Agriculture Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Sukellemo Joint Mock 2020/2021

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SUKELLEMO JOINT MOCK
Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education
AGRICULTURE
PAPER 1

2 HOURS

Instructions to Candidates

  • This paper consists of 3 sections A, B and C .
  • Answer all the questions in section A and B 
  • Select any TWO questions in section C.

SECTION A

  1. State four reasons of planting sweet potatoes on ridges.(2mks)
  2. Differentiate between rouging and field hygiene as used in crop production.(1mk)
  3. Calculate the amount of N in 670kg of a compound fertilizer 20:15:10. (2mks)
  4. State four natural factors that discourage soil erosion. (2mks)
  5. Give two examples of working capital in bean production.(1mk)
  6. differentiate between a delivery note and purchase order documents.( 1mk)
  7.  
    1. state four factors that are considered when siting a composite pit.(2mks)
    2. Write down three pieces of information that should be written on the envelope bearing the composite sample being taken to the national laboratories of Kenya. ( 1.5mks)
  8. Give two forms in which credit is offered to farmers.(1mk)
  9. Why should a farmer understand the lifecycle of parasites?(1mk)
  10. Give four diseases which attack tomatoes. (2mks)
  11. Give four factors that affect the selectivity and effectiveness of herbicides.(2mks)
  12. What is pricking out? ( 1mk)
  13. State two physical characteristics used in classifying soil. (1mk)
  14. Give three reasons why the million acre scheme was started.( 1.5mks)
  15. Name four micro catchments aimed at conserving soil water around crops (2mks)
  16. State three importances of sub-soiling (1 1/2 marks)
  17. Name three tools a farmer can use to dig a virgin land (1 1/2marks)
  18. Give two forms in which credit is offered to farmers.(1mk)
  19. Give four roles of phosphorus in crops.(2mks)

SECTION B 

  1. Study diagram below and answer questions that follow.
    SukagriPP1q20
    1. Name the farming practice illustrated above.(1mark)
    2. Give the procedure followed to carry out the practice you have named in (i) above (4marks)
    3. state the importance of carrying out the farming practice named above. (1 mark)
  2. The diagram below illustrates a method of soil conservation. Study it and answer questions that follow.
    SukagriPP1q21
    1. Name the method of soil control measure. (1 mark)
    2. in what kind of topography is the above control measure carried out?(1 mark)
    3. state four other biological soil control measures apart from the one named in (i) above.(2marks)
  3. A Farmer has a piece of land on which he grows beans . His farm record on beqan production for nine years is shown below.
    Year Fertilizer Applied
    (100kg Bags)
    Total Output of Beans
    (90kg Bags)
    2011 0 6
    2012 2 12
    2013 4 30
    2014 6 44
    2015 8 54
    2016 10 62
    2017 12 68
    2018 14 68
    2019 16 66
    1. Using an appropriate scale draw a graph to show the relationship between inputs and outputs.(5mks)
    2. Calculate the farmers marginal product for the year 2013.(1mk)
    3. From the data given , what rate of fertilizer application would the farmer choose if he wanted to grow maize in 2020? (1mk)
    4. Give an explanation for your choice above.
    5. Calculate the average product for the year 2015.( 2mks)

SECTION C (SELECT ANY TWO QUESTION)

  1.  
    1. Describe the advantages of land consolidation in agriculture production (7 marks)
    2. Discuss five factors that will influence mass wasting or solifluction.(5 marks)
    3. Discuss four physical agents of weathering (8 marks
  2.    
    1. Discuss five methods of harvesting agro forestry trees. (10 marks)
    2. Explain how old agro forestry with good root characteristics trees can be grafted (5marks)
    3. Discuss five benefits of weed to the farmers (5 marks)
  3.    
    1. Discuss three aspects of rainfall that a farmer should consider when deciding on what crop to grow in an area (6marks)
    2. Discuss carrots under the following sub headings
      1. Varieties (3 marks)
      2. Field management practices (2 marks)
      3. Harvesting(2 marks)
    3. use the information below to Answer question that follow. Johns farm for the year ended 31st December 2019
      Closing valuation  240,000/=
      Debts payable  115,000/=
      Animal feed purchase 100,000/=
      Sale of 2 heifers 180,000/=
      Debts receivable 130,000/=
      Wages 80,000/=
      Opening valuation 220,000/=
      Milk sales 62,000/=
      Veterinary bills 57,000/=
      1. Prepare a profit and loss account of Johns farm.( 5mks)
      2. What is the percentage profit or loss made by the farm? (1mk)
      3. of what use the profit and loss account to the farmer? ( 1mk)

MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A (30MKS)

  1. State two reasons of planting sweet potatoes on ridges.(1mk)
    • Encourage tuber expansion
    • Allow easy harvesting of roots

  2. Differentiate between rouging and field hygiene as used in crop production.(1mk)
    • Rouging is uprooting and destroying infected plants.
    • Field hygiene-keeping the farm free from pests and diseases./pathogen free farm.

  3. Calculate the amount of N in 670kg of a compound fertilizer 20:15:10. (2mks)
    • 20/100 x 100= 20kg in 100kg bag
      So in 670 /100 x 20=134kg

  4. State four farming practices that encourage soil erosion. (2mks)
    • Cultivating down the slope. N
    • Deforestation
    • Continuous cropping
    • Overcultivation
    • Monocropping especially crops that require fine tilth

  5. Give two examples of working capital in bean production.(1mk)
    • Fertilizer
    • Pesticides
    • Herbicides
    • Fuel

  6. differentiate between a delivery note and purchase order documents.( 1mk)
    • Delivery note –is a financial document that accompanies goods on delivery. Evident that goods have been physically delivered from supplier to the buyer.

  7.  
    1. state four factors that are considered when siting a composite pit.(2mks)
      • Drainage – the place should be well drained , avoid water logged areas to prevent leaching of nutrients.
      • Direction of prevailing wind- should be away from homestead to prevent bad odour.
      • Accessibility – the place should be accessible for easy transport of the manure.
      • Size of the farm – it should be centrally placed.

    2. Write down three pieces of information that should be written on the envelope bearing the composite sample being taken to the national laboratories of Kenya. ( 1.5mks)
      • name of the farmer
      • address of the farmer
      • field number
      • location of the farm
      • date of sampling

  8. Give two forms in which credit is offered to farmers.(1mk)
    • Short term
    • Long term
    • Medium term

  9. Why should a farmer understand the lifecycle of parasites?(1mk)
    • To know the most destructive stage –hence control the parasite the right stage 

  10. Give two pests which attack carrots.(2mks)
    • Green aphids, wireworms, vegetable worms.

  11. Give four factors that affect the selectivity and effectiveness of herbicides.(2mks)
    • Stage of plant growth
    • Plant morphology
    • Herbicide characteristics,method of application
    • Concentration,Formulation

  12. What is pricking out? ( 1 mks)
    • Uprooting seedlings in a overcrowded nursery bed and transferring them to a seedling bed.

  13. State two physical characteristics used in classifying soil. (1mk)
    • Soil structure, soil texture, soil colour.

  14. Give three reasons why the million acre scheme was started.( 1.5mks
    • To maintain production levels
    • Solve unemployment problems
    • Transfer land from the white settlers.
    • Reduce population pressure in Africans reserves
    • To settle former employees of of European farmers and squtters.
    • To earn foreign exchange from sale of cash crops.
    • Increase agricultural production, through better methods of land utilization.

  15. Name four micro catchments aimed at conserving soil water around crops (2mks)
    • There are three basic types of microcatchment systems: contour bench terraces, runoff strips and micro-watersheds.
    • Negarims

  16. State three importance of sub-soiling (1 1/2 marks)
    • Helps facilitatesoil aeration
    • Break soil hard pan
    • Bring to the surface minerals which may have been leached in the deeper layers.
    • Facilitate proper water infiltration.

  17. Name three tools a farmer can use to dig a virgin land (1 1/2marks)
    • fork jembe
    • jembe
    • pick axe
    • mattock

  18. Give two forms in which credit is offered to farmers.(1mk)
    • Money
    • Inputs- item eg a cow, a tractor, fertilizer.

  19. Four roles of phosphorus.
    • Root development.
    • Strengthens plant plant stems, preventing lodging.
    • Essential for flowering
    • Plays an important role in metabolic processes which include respiration, protein and carbohydrate synthesis

SECTION B (20 MARKS)

  1. Study the diagram
       SukagriPP1q20
    1. Name the farming practice illustrated above.(1marks)
      • Chitting/ sprouting/shooting/ breaking dormacyn in potato setts.

