Agriculture Paper 1 Questions and Answers - KCSE 2022 Mock Exams Set 2

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Questions

Instruction to candidates

  • This paper consists of three section A, B, and C
  • Answer all questions in section A and B
  • Answer any two questions in section C
  • Candidate should answer the questions in English

SECTION A (30 MRKS)
Answer all question in this section in the space provided

  1. Differentiate between olericulture and pomoculture as used in crop production .(1mrk)
  2. List the physical weathering agents in soil formation process (1 ½ mrks)
  3. Give four methods of farming (2mrks)
  4. Give two examples for each of the following types of cost incurred in broiler production .
    1. Variable cost ( 2 marks)
    2. fixed cost (2 marks)
  5. Give four advantages of crop rotation .(2mrk)
  6. State four factors that should be considered when classifying crop pest (2mrks)
  7. Give three reasons why a water logged soil is unsuitable for most crops(1 ½ )
  8. Give four advantages of tissue culture (2mrks)
  9. Outline four observable indictors of economic development of a nation (2mrks)
  10. Outline four indicators of well decomposed manure (1 ½mks)
  11. Give two conditions where opportunity cost does not exist (2mrks)
  12. Give four management practice that promote high herbage yields in pasture production (2mrks)
  13. Give three reasons why primary cultivation should be done early before the onset of the rains(1 ½ mrks )
  14. Give two examples of farm records that are general in nature .(1mrk)
  15. Give four roles of nitrogen in plants (2mrks)
  16. Give four benefits of possessing a land title deed (2mrks)

SECTION B (20 MRKS)
Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided

  1. The diagram below illustrates a feature observed after digging the soil several metres deep Study the diagram carefully and answer the question that follow
    Agrcsp1q17
    1. Identify the feature that the diagram above represents in the study of soil (1mrk)
    2. What is the name given to the part labeled p(1mrk)
    3. Give a reason why part b is also referred to as layer of accumulation (1mrk)
    4. State two ways in which the knowledge of the above feature would be of benefit to farmer (2mrks)
  2. The diagram below shows a method of crop propagation .Study it and answer the questions that follow
    Agrcsp1q18
    1. Identify the method (1mrk)
    2. Name two crops that can be propagated using this method.(1mrk)
    3. Give three ingredients used when preparing the tissue culture.(1 ½ )
  3. The following information was obtained from the records of Mr Juma’s farm for the year ended on 31st march 2011
     Particulars  kshs
     Opening Valuation 
    Calves
    Hired Labour
    Sales of milk
    Sales of cereals
    Rent
    Feed
    Seed
    Fertilizers
    Sales of Vegetables
    Sales of poultry
    Sales of fruits
    Pesticides
    Depreciation
    Repair and Maintenance
    Interest on loans
    Closing Valuation
     100,000
    72,000
    21,000
    13,000
    33,000
    9,000
    5,300
    1,700
    4,700
    9,300
    1,800
    700
    1,250
    650
    950
    200
    9,0000

    1. using the information given above , prepare a profit and loss account for Mr Juma’s farm for the year ended 31st March (7mrks)
    2. Giving a reason, State whether Mr. Juma’s farm made a profit or loss ( ½ mark )
  4. The diagram below shows a maize stalk infected by a certain pest. Study it and answer the questions that follow .
    Agrcsp1q20
    1. Indentify the pest (1/2 mk)
    2. Apart from maize, name another crop attacked by the pest named above ( ½ mark)
    3. Give three cultural measures that can be applied to control the pest (3mrks)

SECTION C ( 40MARKS)
Answer any two questions in this section in the spaces provided

  1.      
    1. Describe six advantages of rotational grazing (6mrks)
    2. Explain eight ways in which soil fertility can be maintained (8mrks)
    3. Explain six factors considered when drawing a farm plan (6mrks)
  2.  
    1. Explain the factors that influence the type of irrigation to be used in a farm (8mrks)
    2. Explain six reasons for pruning coffee.(6mrks)
    3. Describe 6 ways in which lab our productivity can be improved on a farm (6mrks)
  3.  
    1. Describe the importance of agro forestry in soil and water conservation (6mks)
    2. Describe the process of silage making (8mks)
    3. Describe the effects of over application of nitrogenous fertilizers (6mks)

