Geography Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Lanjet Mock Exams 2021/2022

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INSTRUCTIONS TO STUDENTS

  • This paper has two sections: A and B
  • Answer ALL the questions in section A.
  • In section B answer questions 6 and any other TWO questions.
  • Candidates must answer the questions in English.

SECTION A
Answer all questions in this section.

  1. The diagram below represents the structure of the atmosphere. Use it to answer question (a)
    Geo Pp1 LJM Q1 2122
    1. Name:
      1. The parts marked P and Q. (2mks)
      2.   The layers of discontinuity marked R. (1mk)
    2. State two characteristics of the weather conditions in the troposphere. (2mks)
  2.  
    1. What is a metamorphic rock? (2mks)
    2. Give three examples of metamorphic rocks. (3mks)
  3.  
    1. What is an earthquake? (2mks)
    2. Identify the scale used to measure:
      1. The intensity of earthquakes; (1mk)
      2. The magnitude of earthquakes. (1mk)
  4.  
    1. Identify the main characteristics of the ocean water. (2mks)
    2. Give three factors that influence wave deposition. (3mks)
  5.  
    1. Name three features that make up the hydrosphere. (3mks)
    2. Explain how the movement of magma causes earth movement. (2mks)

SECTION B
Answer question 6 and any other two questions from this section

  1. Study the map of Kijabe 1:50,000 provided and answer the following questions:
    1.  
      1. What is the appropriate height of the top of Kijabe hill? (1mk)
      2. Measure the length of Nairobi-Naivasha railway line from landhies (grid reference 257978) to the level crossing near Kijabe station (grid reference 308984).Give your answer in kilometers. (1mk)
      3. What relief features on the map may have created problems in the construction of the railway line? (1mk)
    2. Describe the drainage of the area covered by the map. (4mks)
    3. Explain how relief has influenced the distribution of settlement in the area covered by the map. (4mks)
    4. Citing evidence from the map ,state four economic activities carried out in the area covered by the map. (8mks)
    5. Suppose you were a student n the school at Kinari (Kinale )and you plan to carry out a field study of Wakagwe forest,
      1. Design a working programme (schedule ) you would use during the day of the study. (2mks)
      2. Give three reasons why it would be necessary to sample part of the forest for the study. (2mks)
      3. State two ways in which your findings would be useful to the local community. (2mks)
  2.  
    1.  
      1. What is a lake? (2mks)
      2. Name two crater lakes in Kenya. (2mks)
    2. Describe how each of the following lakes are formed:
      1. corrie lake; (4mks)
      2. oasis; (4mks)
      3. lagoon (4mks)
    3.  
      1. Give three reasons why some lakes in Kenya have saline water. (3mks)
      2. Explain how each of the following has affected lakes in Kenya:
        1. Deforestation (2mks)
        2. Industrialization (2mks)
        3. Water needs (2mks)
  3.  
    1.  
      1. Name three types of faults. (3mks)
      2. Apart from compressional forces, explain two other processes that may cause faulting (4mks)
    2. With the aid of diagrams, describe how compressional forces may have led to the formation of the Great Rift Valley. (8mks)
    3. Explain three ways in which faults is of significance to human activities. (6mks)
    4. suppose you are to carry out a field-study on a faulted are
      1. State two methods you would use to collect data. (2 mks)
      2. Name two features resulting from faulting you are likely to observe (2 mks)
  4. The diagram below represents an artesian basin. Use it to answer question (a)
    Geo LJM PP1 Q9 2122
    1. Identify:
      1. the layers marked X and Y. (2mks)
      2. the process marked Z. (1mks)
    2. Explain how the following factors influence the amount of underground water in limestone areas:
      1. rainfall; (4mks)
      2. vegetation cover. (4mks)
    3.  
      1. Apart from stalagmites, name three other underground features formed in limestone areas. (3mks)
      2. With the aid of a diagram, describe how a stalagmite is formed. (8mks)
    4. Give three reasons why there are few settlements in Karst landscapes. (3mks)
  5.  
    1.  
      1. Name two major deserts found in Africa. (2mks)
        The diagram below represents features resulting from wind erosion in desert. Use it to answer question a(ii)
        Geo LJM PP1 Q10a 2122
      2. Name the features marked U and V. (2mks)
    2. Describe the three processes through which wind transports its load. (6mks)
    3. Using a well labeled diagram , describe how a barchans is formed. (7mks)
    4. Explain two ways in which desert features are of significance to human activities. (4mks)
    5. You intend to carry out a field studying an arid area.
      1. Name one drainage feature you are likely to see. (1 mk)
      2. State three problems you are likely to encounter during the study (3 mks)