    2. State the procedure followed to carry out the practice you have named in (i) above (4marks)
      • Potato setts of about 3-6cm in diameter are selected.
      • look for a partially darkened room.
      • Arrange the potato setts in layers of 2or 3 tubers with the rose-end facing upwards and heel end downwards.
      • Diffused light is then passed through.

    3. state the importance of the carrying out the farming practice. (1 mark)
      • Leads to sprouting of the potato setts hence grow/ mature faster when grown in the seed bed
      • Gives them a head start.

  2. The diagram below illustrates a method of soil conservation. Study it and answer questions that follow.
    SukagriPP1q21
    1. Name the biological control measure of soil shown above. (1 marks)
      • Contour farming

    2. In what kind of topography is the soil control measure practiced?(1mk)
      • Gentle slope.

    3. Name four other biological control measures of soil apart from the one named in (i) above.(2marks)
      • Grass strips/ filter strips, cover cropping, mulching,
      • cropping systems –like rotational grazing, crop rotation correct spacing, intercropping, ridges/ furrows along contours
      • Strip cropping, grassed or vegetated water ways, afforestration/ reafforestration
      • Agroforestry.

  3. A Farmer has a piece of land on which he grows beans . His farm record on bean production for nine years is shown below.
    Year Fertilizer Applied
    (100kg Bags)
    Total Output of Beans
    (90kg Bags)
    2011 0 6
    2012 2 12
    2013 4 30
    2014 6 44
    2015 8 54
    2016 10 62
    2017 12 68
    2018 14 68
    2019 16 66


    1. Using an appropriate scale draw a graph to show the relationship between inputs and outputs.(5mks)
      SukagriPP1A22
    2. calculate the farmers marginal product for the year 2013.(1mk)
      • 30-12 =18bags

    3. From the data given , what rate of fertilizer application would the farmer choose if he wanted to grow maize in 2020? (1mk)
      • 12 bags of fertilizer.

    4. Give an explanation for your choice above.
      • When he applied 12 bags of fertilizer the yields were at the high( 68 bags)

    5. calculate the average product for the year 2015.( 2mks)
      • average product = total yield / number of units of input.
        = 54/4=13.5

SECTION C

  1.    
    1. Advantages of land consolidation
      • weed, pest and diseases control are enhanced.
      • economic use of time
      • proper supervision of land
      • if the land is already registered, it gives the farmer legal ownership and the title deed which can be used to obtain loans.
      • soil conservation and land improvement. it facilitates carrying out of soil conservation practices as well as farm mechanization, since the holding are enlarged
      • sound farm planning and adoption of crop rotation programs
      • Construction of permanent structures such as fencing and buildings.
      • economical operation of activities on the land since it gives the farmer a large single unit of land.
      • agricultural advice by the extension officer.
      • saving of transportation cost.

    2. discuss the factors that will influence mass wasting or solifluction
      • the nature of material- if it contains a lot of water faster movement of materials
      • the slope of land – on steep slopes materials move faster
      • climate – heavy rainfall areas materials get too wet hence easy moved
      • vegetation cover – solifluction is easy and faster in bare land.
      • Human activities building , quarrying, deforestration initiate mass wasting and movement of materials.
      • Forces within the earths crust - tremors , volcanic eruptions cause wide spread movement of materials,

    3. discuss four agents of weathering
      • Wind – carry materials which knock each other thus breaking off into small pieces moving ice glacier- as it moves it has a grinding effect water when it rains, the raindrops hit the ground with some force a dislodges the soil.
      • Temperature -- high temperature causes expansion of rocks while low temperatures cause contraction of rocks the expansion and contraction of the rocks lead to breakage.
        Rainfall of high intensity erodes soil surfaces temperature – when water gets into the rock cracks it freezes and becomes ice increasing volume, exerting pressure on the rock then dislodges particles . 

