight two arms of the National Government of Kenya. (1 mark)
  10. Give two social functions of the Orkoiyot among the Nandi during the precolonial period.(2 marks)
  11. State two ways in which the rule of law is maintained in Kenya. (2 marks)
  12. Who authored the Sessional Paper No. 10 of 1965? ( 1 mark )
  13. Identify the education commission which recommended the establishment of the 8-4-4 S system of education in Kenya. (1 mark)
  14. Give two types of government expenditure. (2 marks)
  15. Identify the Chief Executive of a County Government in Kenya. (1 mark)
  16. Outline the main grievance of the Ukamba Members Association against the colonial government in Kenya.(1 mark)
  17. Besides peace and love, name the other pillar of Nyayoism. (1 mark)

SECTION B (45 marks)

Answer any three questions from this section.

  1.  
    1. Name five communities among the Plain Nilotes who settled in Kenya during the colonial period.(5 marks)
    2. Describe the political organisation of the Agikuyu during the precolonial period. (10 marks)
  2.  
    1. State five reasons for the coming of the Portuguese to the Kenyan Coast. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five challenges faced by early Christian missionaries in their work in Kenya. ( 10 marks)
  3.  
    1. Highlight five reasons why settler farming was encouraged in Kenya during the colonial period. (5 marks)
    2. Discuss five consequences of colonial land policies in Kenya. (10 marks) 
  4.  
    1. State five factors that led to the re-introduction of multi-party democracy in Kenya.(5 marks)
    2. Explain five challenges facing the provision of health services in Kenya.(10 marks)

SECTION C (30 marks)

Answer any two questions from this section.

  1.  
    1. Identify three peaceful methods of conflict resolution in Kenya.(3 marks)
    2. Explain six factors which undermine national unity in Kenya.(12 marks)
  2.  
    1. Give three members of the Judicial Service Commission in Kenya. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six reasons which can disqualify one from being elected as a Member of County Assembly.(12 marks)
  3.  
    1. State three objectives of devolution of government in Kenya. (3 marks)
    2. Discuss six reasons why the national government of Kenya prepares a budget. ( 12 marks)

MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A (25 MARKS)

  1. Two Eastern Cushitic communities who migrated into Kenya during the pre-colonial period.
    FORM 1 TOPIC 4: THE PEOPLES OF KENYA UP TO THE 19TH CENTURY
    • Rendille
    • Burji
    • Borana
    • Somali
    • Gabbra
    • Galla/ Oromo
      (any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)
  2. Two forms of oral tradition used as sources of information in History and Government.
    FORM 1 TOPIC 1: INTRODUCTION TO HISTORY AND GOVERNMENT
    • Songs
    • Riddles
    • Proverbs
    • Folk tales/ stories
    • Tongue twisters
    • Myths
    • Legends
    • Poems
      (any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)
  3. One reason for the coming of Arabs to the Kenyan Coast before 1500AD.
    FORM 1 TOPIC 6: CONTACTS BETWEEN EAST AFRICAN COAST AND THE OUTSIDE WORLD
    • They came for trade
    • They were looking for settlement
    • They were escaping religious persecution/ conflicts/ civil wars
    • They came for adventure/ exploration
    • They came to spread Islam
      (any 1 x 1 = 1 mark)
  4. Two commodities obtained from the Kenyan Coast during the Long Distance Trade.
    TOPIC 6: CONTACTS BETWEEN EAST AFRICAN COAST AND THE OUTSIDE WORLD
    • Cloths/ silk
    • Beads
    • Iron ware/ tools
    • Utensils/ glass/ porcelain bowls
    • Cowrie shells
    • Spices
