Geography Paper 1 Questions and Answers - KCSE Prediction Papers 2023

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  • Answer all questions in Section A.
  • Answer Question 6 and any other Two questions in section B
    1. Name two theories of the origin of the earth (2mks)
    2. Name four layers of the earths atmosphere (4mks)
    1. What is weather forecasting (2mks)
    2. Give three elements of weather (3mks)
  3. State four uses of savanna vegetation (4mks)
    1. Name three components of soil (3mks)
    2. State three characteristics of desert soils (3mks)
  5. Outline four characteristics of a river in its youthful stage (4mks)
    1. Study the map of Kijabe 1:50,000(sheet 134/3) provided and answer the following questions.
      1. Give two types of scales used in the map extract (2mks)
      2. Give the map title (1mk)
      3. Measure dry weather road (D38) from grid square 3800 to the eastern edge of map extract. Give your answer in kilometres (2mks)
      1. What is the bearing of Air photo principal point in grid square 9025 from the cattle dip in grid square 2692. (2mks)
      2. Identify two human features I grid square 3890 (2mks)
    3. Draw a rectangle measuring 14cm by 10cm to represent the area enclosed by easing of 30 and 37 and northings of 90 and 95. On the rectangle mark and label (5mks)
      1. Railway line
      2. Thicket
      3. River Matathia
      4. Cattle dip
    4. Explain how relief has influenced the distribution of settlement on the area covered by the map (4mks)
    5. Describe the drainage of the area covered by the map (4mks)
    6. Give the social functions of Kijabe town (3mks)
      1. What is a rock? (1mk)
      2. Describe the three ways through which sedimentary rocks are formed (6mks)
    2. Describe the following characteristics of minerals
      1. Colour (2mks)
      2. Cleavage (2mks)
    3. Give two types of igneous rocks (2mks)
    4. Suppose you were to carry out a field study of rocks within the vicinity of your school
      1. Name three secondary sources of information you would use to prepare for the field study(2mks)
      2. State three activities you would carry out during the field study (2mks)
      3. State three problems you are likely to experience during the field study (2mks)
    5. Explain three significance of rocks to huma activities in Kenya (4mks)
      1. Define the term hydrological cycle (2mks)
      2. Give three factors that influence the occurrence of surface runoff (3mks)
      3. State the significance of the hydrological cycle (4mks)
      1. What is a lake (2mks)
      2. Give three reasons why some lakes in Kenya have saline water (3mks)
    3. Explain how Lake Victoria influences the climate of the surrounding areas. (6mks)
    4. State five economic uses of lakes (5mks)
  9. The diagram below represents underground features in a limestone area. Use it to answer question (a)
    NM2021 BGeo PP1 ET2 Ans9
      1. Name the features marked X, V and W (3mks)
      2. Describe how the feature marked y is formed (6mks)
      1. What is an artesian basin? (2mks)
      2. Explain three factors which influence the formation of features in limestone areas (6mks)
    3. Give four reasons why there are few settlements in Karst landscapes (4mks)
    4. State four significance of the Karst Region (4mks)
      1. What are earthquakes? (2mks)
      2. Name two types of earthquake waves (2mks)
      3. State four ways in which the earth’s crust is affected by earthquakes (4mks)
      1. Name three types of faults (3mks)
      2. Apart from compressional forces explain two other processes that may cause faulting. (4mks)
    3. With the aid of diagrams, describe how compressional forces may have led to the formation of the Great Rift valley. (8mks)
    4. Apart from the Rift Valley name two other relief features that were formed as a result of faulting (2mks)


    1. Theories of the origin of the earth
      • Nebula cloud theory
      • Passing star theory
    2. Layers of the earth’s atmosphere
      • Troposphere
      • Mesosphere
      • Stratosphere
      • Thermosphere/Ionosphere
    1. Weather forecasting is the prediction of the condition of the atmosphere of a given place within a
      specific time/period. (2mks)
    2. elements of weather
      • Temperature
      • Humidity
      • Rainfall
      • Air pressure
      • Wind
      • Sunshine
      • Cloud cover   Any 3x1
  3. Uses of Savanna vegetation
    • Commercial ranching is practised in some parts of the grasslands
    • Grass increases humus in the soil making the area suitable for the growth of cereals.
    • Some shrubs and herbs growing in these savanna grassland areas are used as medicine
    • Some wild fruits and berries found in the grasslands are consumed as food.
    • The trees found I savanna provide fuel for the people
    • Some trees in savanna are habitats for bees which provide honey.
    1. components of soil.