Marking Scheme

  1. Difference between olericulture and pomoculture
    • Olericulture –Growing of flowers
    • Pomoculture –growing of fruits
  2. Physical weathering agent
    • Wind
    • Water
    • Temperature changes (1 ½ mrks)
    • Moving ice /glacieir
  3. Methods of farming
    • mixed farming
    • Nomadic pastoralism
    • shifting farming
    • Organic farming
    • agro-forestry
  4. Variable and fixed cost in broiler production
    1. Variable cost
      • cost of the feed
      • cost of drug
    2. Fixed cost
      • cost of feeders and waterers
      • Cost of structure/Depreciation of poultry house
      • Cost of chicks
  5. Advantages of crop rotation (2mrks)
    • Improve soil structure
    • Control soil borne pest and diseases
    • Ensure maximum utilization of farm labour (2mrks)
    • Aids in weed control
    • Improve soil erosion
    • Security in case of failure on one crop
    • Add nitrogen through N-fixation by Rhizobium bacterial when legume are included
  6. Factors considered when classifying crop pests
    • crop attacked /mode of felling
    • whether field /storage pest/stage of attack (2mrks)
    • Crop part attacked
    • science classification e.g. insect mite, rodent
  7. Reasons why water logged oil is unsuitable for most crops ( 1 ½ marks)
    • It is not aerated (as water expels air)
    • It lacks micro-organism
    • It is always acidic
    • Low temperature
  8. Advantage of tissue culture (2mrks)
    • Used to establish pathogen free plant
    • Used in mass production of propagules
    • It is fast and require less space than use of cutting
    • Used to propagate plants that don’t produce seeds
  9. Observable indicators of economic development of a nation (2mrks)
    • Development of infrastructure
    • Housing status of the citizen
    • Increase in recreation facilities
    • Ratio of teachers to students
    • Improvement in the level of technology
    • Number of patients per doctor
      (more illustration )
  10. Three indictors of well decomposed manure (1 ½ mrk)
    • Absence of bad odour
    • Material are light in weight
    • Manure is blown in colour
  11. Condition where opportunity cost does not exist (2mrks)
    • where there are no alternatives
    • If anything is given for free
  12. Management practices that promote high herbage yield in pasture production (2mrks)
    • Top dressing
    • Reseeding
    • Topping
    • Pest control
    • controlled grazing
  13. Reasons why primary cultivation should be done early before the onset of the rains. (1 ½ marks)
    • Give time for the soil organism to act on organic mater
    • Allow gaseous exchange to take place thus carbon dioxide diffuses out of the soil .
    • Allows other operations to take place in time .
  14. Two examples of farm records that are general in nature (1mrk)
    • Production records
    • inventory
    • field operation records
    • Breeding records
    • Feeding records
    • Heath record
    • Marketing record
    • Labour record
  15. Roles of nitrogen in plants (2mrks)
    • vegetative growth
    • Chlorophyll formation
    • Build up of protoplasm
    • Improves leaf quantity in leaf crops such as tea and cabbage
  16. Benefits of possessing a land title deed to farmer .(2mrks)
    • Can be used as security for credit
    • Encourage long term investments
    • Reduce land disputes
    • Motivates the farmer to conserve soil and water
  17. The diagram below illustrates a feature observed after digging the soil several metres Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow.
    1. Soil profile(1mrk)
    2. Transitional zone (1mrk)
    3. Because sometimes minerals are leached from the soil and accumulate in the layer b (1mrk)
    4. Ways in which the knowledge of the above feature would be of benefit to a farmer(2mrks)
      • Decides what crop to grow
      • How best to cultivate the land
  18.     
    1. Tissue culture
    2. Banana & passion fruits
    3. Three ingredients used when preparing tissue culture
      • Sugar (1 ½ mrks)
      • inorganic minerals
      • Vitamins
  19.   
    1. Profit and loss account for Mr Juma ‘s farm for the year ended on 31st March 2015√
       Purchase and expense ℓ  ksh  Sales and receipts ℓ  Ksh ℓ
       Opening valuation  100,000  Sales of milk  13,000
       Calves  72,000  Sales of cereals  33,000
       Hired labour  21,000  Sales of vegetable  9,300
       Rent  9,000  Sales of poultry  1,800 √ ℓ
       Feed  5,300 √ℓ    
       Seed  1,700  Sales of fruits  700
       Fertilizer  4,700    
      Pesticides 1,250  Closing valuation 90,000
      Depreciation 650    
      Repair and maintenances 950    
      Interest on loans 200    