    • Weapons/ guns/swords/ daggers
      (any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)
  5. The other monument built by the Portuguese apart from Fort Jesus.
    TOPIC 6: CONTACTS BETWEEN EAST AFRICAN COAST AND THE OUTSIDE WORLD
    • Vasco da Gama Pillar (in Malindi)
      (1 x 1 = 1 mark)
  6. Two National Days celebrated in Kenya.
    FORM 2 TOPIC 7: CONSTITUTION AND CONSTITUTION MAKING
    • Madaraka
    • Mashujaa
    • Jamhuri
      (any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)
  7. The main reason for the formulation of the Inter-Party Parliamentary Group (I.P.P.G) in 1997.
    FORM 2 TOPIC 7: CONSTITUTION AND CONSTITUTION MAKING
    • To ensure a level playing ground for all political parties/ promote free and fair elections
      (1 x 1 = 1 mark)
  8. Two ways through which African communities in Kenya responded to the British colonization.
    FORM 3 TOPIC 2: ESTABLISHMENT OF COLONIAL RULE IN KENYA
    • They resisted
    • They collaborated
    • They offered mixed reaction
      (any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)
  9. One arm of the National Government of Kenya.
    FORM 3 TOPIC 8: FORMATION, STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OF THE GOVERNMENT OF KENYA
    • The legislature
    • The executive
    • The judiciary
      (any 1 x 1 = 1 mark)
  10. Two social functions of the Orkoiyot among the Nandi during the pre-colonial period.
    FORM 1 TOPIC 5: SOCIAL, ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL ORGANIZATION OF KENYAN COMMUNITIES IN THE 19TH CENTURY
    • Foretelling the future
    • Presiding over religious functions/ was a religious leader
    • Arbitrating disputes
    • Blessing warriors
    • Rainmaker
    • Medicine man
      (any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)
  11. Two ways in which the rule of law is maintained in Kenya.
    FORM 3 TOPIC 8: FORMATION, STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OF THE GOVERNMENT OF KENYA
    • All citizens/ people are treated equal before the law
    • An accused person is assumed/ treated as innocent until proved guilty/ taking suspects to court of law for trial
    • An accused person is given a fair hearing/ a chance to defend themselves/ right of appeal
    • By ensuring independence of the judiciary
    • By guaranteeing legal representation of the accused
      (any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)
  12. The author of the Sessional Paper No. 10 of 1965.
    FORM 4 TOPIC 4: NATIONAL PHILOSOPHIES IN KENYA
    • Thomas Joseph Mboya/ Tom Mboya
      (1 x 1 = 1 mark)
  13. The education commission which recommended the establishment of the 8-4-4 system of education in Kenya.
    FORM 4 TOPIC 5: SOCIAL, ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN KENYA SINCE INDEPENDENCE
    • The Presidential Working Party on Second University in Kenya/ The Mackay Commission
      (1 x 1 = 1 mark)
  14. Two types of government expenditure in Kenya.
    FORM 4 TOPIC 8: PUBLIC REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE IN KENYA
    • Capital expenditure
    • Recurrent expenditure
      (any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)
  15. The chief executive of a County Government in Kenya.
    FORM 4 TOPIC 7: DEVOLVED GOVERNMENT
    • The County Governor
      (1 x 1 = 1 mark)
  16. The main grievance of the Ukamba Members Association.
    FORM 3 TOPIC 5: POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS AND THE STRUGGLE FOR INDEPENDENCE IN KENYA (1919 - 1963)
    • The De-stocking policy
      (1 x 1 = 1 mark)
  17. The other pillars of Nyayoism besides peace and love.
    FORM 4 TOPIC 4: NATIONAL PHILOSOPHIES IN KENYA
    • Unity
      (1 x 1 = 1 mark)