MARKING SCHEME

  1. The diagram below represents the structure of the atmosphere. Use it to answer question (a)
    Geo Pp1 LJM Q1 2122
    1. Name:
      1. The parts marked P and Q. (2mks)
        • P - Mesosphere
        • Q - Thermosphere/lonosphere
      2.   The layers of discontinuity marked R. (1mk)
        • R - Tropopause
    2. State two characteristics of the weather conditions in the troposphere. (2mks)
      • Temperatures decrease with an increase in height/normal lapse rate / the rate decrease is 1°C for 160 metres of height l0.65°C per 100 m/6.5 per 1000m
      • Pressure falls with an increase in height.
      • The speed of wind increases with an increase in height.
      • It contains most of the atmospheric water vapour/clouds
  2.  
    1. What is a metamorphic rock? (2mks)
      • This is a rock formed when the original/igneous sedimentary rock is subjected to chemically active fluids/ pressure/ intense heat which changes its form/structufe /composition
    2. Give three examples of metamorphic rocks. (3mks)
      • Schist/homblende/mica
      • Slate
      • Marble
      • Quartzite
      • Gneiss
      • Graphite
      • Serpentnite(from peridolite)
        Any 3 x 1
  3.  
    1. What is an earthquake? (2mks)
      • It is sudden earth movement that causes vibrations within the earth’s crust.
    2. Identify the scale used to measure:
      1. The intensity of earthquakes; (1mk)
        • Mercalli scale
      2. The magnitude of earthquakes. (1mk)
        • The Ritcher scale
  4.  
    1. Identify the main characteristics of the ocean water
      • Ocean water is saline/salty.
      • The temperature of ocean water varies horizontally and vertically.
      • Varies in density
      • It is in constant movement
    2. Give three factors that influence wave deposition
      • The depth of the water should be shallow along the coast
      • Configuration of the coastline/change in the alignment of coastline
      • The shore should have a gentle gradient
      • The breaking waves should have strong swash and a weak backwash./ constructive waves
      • Ample materials to be deposited
  5.  
    1. Name three features that make up the hydrosphere
      • Oceans
      • Seas
      • Lakes
      • Rivers
      • Swamps
      • Ice sheets
    2. Explain how the movement of magma causes earth movement.
      • The molten rocks (magma) is forced to intrude into the earth’s crust through a line of weakness causing displacement
      • The crustal rocks are forced to move/give way to intruding magma as their place is taken over by the intruding magma.
  6. Study the map of Kijabe 1:50,000 provided and answer the following questions:
    1.  
      1. What is the appropriate height of the top of Kijabe hill?
        • Between 2660 and 2680 above sea level
      2. Measure the length of Nairobi – Naivasha railway line from landhies (grid reference 257978) to the level crossing near Kijabe station ( grid reference 308984). Give your answer in kilometers.
        • 5.6 km (0.1) (5.5 – 5.7 Km)
      3. What relief feature on the map may have created problems in the construction of the railway line?
        • Escarpment steep slopes / Kijabe hill
    2. Describe the drainage of the area covered by the map
      • The main drainage feature are rivers, and are many
      • There are also hot springs
      • Most of the rivers are permanent
      • Rivers originating from Kijabe hill are short and disappear underground
      • Rivers on Kijabe hill form parallel and radial drainage pattern
      • Most rivers from dendrite patter
      • Main rivers are upper Ewaso Kedong and Bathi which flow southwards while river Gatamaiyu and its tributaries flow South – Eastwards
      • Most rivers are in Their youthful stage
      • There are more rivers to the East of the escarpment
    3. Explain how relief has influenced the distribution of settlement in the area covered by the map.
      • Most of the settlement are found at the foot of the escarpment because the land is gently sloping
      • The escarpment has no settlement because the land is steep
      • Kijabe hill has a few settlement on the eastern side because the land is gently slopping/ the Western side of the hill has no settlement as the land is steep
