Geography Paper 1 Questions and Answers - MECS Cluster Joint Mock Exams 2021/2022

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GEOGRAPHY
PAPER 1

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

  • This paper has two sections: A and B.
  • Answer all the questions in section A.
  • Answer question 6 and any other two questions from section B.

SECTION A:
Answer all questions in this section (25marks)

  1.        
    1. What is the relationship between Geography and Mathematics (2mks)
    2. State three reasons why it is important to study Geography. (3mks)
  2.        
    1. Give three components of the solar system. (3mks)
    2. State two characteristics of the outer core in the internal structure of the earth. (2mks)
  3.      
    1. Give two reasons why it is necessary to study the plate tectonic theory. (2mks)
    2. Name three types of boundaries associated with the plate tectonic theory. (3mks)
  4.          
    1. State three ways in which plants adapt to hot desert conditions. (3mks)
    2. State two climatic conditions experienced in Sahara Desert. (2mks)
  5.        
    1. What is an ocean tide? (2mks)
    2. Name three types of ocean tides. (3mks)

SECTION B:
Answer question six and any other two from this section (75marks)

  1. Study the map of Kijabe 1:50,000 provided and answer the following questions.
    1.        
      1. What is the sheet title of the map provided. (1mk)
      2. What is the latitudinal extent of Kijabe. (2mk)
    2.        
      1. Measure the distance of all weather road bound surface from Limuru to the saw mill at grid square 3497. (2mks)
      2. Calculate the area of thicket vegetation found at the southern part of Kijabe. (2mks)
      3. Citing evidence from the map, give three social services offered in Kijabe area. (3mks)
    3.       
      1. Describe the drainage of the area covered by Kijabe area. (5mks)
      2. Explain two ways how relief has influenced the distribution of settlement in the area covered by the map. (4mks)
    4.      
      1. Draw a rectangle measuring 6cm by 3cm to represent the area enclosed by easting 27 to 33 and northing 94 to 97. (1mk)
        On the rectangle mark the following features
        . Thicket vegetation (1mk)
        . A Railway (1mk)
        . Post office (1mk)
      2. Calculate the new scale of the rectangle (2mks)
  2.            
    1.  
      1. Differentiate between weather and climate (4mks)
      2. State two conditions necessary for the formation of fog. (2mks)
    2.     
      1. Briefly describe the working of Aneroid barometer. (4mks)
      2. State three effects of sea breeze on the adjacent land mass. (3mks)
    3.       
      1. xplain how the following factors influence climate
        Ocean currents (2mks)
        Altitude (2mks)
      2. State three characteristics of equatorial climate. (3mks)
    4. With the aid of well labelled diagram, describe the formation of land breeze. (5mks)
  3.            
    1.         
      1. What is faulting? (2mks)
      2. Name three types of faults. (3mks)
    2.     
      1. State three effects of faulting on drainage. (3mks)
      2. Briefly describe the formation of a crater by subsidence method. (5mks)
    3.       
      1. List three causes of earthquakes. (3mks)
      2. Name three major earthquake zones of the world. (3mks)
    4. You intend to carry out a field study in the Rift Valley.
      1. Name three methods of data collection you used. (3mks)
      2. State three problems you are likely to face during the field study. (3mks)
  4.       
    1.         
      1. List three types of desert according to the nature of the surfaces. (3mks)
      2. State two factors that contribute to development of deserts. (2mks)
      3. Highlight three reasons why wind is a dominant agent of erosion in arid areas. (3mks)
    2.       
      1. Explain two processes of wind erosion (4mks)
      2. Name three features of wind deposition in arid areas. (3mks)
    3.       
      1. With the aid of well labelled diagrams describe how a rock pedestal is formed. (8mks)
      2. Give two ways in which wind transports its load. (2mks)
  5.            
    1.         
      1. Name two types of glaciers. (2mks)
      2. State two reasons why there are no ice sheets in Kenya. (2mks)
      3. Explain two processes of glacial erosion (4mks)
    2. The diagram below shows types of moraine in a valley glacier. Use it to answer the following questions
      GeoMEcp1q10b
      1. Name the type of moraines marked A, B and C. (3mks)
      2. Explain how the movement of a valley glacier is influenced by the following factors:
        Temperature changes (2mks)
        Width of a glacier channel (2mks)
    3. With the aid of well labelled diagrams, describe how a cirque is formed (6mks)
    4. Students from Mumbai girls intended to carry out a field study on a glaciated lowland area.
      1. State two objectives intended for the study. (2mks)
      2. Name two features they are likely to have observed during the field study (2mks)

MARKING SCHEME

  1.        
    1. What is the relationship between Geography and Mathematics (2mks)
      • Mathematics principles or formulae are used in Geography to calculate distances or area or population density.
      • Geographical information can be analyzed or presented through the application of mathematical techniques.

