Meaning Of State, Kingdom And Empire

A territory is considered as an organised political community under one government
An extensive group of semi autonomous states ruled by one ruler
A state or territory ruled by a king or queen

The Ancient Egypt

Factors that led to growth of Ancient Egypt Civilization

  1. Presence of river nile
    It the annual flood of river nile and the use of shadoof method of irrigation boosted agriculture
  2. Early technology
    It ushered in the bronze stage where copper and tin were used to make simple tools such as chisels and needles
    Artisans also made pots for storage and cookery purposes using potter’s wheel
  3. Population
    High population in Ancient Egypt provided ready manpower and market
  4. Strong military and leadership
    They ensured growth of the kingdom through conquests and assimilation of conquered neighbours into the empire
  5. Use of hieroglyphic
    The formal writing helped keep reliable and accurate records in religion, government and history
  6. Use of the calendar
    Tracking of days and monitoring events such as annual flooding of the nile, planting and harvesting period
  7. Specialised workers
    They worked in various institutions. They helped in keeping recods in the Egyptian empire.
    They recorded harvest, finances and history

The Great Zimbabwe

Great Zimbabwe was a city near Masvingo in the central part of the modern day Zimabwe, Mozambique and Botstwana.
It existed between 1000BC to 1500BC
Zimbabwe is a shone word meaning “stone houses”
Great Zimbabwe had a centralized government with hereditary kings. This system of government led to the rise and growth of the kingdom

Factors that led to the growth of the Great Zimbabwe civilization

  1. Strong agricultural economy
  2. Existence of several minerals deposits such as gold, copper
  3. Trade
  4. Strong leadership
  5. Acquisition of firearms in exchange of goods
  6. Strong army
  7. Religious beliefs brought them together

The Kingdom Of Kongo

Factors that led to the growth of kingdom of Kongo

  1. Strategic location of the kingdom
  2. Favourable climate and the kingdom its closeness to congo river which supported agriculture throughout the year
  3. Arrival of Portuguese
  4. Religion
  5. Trade
  6. Christianity

Locating ancient kingdoms on a map of Africa

Pupil’s activity
Page 77-78

Contributions Of Early African Civilisation To The Modern World

  • Modern civilisation owes ts current development to the ancient civilization.
  • Ancient Egypt was the beginning of building designs and construction of permanent buildings we have today.
  • The hieroglyphics form of writing in Egypt used to keep records developed into the modern writing and education
  • The knowledge of planning and prediction of seasons based on calendar started in the early civilisation. Today it is has been developed further to include weather forecasting in predicting accurate changes.
  • The industrial development in the ancient kingdoms was based on simple skill. Copper and tin were used in ancient Egypt to make items. Today most of the industries use metals and alloys to make construction and infrastructural equipment.
  • The modern irrigation technology barrows a lot from the ancient irrigation techniques such as shadoof. This has been applied in the agricultural sector
  • Tools such as jembes/hoes used in farming today were developed in the ancient civilisation
  • The political structure of modern government resembles the early civilisation goverment

Social Organisation Of Selected African Communities Up To 1900

Locating areas by the Ogiek, Zulu and Asante communities in Africa


Social Organisation Of The Ogiek Community Up To 1900

Ogiek are southern nilotic speakers
Most of them live in the county of nakuru, mau and mt elgon forests

  • Family was the basic unit among the ogiek community
  • The lineage was responsible for enforcing traditional law and order
  • Father was head of the family
  • The ogiek were polygamous
  • There was division of labour among the ogiek community
    Men provide for the family needs, provide leadership and security
    Women worked in homestead, bear children and do household chores
    Children helped with household chores, cultivating in farms and artisanship
  • The ogiek were a patriarchal society- men owned property and passed it to their sons
  • The ogiek believed in one supreme being called Tororet
  • They believed also in the existence of ancestral spirits called Oiik
  • They had diviners who could foretell the future using supernatural powers
  • Both boys and girls were initiated
    Boys ceremony was called tumdo op went
    Girls ceremony was called tumbo op tiipik
  • Intiated boys of the same age group sets known as ipinda
  • The ogiek used plants and herbs from forest for treating diseases

Social Organisation Of The Zulu Community Up To 1900

Zulu are Ngni people, bantu speaking
They occupy Kwazulu natal province in South africa
In the Ngumi languages izulu means heaven or weather
The zulu clans referred to as the isizwe
The zulu society was organised into parilineal sibs. The sibs were further divide into lineages which were composed of descendants of a common ancestor
Most households comprised extended families who lived in one household called kraal
Men inherited everything. Inheritance was patrilineal
The zulu people were polygamous. Men married many wives and lived with them with the extended family in the kraal.
Men paid dowry in terms of cows and gifts during the weeding day umabo
The zulu community believed in Umhlanga or reeds dance ceremony
Beadwork was a prominent wttire that worn at the Umahlanga
Beadworks was a sign of communication
It also symbolised wealth status of a person
Zulu believed in one God called uNkulunkulu
The controlled day to day human life of the Zulu community
The zulu had traditional mediceine men who treated the sick