      • The land immediate to the east of the escarpment has many settlement because it is plateau/ gently sloping
    4. Citing evidence from the map, state four economic activities carried out in the area covered by the map.
      Economic activities -Evidence
      • Forestry / raw industry/ lumbering - Forest station/ forest guard post/ saw mills
      • Cattle keeping/ livestock rearing / dairy - Dairy/ cattle dip
      • Quarrying - Qua murram pit
      • Transportation - Road/ Railway/ Tracks/ foot path
      • Trading/ commerce - Shops/ stores/ petrol station/ post office/ post house
      • Processing/ manufacturing - Kagwe carbacid plant
      • Farming/ Agriculture – Plantations
    5.  Suppose you were a student in the school at Kinari ( Kinale) and you plan to carry out a field study of Wakagwe forest,
      1. Design a working programme (schedule) you would use during the day of the study
        • Assemble equipment
        • Depart for the area of study
        • Arrive at the area of study
        • Report to the forest authorities
        • Embark on data collection
        • Report back to the forest authorities
        • Report back to school
      2. Give three reasons why it would be necessary to sample part of the forest for the study
        • Save on time
        • Save on energy
        • Teach the learners the art of swimming
        • They will be able to identify the tree species that are suitable for the area
        • They will be able to work out solutions to the problems affecting the forest
      3. State two ways in which your findings would be useful to the local community.
        • The community will use the report to identify the importance of conserving forests
        • People will be able to adopt appropriate methods of utilizing the forest sustainable
  7.  
    1.  
      1. What is a lake? (2mks)
        • A lake is an extensive body of water in a hollow/depression in the earth's surface
      2. Name two crater lakes in Kenya. (2mks)
        • Challa
        • Paradise
        • Simbi
        • Sonanchi (SW of Lake Naivasha)
        • Crater lake on the Central Island of Lake Turkana 
    2. Describe how each of the following lakes are formed:
      1. corrie lake; (4mks)
        • Snow accumulates in an existing depression on the mountain side.
        • Snow gets compacted into ice forming a cirque glacier.
        • Frost action/alternating freeze-thaw action enlarges the hollow.
        • Abrasion by ice will deepen the hollow.
        • Plucking process steepens the backwall.
        • Eventually a deep arm-chair shaped depression known as corrie is formed.
        • When the corrie fills up with melt water, it forms a corrie lake.
      2. oasis; (4mks)
        • A pre-existing depression formed through faulting or otherwise is exposed to wind erosion.
        • Wind eddies remove unconsolidated materials through deflation.
        • Wind abrasion deepens and widens/enlarges the depression.
        • Continued deflation deepens and enlarges the depression.
        • Further abrasion deflation leads to the depression reaching the water table.
        • Water oozes out of the ground and collects into the depression to form a lake known as an oasis.
      3. lagoon (4mks)
        • Sand/single are moved by the long shore drift and deposited at the entrance of the bay. ‘
        • The deposits accumulate forming a spit/sand bar/ridge.
        • The continued deposition elongate the spit, eventually blocking the mouth of the bay forming a bay bar.
        • The bay bar separates part of the sea water from the open sea.
        • The enclosed sea water is the lagoon.
    3.  
      1. Give three reasons why some lakes in Kenya have saline water. (3mks)
        • They lack outlets to the sea.
        • Some have salt bearing rocks on the lake bed.
        • High temperatures in the surrounding area lead to high evaporation.
        • Heavy deposition of mineral salts into the lakes by surface run off.
        • Underground seepage of water that is rich in mineral salts.
      2. Explain how each of the following has affected lakes in Kenya:
        1. Deforestation (2mks)
          • It exposes soil which is eroded and carried into the lake causing siltation.