    2. State three reasons why it is important to study Geography. (3mks)
      • Geography is a career subject e.g. engineering
      • Geography creates awareness in the people on the significance of management and conservation of the environment
      • In Learning Geography one is able to acquire basic skills and knowledge which contribute to local, regional and national development.
      • Through the study of field work, Geo teaches one on how to manage time
      • Geo helps learners to develop the skills of observing, reading, analyzing and interpreting maps, photographs, charts.
      • Geography focuses on physical study of the earth. One is therefore able to learn and explain the origin of the earth and the solar system.

  2.                
    1. Give three components of the solar system. (3mks)
      • Sun
      • Comets
      • Natural satellites
      • Meteorites

    2. State two characteristics of the outer core in the internal structure of the earth. (2mks)
      • Composed of molten rock material
      • Is made up of iron and nickel
      • Estimated to be about 2100km to 2900km thick
      • Temperatures ranging from 3700ºc-5000ºc
      • Rocks have a high density averaging 10.5g/cm3

  3.          
    1. Give two reasons why it is necessary to study the plate tectonic theory. (2mks)
      • Explains the destruction of structural landforms
      • Helps one understand how the earth maintains balance
      • Explains the cause of the earthquakes or volcanicity

    2. Name three types of boundaries associated with the plate tectonic theory. (3mks)
      • Divergence/Extension/constructive
      • Converging/compressed/destruction
      • Transform/conservative

  4.            
    1. State three ways in which plants adapt to hot desert conditions. (3mks)
      • Some plants have long roots to tap underground water
      • Some have small waxy leaves to reduce transpiration
      • Some trees shed their leaves during the dry seasons
      • Some plants have thick bark stems to store water.
      • Some plants produce seed that lie dormant awaiting rains
      • Some trees are umbrella-shaped to provide shade to the stem roots

    2. State two climatic conditions experienced in Sahara Desert. (2mks)
      • Rainfall is low/below 250mm per annum
      • Rainfall is erratic/flash floods and sporadic rain
      • Temperatures are high throughout the year over 300c/hot climate
      • Intense solar radiation
      • The diurnal range of temperature is very large/very hot days and cool nights
      • High rates of evaporation
      • Skies are always cloudless

  5.         
    1. What is an ocean tide.? (2mks)
      • Ocean tide is the periodic rise and fall of the ocean water

    2. Name three types of ocean tides. (3mks)
      • Perigean
      • Apogean
      • Spring
      • Neap
  6. 6 Study the map of Kijabe 1:50,000 provided and answer the following questions.
    1.         
      1. What is the sheet title of the map provided. (1mk)
        • EAST AFRICA 1:50000 (KENYA)

      2. What is the latitudinal extent of Kijabe. (2mk)
        • 18.1cm---5’ 6.8cmx5’/18.1cm
          6.8cm---? =1’9”
          Latitudinal extent =1º00’s to 0º 54’51” s

    2.        
      1. Measure the distance of all-weather road bound surface from Limuru to the saw mill at grid square 3497. (2mks)
        • 9.0km+- 0.1

      2. Calculate the area of thicket vegetation found at the southern part of Kijabe. (2mks)
        • complete squares=3
          incomplete squares=15
          Area=3+15/2
          =3+7.5
          =10.5km2+-0.1

      3. Citing evidence from the map, give three social services offered in Kijabe area. (3mks)
        • Education service-evidenced by school
        • Health services –evidenced by dispensary
        • Religious services-evidences by a church

    3.          
      1. Describe the drainage of the area covered by Kijabe area. (5mks)
        • The main drainage feature are rivers e.g. R. Bathi
        • Most of the rivers are permanent e.g R.upper Ewaso kedong
        • Rivers on Kijabe hill form parallel and radial drainage pattern
        • Most rivers form dendritic drainage pattern
        • The main rivers are upper Ewaso Kedong and Bathi which flows southwards
        • Most rivers are in their youthful stage

      2. Explain two ways how relief has influenced the distribution of settlement in the area covered by the map. (4mks)
        • Most of the setttlements are found at the foot of the escarpment because the land is gently sloping hence can support agriculture
        • The escarpment has no settlement because the land is steep.
        • Kijabe hill has afew settlement on the eastern side because the land is gentle
        • The western side of the hill has no settlement as the land is steep
        • The land immediate to the East of the escarpment has many settlements because it is gently sloping

    4. Draw a rectangle measuring 6cm by 3cm to represent the area enclosed by easting 27 to 33 and northing 94 to 97. (1mk)
      1. On the rectangle mark the following features
        . Thicket vegetation (1mk)
        . A Railway (1mk)
        . Post office (1mk)
        A RECTANGLE FROM EASTNG 27 TO 33 ALONG NORTHING 94 TO 97
        GeoMEcp1qa6d
        Drawn rectangle with title 1mk
        Feature each 1mk
        (1mk)
      2. Calculate the new scale of the rectangle (2mks)
        • 1:50000x2
          =1:100000

  7.            
    1.                
      1. Differentiate between weather and climate (4mks)
        • Weather is the atmospheric conditions of a given place over a short period of time while climate is the average weather conditions of a given place over a long period of time.