      Total 216,750 ℓ Total 147,800
          B/F/loss 68950
          Total 216,750
      NB √ℓ = 1 ½ marks (entries) = 3
      ℓ = ½ x 8 = = 4
    2. loss ( ½ mark) 7 marks
  20.  
    1. Maize stalk borer(1/2 mark)
    2.    
      • millet(1/2mrk)
      • Sorghum
      • sugarcane
    3. crop rotation (3mrks)
      • early planting
      • Rogueing
      • clean seedbed
      • planting clean seeds
      • trap cropping
      • proper nutrition
      • proper spacing
      • timely planting
  21.   
    1. Six advantages of rotational grazing (6mrks)
      • The livestock make maximum efficient use of pasture.
      • it reduces the buildup of pest and diseases.
      • animals waste is distributed evenly in all paddock or field
      • Excess pasture can be harvested and conserved
      • It is possible to apply fertilizers and control weeds , pest and diseases in the pasture that are not in use
      • It allows a resting period for the pasture to regenerate before been grazed on again (6mrks)
    2. Eighty ways in which soil fertility can be maintained. (8mrk)
      • adding manure to the soil to enrich it with nutrients.
      • using inorganic fertilizers which releases nutrients in forms that are readily available to plants.
      • practicing crop rotational to ensure balanced nutrients use.
      • using appropriate tillage, for instance minimum tillage.
      • regulating soil ph though liming
      • controlling soil erosion
      • practicing a forestation and reforestation
      • By irrigation which increases availability and uptake of plant nutrients and reclaims saline soil
      • through mulching
      • By weeding to reduce competition for nutrients.
      • By practicing inter cropping preferably with legume to enhance nitrogen fixation.
    3. Six factors considered when drawing a farm plan. (6mrks)
      • size of the land
      • environment factors
      • the current trend in labour market
      • farmers objectives and preference
      • possible production enterprises
      • existing market condition and price trends
      • availability and cost of farm inputs
      • government regulation /policy
      • security
      • communication and transport facilities (6mrks)
  22.         
    1. Factors that influences the type of irrigation to be used in a farm (8mrks)
      • topography
      • Soil type
      • type of crop to be irrigated
      • amount of water available
      • distance of the source of water to the field
      • capital available, skill available
      • climate factors of the area
    2. Six reasons for pruning coffee (6mrks)
      • To train the plant so that it can have the required shape
      • To remove the diseased and the unwanted parts of a plant such as extra suckers ,leaves ,branches ,flowers or even stems
      • To control cropping
      • To facilitate picking to ease penetration of the s pray
      • To control pest and diseases.
    3. 6 ways in which lab our productivity can be improved on a farm (6mrks)
      • Training the lab our force
      • Efficiency supervision of lab our
      • Mechanizing farm operation or providing more efficiencies tool and equipment.
      • Giving incentive such as proper housing, transport, bonuses and medical services.
      • Proper regulation of the workers
      • assigning task to workers according to their skills, ability and interest.
  23.         
    1. Importance of agro forestry in soil and water conservation (6mrks)
      • Improve soil fertility though nitrogen fixation
      • add organic matter to the soil which increases water infiltration
      • Acts as wind break preventing wind erosion
      • Provide shade to crop reducing evapotraspiration
      • Trees intercept the rain drop reducing erosion rate
      • Tree roots hold soil particle preventing their movement
    2. Procedure of silage making
      • Prepare silo before harvesting the crops
      • Harvest crop at appropriate size
      • Wilt the crop for 6-12hours
      • fill the silo with crop compacting every 10-12 layer
      • Check the temperature regularly to ensure correct ensiling temperature
      • Cover the ensiled material with polythene paper
      • Cover the silo with thick layer of the soil to maintain a ridge/hump to prevent rain water entering the silo
      • Dig a trench all around the silo to drain water away to rain water /seepage.
    3. Effects of over application of nitrogenous fertilizer
      • Occurrence of blossom and rot diseases
      • Delayed maturity of plants
      • Fruits crack when young .
      • Grow more vegetative parts and produces less fruits
      • Scorching effective on leaves

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