SECTION B (45 MARKS)

  1.  
    1. Name five communities among the Plain Nilotes who settled in Kenya during the colonial period.
      FORM 1 TOPIC 4: THE PEOPLES OF KENYA UP TO THE 19TH CENTURY
      • The Maasai
      • The Samburu/ Burkeneji
      • The Njemps/ Ilchamus
      • Iteso
      • The Turkana
        (any 5 x 1 = 5 marks)
    2. Describe the political organization of the Agikuyu during the pre-colonial period.
      FORM 1 TOPIC 5: SOCIAL, ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL ORGANIZATION OF KENYAN COMMUNITIES IN THE 19TH CENTURY
      • The family was the basic unit of the society headed by a man/ the father ii. They had a decentralized form of government headed by a council of elders iii. They had clans which were formed by several related families
      • Each clan was ruled by a council of elders known as ‘kiama’/ headed by a Muramati
      • They had a higher council of elders who acted as a court of appeal/ administered justice in the community/ settled disputes
      • They had an age-set system which comprised of boys who had undergone circumcision at the same time
      • They had warriors who defended the community against external attacks
        (any 5 x 2 =10 marks)
  2.  
    1. State five reasons for the coming of the Portuguese to the Kenyan Coast.
      TOPIC 6: CONTACTS BETWEEN EAST AFRICAN COAST AND THE OUTSIDE WORLD
      • To trade with the Coastal towns / create a trading empire
      • To find a guide for the sea route to India
      • To look for the legendary Prester John
      • To explore the vast Kenyan Coast/ satisfy their spirit of adventure
      • To spread Christianity/ counter the influence of Islam/ revenge against the Arabs
      • The Kenyan Coast was strategic for supplies/ prevent the control of the coast by the Turks / Arabs/ To control the East African Coast
      • Presence of natural harbors
        (any 5 x 1 =5 marks)
    2. Explain five challenges faced by the early Christian missionaries in their work in Kenya.
      TOPIC 6: CONTACTS BETWEEN EAST AFRICAN COAST AND THE OUTSIDE WORLD
      • Tropical diseases such as Malaria claimed the lives of many missionaries/ slowed down their work
      • Islam posed stiff competition to Christianity at the Coast since Islam was already established in the region
      • Missionaries faced resistance/ hostility from Africans because Christian teaching condemned some African traditions/ practices like polygamy / female circumcision
      • Poor transport and communication network/ lack of roads hindered movement into the interior
      • Missionaries lacked a common language of communication with Africans making it difficult to share the gospel
      • Rivalry among different missionary groups hindered cooperation among them
      • Christian Missionaries faced hostility from slave traders since they condemned it and wanted it abolished
      • Inadequate funds made it difficult for the missionaries to finance all their operations
      • They lacked enough personnel to spread Christianity over the vast/ expansive region
      • Hostile African communities such as the Nandi/ Oromo vandalized mission stations/ installations/ facilities
      • Inadequate supplies of food/ medicines undermined their ability to carry out their work effectively.
      • Threat/ menace of wild animals such as lions, snakes which could attack/ harm them
      • Sometimes, their guides/ porters deserted them robbing them thereby slowing their mission
        (any 5 x 2 =10 marks)
  3.    
    1. Highlight five reasons why settler farming was encouraged in Kenya during the colonial period.
      FORM 3 TOPIC 4: SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTS IN KENYA DURING THE COLONIAL PERIOD
      • To strengthen the colonial economy/ make Kenya a white man’s country
      • To finance the administrative costs of the colony
      • To recover the cost of construction of the Uganda railway
      • To utilize the fertile idle land/ Africans didn’t have technical knowhow in large scale farming
      • To promote self-sufficiency in food production
      • To produce raw materials for industries
      • The white Highlands had suitable climate
      • To check the influence of Asian community in Kenya
      • To maintain the Uganda railway/ repair
        (any 5 x 1 =5 marks)
    2. Discuss five consequences of colonial land policies in Kenya.
      FORM 3 TOPIC 4: SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTS IN KENYA DURING THE COLONIAL PERIOD
      • Large tracts of land were declared White Highlands leading to loss of land by Africans
      • Africans were restricted to the reserves which were characterized by overcrowding/ overstocking/ soil degradation
      • Africans became squatters on their own land leading to misery/ poverty
      • It led to introduction of a new system of land tenure/ individual land ownership
      • Classes within African societies emerged as the few Africans to seek employment in the settler farms in order to raise money to pay the tax
      • It led to introduction of the Kipande system which limited/ restricted the movement of Africans
      • It led to the development of African nationalism to agitate for the plight of Africans
      • It led to forced labor whereby African Chiefs were required to recruit workers for the European farmers/ effects of the Northey circular
      • It led to the introduction of poll tax which forced Africans to seek wage employment in the settler farms in order to raise money to pay the tax.
        (any 5 x 2 =10 marks)
  4.  
    1. State five factors that led to the re-introduction of multi-party democracy in Kenya.
      FORM 4 TOPIC 5: SOCIAL, ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN KENYA SINCE INDEPENDENCE
      • The alleged rigging of the 1988 general elections
      • Failure by K.A.N.U to accommodate divergent views/ KANU policies
      • Political reforms in the Soviet Union
      • Pressure by western countries to adopt multi-party democracy
      • Introduction of multi-partism in other African Zambia/ Togo
      • Pressure from the multi-party activists / political prisoners/ clergy
      • Recommendation of the Saitoti Review Committee Report of 1990
      • Repeal of section 2A of the constitution
      • Rampant corruption in all sectors of government
        (any 5 x 1 =5 marks)
    2. Explain five challenges facing the provision of health services in Kenya.
      FORM 4 TOPIC 5: SOCIAL, ECONOMIC AND POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS AND CHALLENGES IN KENYA SINCE INDEPENDENCE
      • High cost of medical services which limits access by majority of the populace who c cannot afford
      • The high population which puts strain on the limited available health facilities/ equipment
      • High rate of HIV/ AIDS / other diseases which puts a huge burden on the health budget
      • Corruption in the health sector thereby hindering effective service delivery/ affecting procurement procedures/ provision of drugs/ equipment
      • Kenya faces acute brain drains as many medical practitioners seek greener pastures outside the country.
      • Ineffective National Health Insurance Fund (NHIF) which makes it difficult for many people to access quality health service
      • Inadequate health practitioners/personnel which compromises the quality of health services
      • High rate of road accidents/ injuries has strained the available health facilities ix. High poverty levels among people renders them vulnerable to diseases/ malnutrition
      • Eruption of new deadly diseases like Corona Virus that do not have cure has made all available resources to be channeled to it, thereby ignoring other diseases which still trouble the citizenry.
      • Frequent / industrial unrest by health workers has resulted into death/ suffering of many patients
      • Inadequate facilities/ equipment has made it difficult to access quality services xiii. Inadequate funding by the government which has resulted into provision of poor health services
      • Retrogressive cultural/ religious practices have frustrated efforts to provide healthcare
      • Increased environmental pollution has led to higher incidences of ailments
        (any 5 x 2 =10 marks)