      2. State two conditions necessary for the formation of fog. (2mks)
        • The air must have sufficient moisture
        • Clear sky
        • Air must be cooled to below the dew point
        • Calm conditions to help hold the water droplets in suspension

    2.              
      1. Briefly describe the working of Aneroid barometer. (4mks)
        • This instrument consists of a small metal box containing very little air
        • Its top is very sensitive to change in pressure
        • It therefore expands when pressure is low and collapses when pressure is high
        • These movements are conveyed by a system of levers to a pointer which moves across a graduated scale.

      2. State three effects of sea breeze on the adjacent land mass. (3mks)
        • Lowers temperature of adjacent areas
        • May increase rainfall
        • May increase humidity
        • May lead to convectional rainfall
        • May lead to diurnal range of temperature

    3.           
      1.  Explain how the following factors influence climate
        1. Ocean currents (2mks)
          • Onshore winds blow over cold ocean currents the winds acquire cold temperatures and transfer them to the adjacent coastal land
          • Onshore winds blow over warm ocean currents, the winds acquire a warming effect which raises temperatures of the adjacent coast
        2. Altitude (2mks)
          • High altitude areas have lower temperature while low altitude areas have higher temperatures because the atmosphere is heated from below by terrestrial radiation.

      2.  State three characteristics of equatorial climate. (3mks)
        • High annual rainfall of 1500-2250mm throughout the year
        • Double rainfall maxima
        • Experiences heavy convectional rainfall
        • High humidity
        • Relatively low atmospheric pressure
        • High temperature 24-28ºc
        • Low annual temperature range 3-5ºc

    4. With the aid of well labelled diagram, describe the formation of land breeze. (5mks)
      • At night land loses heat faster than sea water
      • Cool dense air over the land creates a high pressure zone.
      • The air over the sea is warm and light at night
      • The air rises and creates a low pressure zone over the sea
      • Cool dense air over the land flows towards the sea to replace the warm rising air
      • This cool air blowing from the land to the sea is called a land breeze.
        GeoMEcp1qa8d
        Text -3mks
        Diagram -2mks
  8.       
    1.           
      1. What is faulting? (2mks)
        • Faulting is cracking or fractioning of crustal rocks due to tectonic forces leading to displacement of rocks on either side.

      2. Name three types of faults. (3mks)
        • Normal faults
        • Reversed faults
        • Shear/tear faults
        • Thrust/over

    2.           
      1. State three effects of faulting on drainage. (3mks)
        • When faulting occurs across a river valley, it may cause the river to disappear into the ground
        • Vertical faulting across a river may form a waterfall on the escarpment
        • Rift valley forms a depression which may be filled by water to form lakes

      2. Briefly describe the formation of a crater by subsidence method. (5mks)
        • Earth movement forms a vent in the rock of the crust
        • Magma reaches the surface through the vent
        • The lava piles up around the vent to form a volcanic cone after series of eruptions.
        • Pressure underground reduces and the magma stops coming out
        • Lava in the vent cools and contracts
        • The lava the subsides into the vent
        • This forms a funnel shaped shallow depression at the top of the volcanic cone called the crater.

    3.       
      1. List three causes of earthquakes. (3mks)
        • Movement of the tectonic plates
        • Movement of magma
        • Gravitational pressureIsostatic adjustment
        • Energy release from the mantle
        • Human activities

      2. Name two major earthquake zones of the world. (2mks)
        • Circum-pacific belt
        • Mid-Atlantic Ocean belt
        • Mediterranean –East indies belt

    4. You intend to carry out field study in the Rift Valley.
      1. Name three methods of data collection you used. (3mks)
        • direct observation
        • taking photographs
        • collection of samples
        • interviewing
        • administering questionnaires

      2. State three problems you are likely to face during the feld study.-
        • harsh weather conditions like sudden rainfall
        • accidents may occur during climbing of the steep mountains
        • attack by wild animals like snakes and insects

  9.            
    1.                    
      1. List three types of desert according to the nature of the surfaces. (3mks)
        • Sandy desert/koum
        • Stony desert/reg/serrir
        • Rocky desert /Hamada
        • Badlands

      2. State two factors that contribute to development of deserts. (2mks)
        • High temperatures leading to high evaporatio
        • Prolonged drought/insufficient rainfall
        • Cold ocean currents on the path of rain bearing onshore winds.
        • Rain shadow effect
        • Long distance from the sea

      3. Highlight three reasons why wind is a dominant agent of erosion in arid areas. (3mks)
        • Scarcity or no vegetation cover which exposes land to wind erosion
        • Strong tropical winds or storms that occur in deserts
        • Presence of dry and loose unconsolidated rock material.