          • It destroys catchment areas which reduces water fed into the lakes.
        2. Industrialization (2mks)
          • Establishment of industries had led to disposal of waste/pollution/contamination of lakes.
          • Establishment of industries has led to increased water use which has lowered water levels.
        3. Water needs
          • When water is diverted into farms during irrigation it leads to lowering water levels in the lake.
          • Over use of water for industrial processes leads to lowering of water levels in the lakes
  8.  
    1.  
      1. Name three types of faults. (3 marks)
        • Normal fault
        • Reverse fault
        • Tear or shear or slip or transform or wrench or slip fault
        • Thrust fault
        • Anticlinal fault
      2. Apart from compressional forces, explain two other process that cause faulting. (4 marks)
        • Faulting may be caused by force acting horizontally away from each other which cause tension in the crystal rocks. Due to tensional forces the rocks stretch and fracture causing faults
        • Faulting may occur where horizontal forces act parallel to each other in the opposite/ same direction resulting in shearing
        • Faulting may also occur due to vertical movements which may exert a strain in the rocks making them to fracture.
    2. With the aid of diagrams, describe how compressional forces may have led to the formation of the Great Rift Valley
      • Layers of rocks are subjected to compression forces
        Geo LJM PP1 QAns8b 2122
      • Layers of rocks are subjected to compression forces​
        Geo PP1 Ans 8bi LJM 2122
      • Compression forces may push the outer blocks towards each other the outer ride over the middle block) the middle block sinks/ subside/ may remain stable
      • The sunken middle part forms a depression called a rift valley
      • Layer
      • Fault line
      • Compression
      • Upward force
      • Rift Valley
    3. Explain three ways in which faulting is of significance to human activities. 
      • Faulting leads to formation of features that form beautiful scenery which attract tourists
      • Faulting leads to formation of lakes that are important fishing grounds/ tourists sites / mining sites/ provide water for irrigation/ for domestic use/ industrial use.
      • Faulting causes displacement of rocks which exposes minerals that are mined
      • Faulting may lead to the formation of mountains/ horst which attract rainfall that give rise to rivers which provide water for industrial/ domestic/ agricultural use/ industrial use for production of H.E.P
      • Block mountains formed through faulting lead to formation of relief rainfall on the windward side which favours agriculture/ and settlement / forestry
      • Subsidence of land as a result of faulting may lead to loss of life and property
      • Springs occurring of the foist of fault scarps attract settlements
      • Faulting creates deep faults which are passages of stream jets which may be utilized for geothermal power production
      • Rivers flowing over fault scarps may form waterfalls
      • When faulting occurs across a ridge it may provide a dip which could form a mountain pass where transport and communication lines can be constructed/ may hinder development of transport.
    4.  
      1. Methods of collecting data:
        • observation
        • taking photograph
        • collecting samples
        • taking measurements
      2. Features likely to be observed in faulted area:
        • fault scarps
        • block mountains /horst/fault block
        • tilt blocks
        • fault steps
        • rift valley 
  9. The diagram below represents an artesian basin. Use it to answer question (a)
    1. Identify:
      1. the layers marked X and Y. (2mks)
        • x - Impermeable rocks
        • y - Aquifer
      2. the process marked Z. (1mks)
        • z - percolation
    2. Explain how the following factors influence the amount of underground water in limestone areas:
      1. rainfall; (4mks)
        • When rains last for long hours it enhances infiltration thereby replenishing the underground water sources.
        • Heavy rains saturate the surface blocking air spaces thus reducing the rate of infiltration/leading to low amount of underground water.