  2.    
    1. discuss methods of harvesting agroforestry trees. 10mks)
      • pruning - removal of branches from the lower part of the tree crown. Reduce shade and improve the quality of the trunk. Branches removed through pruning are used as fodder and as a source of fuel. Done towards the end of dry season to avoid damage to other crops
      • lopping – removal of branches of trees in a haphazard manner.
      • pollarding – cutting of all the branches and top part of a tree. it provides fodder and wood for fuel and other uses
      • coppicing – cutting of the whole tree abut 30 cm above the ground new growth sprout from the tree stump provide fodder, wood and mulching materials
      • thinning -cutting down of some tress to avoid overcrowding fuel wood, poles and fodder common practice in woods lots.

    2. explain how trees with good characteristics can be grafted
      • you cut the upper part of the tree .
      • a scion is taken from another tree that is compatible to it.
      • depending on the method of grafting the scion is cut to the required shape.( if the roots stock is of a larger diameter side grafting is done.)
      • make a cut on the root stock & inserts the scion.
      • tie them with a polythene tape 

    3. discuss five benefits of weeds to the farmer
      • some weeds have medicinal value.eg Sodom apple.
      • leguminous weeds fix nitrogen in the soil.
      • some weeds are edible to both man and livestock. Eg pig weed.
      • weeds act as soil cover prevent erosion.
      • weeds add organic matter into the soil when the y decay.

  3.    
    1. Discuss four aspects of rainfall that a farmer should consider when deciding what crop to grow in an area
      • Rainfall Reliability - Dependency on the meteorological timing of the ones of rainfall. Determines the times of land preparation and planting.
        Amount of rainfall is the quantity of rain (precipitation) that falls in a given area within a given year and is measured in millimeters / year. it determines the type of crop to be grown.
      • Rainfall distribution – refers to the number of wet months in year. Determines the choice of crop varieties grown in a given area
      • Rainfall intensity – amount of rain that in an area within a period of one hour and is measured in millimeters (mm) per hour. rainfall of high intensity damage crops and causes soil erosion

    2. Discuss carrots under the following sub heading
      • varieties – fresh market variet-- chantenary,
        • canning variety such as Nantes.
        • Livestock variety -Oxhart variety.
      • filed management practices –
        • thinning – two weeks after germination carrot should be thinning to prevent competition for light, moisture and space
        • weeding – by uprooting to prevent competition
        • earthing up – to encourage root expansion
        • topdressing – using nitrogenous fertilizers
        • irrigation – when dry to provide sufficient moisture
        • control of pests – by use of appropriate pesticides
      • harvesting – Carrots are ready three to five months after planting depending on the variety .
        • harvested by lifting the plants out of the ground using a fork jambe or uprooted manually

    3. use the information below to Answer questions that follow. Johns farm for the year ended 31st December 2019.
      Closing valuation  240,000/=
      Debts payable  115,000/=
      Animal feed purchase 100,000/=
      Sale of 2 heifers 180,000/=
      Debts receivable 130,000/=
      Wages 80,000/=
      Opening valuation 220,000/=
      Milk sales 62,000/=
      Veterinary bills 57,000/=
      1. prepare a profit and loss account of Johns farm.( 5mks)

        • THE PROFIT AND LOSS ACCOUNT OF JOHNS FARM FOR THE YEAR ENDED 31ST DECEMBERs 2019
          EXPENDITURE INCOME

          opening valuation                         

          SHS CTS

          SALES AND RECEIPTS                       .          .                      

             SHS CTS

          Opening valuation

          220,000 00

          Sale of heifer

          180,000 00

           

          Debts receivable

          130,000 00

           

          Sale of milk

          62,000 00

           

          Total sales and receipts

          372,000 00

          Purchases and expenses

          SHS CTS

          Closing valuation

          shs cts

          Debts payable

          115,000 00

          Closing valuation

          240,000 00

          Animal feed

          100,00 00

           

          Wages

          80,000 00

           

          Veterinary bills

          57,000 00

           

          Total purchases &expense

          352,000 00

           

          Total of all expenditure

          572,000 00

          Total of income

          612,000 00

          Profit

          40,000 00

           
             
      2. what is the percentage profit or loss made by the farm? (1mk)
        • percentage profit= 40,000/612,000 x100= 6.536 % 

      3. of what use the profit and loss account to the farmer? ( 1mk)
        • it shows whether a farmer is making profit or loss in the farming business.




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