    2.                
      1.  Explain two processes of wind erosion. (4mks)
        • Deflation
        • Dry loose materials like dust and fine sand are scooped and then lifted to the air by wind current
        • Wind abrasion
        • Rock materials carried by wind scour,grind and polish desert rock surfaces

      2. Name three features of wind deposition in arid areas. (3mks)
        • Sand Dunes
        • Loess
        • Draas

    3.             
      1. With the aid of well labelled diagrams describe how a rock pedestal is formed (8mks)
        • A large rock mass with alternating horizontal hard and soft layers stand on the wind path
        • Weathering and wind abrasion erodes faster on the soft layers than on the hard layers
        • Soft layers are eroded inwards forming hollows or grooves while hard layers are left protruding outwards
        • Wind abrasion undercuts more near the ground level forming a thin neck
        • The result is an irregularly shaped rock pillar called a rock pedestal.
          GeoMEcp1qa9ci
          Text -5mks
          Diagram -3mks

      2. Give two ways in which wind transports its load. (2mks)
        • Suspension
        • Saltation
        • Surface creep or rolling

  10.              
    1.           
      1. Name three types of glaciers. (3mks)
        • Cirque/corrie glacier
        • Valley glacier
        • Piedmont glacier
        • Continental glacier

      2. State two reasons why there are no ice sheets in Kenya. (2mks)
        • Kenya experiences high temperatures under which ice-sheets cannot form
        • Most parts of Kenya are lowlands
        • Kenya is found at low latitude region or equatorial area

      3. Explain two processes of glacial erosion (4mks)
        • Plucking/gouging
          • Pressure of overlying mass of ice cause freeze-thaw action at the bottom
          • Melt water enters cracks and joints on the bedrock
          • As water freezes it exerts pressure in the cracking enlarging them
          • Enlargement of the cracking leads to disintegration of the rocks
          • The broken rocks are then frozen with the ice
          • As ice moves it tears out the frozen rocks from the parent rocks a process called plucking
        • Abrasion
          • Rock materials frozen in the moving ice are dragged over the rocky floor and on the rocky sides of the glacial valley
          • The rocks grind and scratch the rocks on the floor and sides of the valley
          • This wears and polishes the rocks on the valley bottom and valley sides
        • Nivation/freeze-thaw action
          • Melt water enters cracks where it freezes and expands due to low temperatures
          • Temperature rises and ice in cracks melt
          • Repeated freezing and thawing cause pressure in cracks
          • The Rocks rot and break.

    2. The diagram below shows types of moraine in a valley glacier. Use it to answer the following questions
      1. Name the type of moraines marked A, B and C. (3mks)
        • A-Lateral moraine
        • B-Medial moraine
        • C-Terminal moraine

      2. Explain how the movement of a valley glacier is influenced by the following factors:
        • Temperature changes (2mks)
          • In summer temperatures are higher and ice melts and move faster
          • In winter temperatures are low hence ice movements is slow due to less melting
        • Width of a glacier channel (2mks)
          • A wide channel results in slow movement of glacier as the ice spreads out to make a thin layer which exerts less
          • pressure hence less melting at the bottom
          • A narrow channel causes faster movement as ice is compressed to form a thick layer with more pressure and more melting at the bottom

    3. With the aid of well labelled diagrams, describe how a cirque is formed (6mks)
      • Snow accumulates in a pre-existing shallow depression on the mountain side
      • Snow gets compacted into ice forming a cirque glacier
      • Alternating freeze-thaw cause rotting and disintegration of rocks aprocess called nivation which deepens the hollow
      • Abrasion deepens the hollow
      • Plucking makes back walls of the depression deeper
      • The result is the formation of a deep steep-sided and arm-chair shaped depression called a cirque
        4mks –text
        2mks -diagram
        GeoMEcp1qa10c

    4. Students from Mumbi girls carried out a field study in a glaciated lowland area .
      1. State two objectives for the study .(2mks)
        • to find out the effects of glaciation in the area
        • to find out the processes through which the features were formed

      2. Name two features they are likely to have observed .(2mks)
        • till
        • drumlins
        • eskers
        • outwash plain 

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