GEOGRAPHY Marking Scheme - Form 1 End of Term 1 2019 Examinations

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  1. Geography refers to the study of the distribution of physical and human features of the earth and their interrelationships.
    1. Branches of Geography
      • Physical Geography
      • Human & Economics
      • Practical Economics
    2. Physical – Internal conforming

      • Earthquakes
      • Vulcanicity
      • Folding
      • Faulting
      • External Land farming

        Processes- Action of water
      • Action of wind
      •  Hydrology
      • Hydrological cycle
      • Weather and Climate
      • Vegetation

        Human – Population and settlement
      • Industry
      • Transport
      • Fishing
      • Forestry

      • Map work
      • Photograph work
      • Statistics
      • Field work
  1. Importance of Geography
    • It is a career subject
    • It creates regional and international awareness.
    • It provides knowledge needed for planning infrastructures
    • It helps to appreciate of other peoples culture.
    • It helps learners to appreciate and have a positive attitude towards the natural environment.
    1. Geography and Mathematics
      • Geography uses Mathematical knowledge formula in working out the area, estimating distances and drawing geographical graphs for easier interpretation.
    2. Geography and Biology
      • Geography explains the distribution of living organisms based on the factors which favour their survival.
    1. Meaning of Solar System
      • It refers to the sun, the planets and the other heavenly bodies found between them.
    2. Scientific theories
      • Nebular cloud theory
      • Passing star theory
    1. Types of earth movement
      • Earth’s Rotation
      • Earth’s Revolution
    2. Shape of the earth
      • It is an oblate spheroid known as a geoid with flattened poles and elongated around the equator
    3. State the effects of the:-
      1. Earth’s Rotation                                                                                                               (3mks
        • It causes occurrence of day and night
        • It causes periodic rise and fall of Ocean tides
        • It causes variation of atmospheric pressure on the earth’s surface.
        • It causes a time difference between longitudes.
        • It causes deflection of winds and Ocean currents.
      2. Earth’s Revolution                                                                                                         (3mks)
        • It causes the four seasons
        • It causes  varying length of day and night at different latitudes
        • It causes change in the position of overhead midday sun at different latitudes.
        • It causes the lunar eclipse
    1. Parts
      A         –          Hydrosphere
      B         -           Lower crust /Sima/Oceanic crust
      C         -           Moho/ Mohorovicic
      D         -           Lower mantle
    2. Reasons why E is hot
      • Retained head during formation
      • Radioactivity
      • Pressure exerted by the everlying layers
    1. Define weather                                                                                                      (2mks)
      • It refers to the atmospheric condition of a place at a particular time.
      1. Apart from temperature and rainfall give four other weather elements         (4mks)
        • Rainfall
        • Wind
        • Cloud cover
        • Humidity
        • Sunshine
        • Atmospheric pressure
      2. Identify three factors which influence temperature                                        (3mks)
        • Altitude             
        • Ocean currents 
        • winds and air 
        • Aspects             
        • Length of day
        • cloud cover
      3. with the help of a diagrams, describe how relief rainfall is formed (8mks)
        relief rainfall
        • A large water body is intensely heated by solar radiation causing warm moist air to evaporate, then forced to rise a mountain side.
        • Prevailing winds pick the warm moist air.
        • On reaching a mountain barrier, the warm moist air is mechanically forced up the mountain    
        • As the warm moist air rises, it expands and cool.
        • On reaching dew point, it condenses to form clouds.
        • When clouds became saturated, they fail down as relief rainfall on the wind ward side.
        • Cold dry air descend on the leeward side of the mountain.
      1. What is a weather station?                                                                                  (2mks
        • It refers to a place where weather recording instrument are kept to observe, measure and record weather etc.
      2. State three factors considered when siting a weather station             (4mks)
        • The site should have an open space
        • The land should be gently sloping
        • The area should have a wide view of the surrounding and the sky
        • The place should be secure
      1. What is a Stevenson Screen?                                                                               (2mks)
        • It is a white wooden box mounted on four metallic legs and kept in a weather station and is used for safe keeping of delicate weather instruments.
      2. Give two weather instruments kept in a Stevenson screen
        • Maximum thermometer
        • Minimum thermometer
        • Wet bulb thermometer
        • Dry bulb thermometer
    2. Give reasons why the Sterenson screen has the following characteristics
      1. Painted White                                                                                                      (1mk)
        • To reflect heat
      2. Louvered sides                                                                                                    (1mk)
        • To allow air circulation
      3. Double roofing                                                                                                   (1mk)
        • To prevent direct sun’s rays from reading the inside
      4. Placed 121cm above the ground level                                                              (1mk)
        • To prevent the effect of terrestrial radiation
        • To ensure air circulation beneath the screen inorder to give air temperature reading
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