SECTION C (30 MARKS)

  1.  
    1. Identify three peaceful methods of conflict resolution.
      FORM 1 TOPIC 8: NATIONAL INTEGRATION
      • mediation
      • negotiation/ diplomacy
      • arbitration
      • legislation/ litigation
      • alternative dispute resolution mechanisms/ elders/ use of religious leaders
      • community policing
      • reconciliation
        (any 3 x 1 =3 marks)
    2. Explain six factors which undermine national unity in Kenya.
      FORM 1 TOPIC 8: NATIONAL INTEGRATION
      • Unequal distribution of national resources creates disparity in terms of development leading to the feelings of exclusion
      • Tribalism which favors people from one’s ethnic group thereby creating animosity hatred among the people
      • Religious conflicts brought about by intolerance to other people’s faiths leading to division of people along religious lines
      • Discrimination on the basis of color creates antagonism among different races/ racism
      • Affiliation to different political parties with different ideologies polarizes the country along political lines
      • Corruption / greed/ bribery leads to a few people amassing a lot of wealth at the expense of the others
      • Poverty among the people creates a state of lawlessness/ high rate of crime in the society
      • Terrorism/ radicalization creates a state of anarchy/ fear/ suspicion among people
      • Nepotism- this is the practice of favoring relative
      • Cultural conflicts- some diverse cultural aspects may be in conflicts among different communities.
      • Ignorance- leading to intolerance of other people’s views leading to failure to appreciate developments taking place around them.
        (any 6 x 2 =12 marks)
  2.  
    1. Give three members of the Judicial Service Commission in Kenya.
      FORM 3 TOPIC 8: FORMATION, STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OF THE GOVERNMENT OF KENYA
      • The chief justice
      • The Attorney General
      • One Supreme Court Judge
      • One Court of Appeal Judge
      • High Court Judge
      • Chief Registrar of the Judiciary
      • Two advocates representing the Law Society of Kenya (LSK)
      • Two presidential nominees
      • One nominee by the Public Service Commission
      • One Magistrate
        (any 3 x 1 =3 marks)
    2. Explain six reasons which can disqualify one from being elected as a Member of County Assembly in Kenya.
      FORM 3 TOPIC 8: FORMATION, STRUCTURE AND FUNCTIONS OF THE GOVERNMENT OF KENYA
      • If one is not a registered voter in a constituency/ ward
      • If one does not have political nomination certificate and is not an independent candidate
      • If one is declared bankrupt by a competent court of law, for this puts to question the ability of such a person to guard public resources
      • If one has not lived in Kenya for at least ten years preceding the election date
      • If one is of unsound mind and therefore will not be able to discharge duties required for a Member of the County Assembly
      • If one has violated Chapter six of the Kenyan constitution on integrity of leaders public servants
      • If one is serving a sentence exceeding six months by the time of election
      • If there is proof of involvement in electoral malpractice in the past such as rigging
      • If one is a holder of public office
      • If one has been holding an office of IEBC for the last five years preceding elections
        (any 6 x 2 =12 marks)
  3.  
    1. State three objectives of devolution of government in Kenya.
      FORM 4 TOPIC 7: DEVOLVED GOVERNMENT
      • To promote socio-economic development in the country
      • To facilitate decentralization of state organs/ functions/ services/ take services closer to people
      • To ensure equitable sharing of resources
      • To protect/ promote interests/ rights of minorities/ marginalized
      • To foster national unity/ cohesion
      • To promote democratic/ accountable exercise of power
      • To recognize rights of communities to manage their own affairs
      • To promote citizens’ participation in governance
      • To enhance checks and balances / separation of powers
        (any 3 x 1 =3 marks)
    2. Discuss six reasons why national government of Kenya prepares a budget.
      FORM 4 TOPIC 8: PUBLIC REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE IN KENYA
      • It enables the government to source for revenue to finance its activities / programs
      • To enable prudent use of resources/ avoid wastage
      • It enables the government to prioritize development according to the needs if the country
      • It creates confidence among donors/foreign countries/ World Bank/IMF who bridge budget deficit
      • It helps the government to assess its performance based on set development targets/ the previous year’s performance
      • It enhances accountability/ transparency of the government in the eyes of the public / through parliamentary watchdog committees
      • It enhances balance in the country’s revenue and expenditure hence avoiding budget deficit
      • To enable the government explain to the public the tax structure/ set tax levels
      • The government is able to set aside some funds to be used in case of emergencies in the course of the financial year
      • To ensure equitable share of resources and balanced development
        (any 6 x 2 =12 marks)

 

 

 


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