      • Soil organic matter
      • Soil water/moisture
      • Soil inorganic matter
      • Soil air       any 3x1
    2. characteristics of desert soils
      • Contain little or no humus
      • Are of sandy or stony texture
      • Are saline or contain a lot of salts
      • They have high lime content
      • Lack moisture
      • May be light coloured
      • Are thin or shallow
      • Are highly porous any 3x1
  5. Characteristics of a river in its youthful stage.
    • The river has a steep river gradient
    • River channel is narrow and deep
    • Steep sided or v-shaped valley or gorges
    • High stream velocity
    • Vertical erosion or down – cutting is dominant
    • Has rapids or water falls or cataracts
    • Has interlocking spurs, potholes, plunge pools.
      Any 4x1
      1. Types of scale
        • Representative fraction/ratio scale
        • Linear scale
      2. East Africa 1:50,000(KENYA
      3. 8.2km
      1. 212° ±1
        • Road shops
        • School
        • Church
      NM2021 Geo PP1 ET2 Ans6c
      • Most of the settlements are found at the foot of the escarpment because the land is gently sloping hence can support agriculture/crop farming.
      • The escarpment has no settlement because the land is steep.
      • Kijabe hill has a few settlement on the eastern side because the land is gently sloping.
      • The western side of the hill has no settlement as the land is steep.
      • The land to the east of the escarpment has many settlements because it is plateau/gently sloping.
      • There are few valleys because they are prone to flooding.
      • The main drainage feature are rivers.
      • They are many permanent rivers.
      • Rivers originating from Kijabe hill form parallel and radial drainage pattern.
      • Most rivers form dendritic pattern.
      • The main rivers are upper Ewaso Kedong and Bathi which flow southwards while river Gatamaiyu and its tributaries flow south-eastwards.
      • Most rivers are in their youthful stage
      • There are more rivers to the East of the escarpment.
      1. A rock is a combination of mineral particles cemented together and forms the solid part of the earths crust. (1mk)
      2. Ways through which sedimentary rocks are formed.
        • Organically formed – these rocks are formed when remains of previously existing plants or animals organizations are accumulated over a period of time forming layers which are compressed, compacted to form rocks.
        • Mechanically formed – these rocks are formed when eroded rock materials are transported by agents of erosion and deposited in layers either on land or in the sea.
        • Chemically formed – These are formed when rocks are precipitated or when solutions of salt evaporate and particles accumulate in layers with time the particles are compressed to form rocks (6mks)
    2. Characteristics of minerals
      1. Colour – Different minerals display different colours eg minerals display different colours eg minerals that have iron have dark colours.(2mks)
      2. Cleavage - Minerals have patterns in which they split or divide in to thin layers while other break along layers. Minerals have distinct cleavages eg Mica split in to thin layers. (2mks)
    3. Types of igneous rocks
      • Intrusive or Plutonic rocks
      • Extrusive or Volcanic rocks
      • Hypabyssal or intermediate rocks any 2x1
      1. Secondary sources of information
        • Textbooks/Pamphlets/Journals/Newspapers
        • Maps/Geological maps
        • Photographs/Pictures/Video tapes
        • Tape recorded information any 2x1
      2. Activities during the field study
        • Drawing of sketches
        • Observation
        • Collecting rock samples
        • Making notes
        • Taking photographs
        • Asking questions any 2x1
      3. Problems likely to be faced.
        • Inability to identify rocks
        • Inability to access the rocks
        • Accidents or slipping.
        • Attacks by wild animals
        • Hindrance by poor weather conditions
        • Difficulties in climbing / descending steep rocks any 2x1
    5. Significance of rocks to human activities in Kenya.
      • Some rock formations such as the kit Mt attract tourists hence earning the country foreign exchange.
      • Some rocks form underground water reservoirs for building and construction materials hence promote the construction industry.
      • Rocks in the Kenya highlands weather to form deep fertile volcanic soils that support agriculture.
      • Some rocks are ores with valuable minerals that are exploited and sold to generate revenue
      • Some rocks such as limestone are used to manufacture cement promoting the building and construction industries.  Any 3x2.
        • Hydrological cycle is the endless circulation of water from oceans in to the atmosphere through evaporation back to the land in form of precipitation and again to the oceans in the form of run-of.
        • It is the endless interchange of water between the sea, the atmosphere and the land (2mks)
      2. Factors that influence the occurrence of surface runoff.
        • Heavy rainfall/ high amount/ high intensity
        • Low rate of evaporation
        • Sloping ground/ steep slopes
        • Presence of impervious rocks/ soil surface
        • Bare surfaces/ absence of vegetation
      3. Significance of the hydrological cycle.
        • It creates ecological balance between the atmosphere and the ground.