        • Little rainfall/no rainfall leads to low amount of under ground water.
      2. vegetation cover. (4mks)
        • Presence of vegetation cover reduces the speed of surface runoff hence increasing the rate of infiltration/leading to high amount of underground water.
        • Presence of vegetation cover breaks the force of raindrops giving water more time to infiltrate hence increasing the amount of underground water.
        • In areas of scanty vegetation/on bare ground the surface runoff is high hence reduce rate of infiltration/leading to low amount of underground water.
        • Presence of vegetation cover provide shade in the ground reducing direct loss of water through evaporation hence increasing the rate of infiltration leading to high amount of underground water.
    3.  
      1. Apart from stalagmites, name three other underground features formed in limestone areas. (3mks)
        • Stalactites
        • Limestone/pillars/columns
        • Caves/caverns
        • Underground rivers
      2. With the aid of a diagram, describe how a stalagmite is formed. (8mks)
                Geo LJM PP1 QAns9c 2122
        • A solution of calcium hydrogen carbonate drips down slowly through the roof of the cave/hang on the roof of the cave.
        • As the solution continues to drip from the roof, it splashes on the floor of the cave.
        • Water evaporates and the calcium carbonate precipitates.
        • The precipitated calcium carbonate gradually builds upwards to form a Stalagmite.
    4. Give three reasons why there are few settlements in Karst landscapes. (3mks)
      • The areas have thin/poor soils.
      • The areas are rocky/have rugged surfaces
      • There is inadequate surface water supply.
      • The areas have poor/scanty vegetation.
  10.  
    1.  
      1. Name two major deserts found in Africa. (2mks)
        • Sahara
        • Kalahari
        • Namib
          The diagram below represents features resulting from wind erosion in desert. Use it to answer question a(ii
      2. Name the features marked U and V. (2mks)
        • U - Furrow
        • V - Ridge/yardang/zeugen
    2. Describe the three processes through which wind transports its load. (6mks)
      1. Saltation  (2 marks)
        • It is where coarse grained sand particles are trasported through a series of bouncing/ jumping along the surface
      2. Suspension  (2 marks)
        • It is where very fine material is picked by wind raised high and blown over long distance
      3. Surface creep/rolling  (2 marks)
        • It is where large/heavy material are rolled and pushed forward by wind along the surface
    3. Using a well labeled diagram , describe how a barchans is formed. (7mks)
               Geo LJM PP1 QAns10c 2122
      • It develops in the arid areas where sand accumulates around an obstacle that lies in the path of wind.
      • The gradual accumulation of sand forms a hill.
      • Eddy currents on the leeward side of the dune causes the formation of a shallow depression/concave slope/steepslope.
      • With timing the prevailing wind forces the sand at the edge of the dune to move forward forming the hrons
      • The continuous extension of the horns lead to a crescent shaped feature called barchan
        Explanation 4x1 = 4 marks
        Diagram max 3 marks
    4. Explain two ways in which desert features are of significance to human activities. (4mks)
      • Desert features form good sites for tourist attraction, thereby earning foreign exchange
      • Wind deflation hollows /oasis are sources of water for domestic/agricultural use.
      • Wind deposited sands /loess form fertile plains for farming.
      • Salty flats are economically used for salt production
      • Shifting sand dunes/hinder transport activities
      • Desert sceneries are ideal for film making
      • The vast sand seas are ideal for military training/nuclear testing.
    5.  
      1. Drainage feature in arid area:
        • Oasis
        • Playa
      2. Problems likely to be encountered:
        • Accidents
        • Attack by wild animals
        • Lack of water
        • Lack of food
        • Fatigue
        • Some areas may not be accessible.

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