Importance of agriculture to kenya’s economy
- Source of food
- Source of employment
- Provision of foreign exchange
- Source of raw materials for industry
- Provision of market for industrial goods
- Source of money or capital 6x1= 6mks
Agriculture as an art entails
- Tilling of the land
- Construction of farm structures
- Measuring distance
- Harvesting of crops
- Feeding and handling animals
- Marketing of agricultural produce 2x1 = 2mks
- Agriculture is defined as the art and science of crop and livestock production. 1x2 = 2mks
- Importance of agriculture to kenya’s economy
Branches of agriculture
- Crop production
- Livestock production
- Soil science
- Agricultural economics and engineering 4 x ½ = 2mks
Factors determining the system of farming
- Resources available
- Skills and knowledge of the farmer
- Environmental factors
- Government policy
- Farmer’s choice and preference
- Enterprise requirement and enterprise itself. 4x1 = 4mks
- Branches of agriculture
Characteristic of shifting cultivation
- It requires abundance of arable land for farming
- Limited capital investment/simple hand tools are commonly used.
- There is poor land management leading to low agriculture output.
- It is mostly practiced where there is no individual land ownership 3x1= 3mks
Floriculutre-is the growing of vegetable
Pomoculture – is the growing of fruits 2x1 = 2mks
Horticultural crop- these are perishable crops which have gained a lot of popularity in Kenya in recent years.
Olericulture- this is the growing of vegetables e.g French beans. 2x1 = 2mks
Aquaculuture- is the rearing of fish in a fish pond.
Apiculture- is the rearing of bees in structures. 2x1 = 2mks
Agricultural engineering- this a branch of agriculture dealing with the use and maintenance of farm tools, machinery and structure
Agricultural economics- this is a branch of agriculture which deals with the utilization of scarce resources. 2x1 = 2mks
- Floriculutre-is the growing of vegetable
- Characteristic of shifting cultivation
Problems facing Agriculture production
- Poor tools and equipment
- PCH and diescates
- Land tenure
- Fluctuation of commodity prices
- Poor storage
- Poor infrastructure.
Ways in which Agriculture contributes to industrial development.
- Provides raw materials to agro-based industries
- provides a market for industrial good
- acts as a source of capital
- acts as a source of foreign exchange. 4 x ½ = 2mks
- organic matter
- living things
- mineral elements. 5x1= 5mkS
- Problems facing Agriculture production
- This is the growing of crops and rearing of animals without using agricultural chemicals.
Importance of organic farming
- its environmental friendly
- It is cheap
- Improves the soil structure
- Improves the water-holdings capacity.
- Crop products are free from contamination. 3x1 = 3mks
- Organic Farming
Practices that can facilitate achievement of organic farming
- Crop Rotation
- Cover cropping
- Observing a close season. 3x1 = 3mks
Effects of high temperature on crop production.
- Improves the quality of some crop products
- High level of microbial activity
- Increases biochemical within a plant hence improves growth rate.
- Improves chemical reaction in the soil. 4x1/2=2mks
Why ranching is regarded as a form of advanced pastoral-nomadism.
- water is provided aft specific watering points.
- Animals are confined through fencing mating is controlled
- There is supplementary feeding
- Control of parasite and diseases is done.
- There is controlled grazing, thus minimizing erosions. 6x ½ = 3mks
- DifferenCe between Extensive and intensive farming
- Intensive farming this system utilized the factors of production to the maximum and involves high level of management.
- Extensive farming . Is a system where a large piece of land with low investment of resources per unit area is carried out 1x2= 2mks
- Practices that can facilitate achievement of organic farming
- This is the method of growing crops and certain tree of animals on the same piece of land. 2x1= 2mks
Advantages of Agro-forestry
- The tree provides a good ground cover thus reducing soil erosion by minimizing the impact of rain drops .
- Tree, roots bind soil particles together providing resistance to erosion.
- Some trees like calliandra spp and luceancca spp act as livestock fodder.
- The trees one used as sources of fuel and building material.
- Legmminolous tree e.g help in the fixation of nitrogen in the soil 4 x ½ = 2
Why mixed farming can be termed as a method of diversification
- Because more than one enterprise i.e. livestock and crops are produced. 1x1 = 1mk
Advantages of shifting cultivation.
- Reduces the build up of pests and diseases.
- No purchase of pesticides and fertilizer hence reduced production cost.
- Helps to reduce land disputes
- Helps to control parasitic weeds
- Plants benefits from readily available. 4x 1/2 = 2mks
Characteristic of Extensive farming
- Large scale farms
- Low capital investment
- Low labour per unit area
- Low yields per unit area. 3x1= 3mks
Two Latin words from where the term “Agriculture” is derived
- Agene – which means field
- cullrira – which means cullivation. 2x1= 2mks
- Advantages of shifting cultivation.
Effects of HIV/AIDS on agriculture.
- Shortage of farm labour
- Loss of family support
- Low living standards leading to despondency and hopelessness.
- More time spent by the Government and NGO’s in carrying for the sick. 2x1=2
Importance of soil to plants.
- Contains the nutrients and water required for plants.
- Provides a good habitat to useful soil organisms.
- Provides a good habital to useful soil organism
- Provide support/anchorage to plants contains organic matter that acts as food for useful soil organisms. 2x1= 2mks
Human factors that influence agriculture
- Level of education and technology
- Health and HIV/AIDs
- Government policy
- Cultural practices and religious beliefs
- Market force. 6x1= 6mks
- Effects of HIV/AIDS on agriculture.
Disadvantages of pastoral nomadism system of farming
- It encourages the spread of livestock pest and diseases
- There is a tendency to increased soil erosion and land degradation.
- Difficult to control breeding and breeding diseases.
- Low production of milk meat hides and skin.
- High death rate as a result of walking for long distance. 2x1= 2mk
Environmental factors that affect crop distribution in Kenya.
- preventing winds
- soil types
- rainfall. 3x1 = 3
Aspects of rainfall that affects agriculture
- Rainfall intensity
- amount 4x1=4
- Disadvantages of pastoral nomadism system of farming
Causes of hard pan in a crop yields
- Ploughing at the same depth season after season.
- Use of heavy machinery on wet soil. 2 x1=2
Processes of rock weathering
- Physical weathering
- Chemical 2x1=2
Aspects of light that influence crop growth
- Light intensity
- light wave length
- light duration 2 x ½ = 1
- Causes of hard pan in a crop yields
SECTION B (10MKS
- A - Superficial layer
- B - Top soil
- C - Sub soil
- D - Weathered rocks
- E - Parent rock. 5x1=5mks
Soil profile is the vertical arrangement of various soil layers or horizons. 1x2= 2mks
- sub soil 1x1= 1mk
Characteristics of top soil (B)
- Has a dark colour due to the presence of humus.
- Is rich in plant nutrients and well aerated
- It is a zone of maximum leaching (zone of eluviation) 2x1= 2mks
- Soil profile