        • It leads to the formation of rainfall
        • Water vapour maintain heat energy in the atmosphere
        • Leads to formation of clouds in the atmosphere which causes rain
        • Water evaporates from the ground causing drying up of water bodies
        • It unites the atmosphere
        • It assists in the oxygen and carbon cycles in the atmosphere any 4x1
      1. A lake is an accumulation of water in a wide hollow or depression.
      2. reasons why some lakes in Kenya have saline Water.
        • The lakes lacks an outlet to the sea thus mineral salts accumulate in its water.
        • Presence of salt bearing rocks on the lake leads to mineral salts dissolving in the water in the lake.
        • Mineral salts are deposited in the lake by surface run off increasing the salt concentration.
        • Underground seepage of the water that is rich in mineral salts add to the salt in the lake
          Any 3x1
    3. How lake Victoria influences the climate
      • There is heavy rainfall due to moisture from the lake
      • Evaporation from the lake leads to high relative humidity in the area.
      • Lake encourages formation of lakes breezes which have a cooling effect on the shores of L. Victoria.
    4. Economic uses of Lakes
      • Lakes are used as fisheries
      • Act as scenic sites which promote tourism
      • Provide water for irrigation, domestic, industrial use
      • Used as reservoirs for water used for generation of H.E.P
      • Used for transport
      • Some have sand that is harvested for building and construction any 5x1
        • X - stalactite
        • V - Stalagmite
        • W- Underground cave
      2. Solution of calcium carbonate trickles down slowly through the rood of a cave or cavern solution droplets hang on the roof of the cave. Water evaporates and calcium carbonate is precipitated. The precipitated calcium carbonate gradually builds downwards over a period of time as the solution continues to drip from the roof. This forms a stalactite. The calcium carbonate in it precipitates gradually build upwards to forma stalagmite join to form a pillar (feature y)
      1. An artesian basin is a saucer-shaped depression consisting of layer of permeable rock lying between two layers of impermeable rocks with part of permeable rock exposed to the surface along the edges of the basin (2mks)
      2. Factors that influence the formation of features in limestone areas.
        • The surface rock must be thick limestone to allow solubility by rainwater.
        • The rock should be hard and well jointed to allow water to percolate through the lines of weakness.
        • The climate should be hot and humid to facilitate chemical reaction or weathering/carbonation
        • The water table should be far below the surface to allow for the formation of the features.
    3. Reasons why there are few settlements in Karst landscapes.
      • The surface is rocky, which is not conducive to settlements.
      • The surface in most places has thin soils which would not encourage agriculture.
      • The vegetation in most places is poor and would not support livestock rearing.
      • Karst landscape experience inadequate water supply both on the surface and underground.
      • The surface is rugged, thus hindering construction of transport lines.
    4. Significance of the Karst regions.
      • Karst scenery features attract tourists who bring foreign exchange
      • Limestone rocks are used in building as raw-materials in cement making industries promoting industrialisation.
      • Limestone rocks are used in building and construction
      • Limestone regions are used for grazing sheep, horses and camels as the soils are thin and dry.
      • Limestone is extracted and used for smelting iron ore in the iron and steel industries  Any 4x1
      1. Earthquakes is the sudden shaking or trembling of crystal rocks caused by shock waves that originate below the surface of the earth. (2mks)
      2. Types of earthquake waves
        • Primary waves (p-waves)
        • Secondary waves (s-waves)
        • Surface longitudinal waves/Love waves/Rayleigh waves. Any 2x1
      3. How the earth’s crust is affected by earthquakes.
        • Cause lateral vertical displacement of rocks
        • Causing raising and lowering of parts of the sea floor.
        • Cause raising and lowering of land
        • Cause landslides
        • Lead to faulting of the crust
        • Lead to volcanic eruptions. Any 4x1
      1. Types of faults
        • Normal fault
        • Reverse fault
        • Thrust fault
        • Anticlinal fault
        • Tear/Shear fault. Any 3x1
      2. Forces that may cause faulting.
        • Faulting may be caused by force acting horizontally away from each other which cause tension in the crystal rocks.
        • Faulting may occur when horizontal forces act parallel to each other in the opposite or same direction resulting in shearing
        • Faulting may also occur due to vertical movements which may exert a strain in the rocks making them to fracture. Any 2x2
    3. Layers of rocks are subjected to compressive forces
      NM2021 Geo PP1 ET2 Ans10ci
      Two parallel lines of weakness develop forming reverse faults.
      NM2021 Geo PP1 ET2 Ans10cii
      Compression forces may push the outer blocks towards each other. The outer blocks vide over the middle block sinks or subsides or may reman stable. The sunken middle part forms a depression called a Rift valley.
      NM2021 Geo PP1 ET2 Ans10ciii
    4. Features resulting from faulting.
      • Tilt block
      • Escarpment/Scarp slope
      • Block mountain/Horst
      • Fault steps. Any 2x1
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