Social Organisation Of The Asante Community Up To 1900

Asante are Akan speaking people
They live in the central part of the Modern day Ghana
Are organsised into clans whch is headed by a chief
Each clan speaks its own dialect of the Aken language
They believe in one supreme creator called Nyame
Ancestors were believed to connect people to Nyame
Asante empire leader was called Asatehene
He also acted as a spiritual leader
Omamhene and chiefs were all religious leaders who presided over religious ceremonies
Golden stool was th symbol of national unity in the Aasnte empire
It symboised ones and authority from the Asantehene
It was based in Kumasi, the capital of Asant empire
Odwira festival was an annual ceremony
They believed in the spirits of the departed rulers
Asante were socially stratified into 5 main divions
1st division – king and those close to the king
- Lived in the capital of Kumasi
- Were wealthy and lived in luxury
2nd division – consisted of the chiefs and top officials who assisted the king in enforcing law and order
3rd division – those who had acquired a lot of wealth hence respect in the society
4th division – comprised of ordinary farmers, traders and fishermen
5th division – the lowest class was for the slaves
Asante families were extebded and matrilineal – mother’s brother was the legal guardian of her children
Asante were experts in form of decoration, logos, arts, sculture and pottery
These were known as Adinkra symbols

Comparing the social organisation of thr Ogiek, Zulu, and Asante community up to 1900

 Aspect of social organisation   The Ogiek   The Zulu   The Asante 
 Marriage  Polygamous   Polygamous   
 Art and Clothing      
 Family set up      
 Name of their God  Tororet  believed in one God called uNkulunkulu  supreme creator called Nyame 
 Inheritance   The ogiek were a patriarchal society- men owned property and passed it to their son  Men inherited everything. Inheritance was patrilineal  
 Circumcision  Both boys and girls were initiated    

Human Diversity And Inclusion

Personality Attributes Which Make Individuals Different From Others

Personality attributes are qualities or characteristics that differentiate the character, action and attitude of a person from one another

 Personality attribute    Description 
 Openness to experience   


Desirable and undesirable personality attributes in a multicultural society

Peace and Conflict Resolution

A state of calmness when there is no war
Conflict resolution
This is the process or act of solving or settling a disagreement.

Peace and conflict for personal well being


Human Origin

Traditional Stories On Human Origin

This is an attempt by communities of people to explain their origin.
It is given through Oral Traditions, myths and legends.
It mainly states that the first people were created by God

  1. Kikuyu community
    According to the Agikuyu, God (Ngai) appeared and created their ancestors (Gikuyu and Mumbi) at Mukurwe Wa Gathanga near present day Muranga
    Gikuyu and Mumbi gave birth to 9 daughters who later formed the nine class
  2. Bukusu
    The bukusu of wetern Kenya belives that the fist man was called Mwambu.
    He was made from mud by WELE KHAKABA (God the creator) at a place called Mumbo which means west.
    God created a wife for him. Mwambu and his wife moved from Mumbo to the foothills of Mt. Masaba-mt elgon- where their descendants grew in numbers to become the Abaluhya community
  3. Maasai
    Once upon a time Enkai (God) owned all the cattle in the world. One day he opened the sky and replaced all the cattle he owned from heaven to earth using a long rope.
    Enkai created 3 communities on earth
    The Torrobo(also the Ogiek) , the gikuyu whom God bless with seed and grain and the Maasai whom God blessed with all the cattle of the world
  4. Akamba community
    The akamba community believes that God was called Mulungu. He created the first man MUNDU and woman KIVETI.
    They were then placed on top of Nzaui Hill in makueni.
    He blessed them with children and livestock
  5. Nandi community
    According to the Nandi, the first two people came from the knees of a giant man, which began to swell until they burst. A man came from one knee and a woman from the other. These became the ancestors of the Nandi-speaking people of Kenya. This is an example of myths in certain communities that do not directly refer to God‟s creation.

Religious Stories On Human Origin

This presents man and everything else as having been created by God.
It is contained mainly in

  1. The Bible (used by Christians)
    God created the heaven and earth according to Genesis chapter 2
  2. The Quran (used by Muslims).
    Islam believes that all living and non living things were created by Allah
  3. Hindu
    The universe was created by Brahma. He is regarded as the hindu god of creation

Factors Proving That Africa Is The Cradle Of Humankind

  • African Savannas were ideal for primates.
  • The moist, warm and varied climate supported animal and plant life.
  • Archaeological sites were discovered in the Great Lakes region of eastern Africa and along the Great Rift Valley. This confirms that hominids were living in this region by the time the rift valley was being formed.
  • The earliest apes and various animals may have first lived around what is now Lake Victoria and the rift valley, then some went northwards into Europe and Asia. This was because, at that time, areas along the Equator (especially central and west Africa) were covered in thick forest. Around the Great lakes of East Africa was the Savannah (grassland with scattered trees and bushes). It was in this environment that man had his first home.
  • Due to earth quakes and volcanic eruptions during the formation of the great rift valley, allot of dust was brought up, which covered places where hominids had left their weapons, tools, their own bones, and those of other animals. These became archaeological sites in east Africa
  • Remains found in Africa especially Eastern Africa are evidence that Africa is the cradle of mankind.


Evolution is a natural process of gradual and continuous change of living organisms from a lower (simpler) state to a better-adapted (complex) and superior one.
Archaeological site or prehistoric site
Is a place where human remains were found
Are scientists who excavated the human remains for study
Human remains

Stages Of Man’s Evolution

  1. Ramapithecus also called kenyapithecus
    The 15-12 million year-old remains of Ramapithecus were found by Mary and Louis Leakey at Fort Ternan near kericho and also at Samburu hills and in the Lakes Turkana and Baringo basins. Ramapithecus and other manlike creatures were also discovered in Europe, India and China.
    Characteristics of Ramapithecus
    • He was manlike.
    • He had small canines.
    • He was quadrapedal (he moved on his four limbs), though he occasionally walked on two legs
  2. Australopithecus/southern ape/zinjathropus
    Remains of Australopithecus were found at Taung in Botswana in 1924 by Raymond Dart, at Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania by Mary Leakey in 1959 and throughout eastern Africa e.g. regions around Lake Natron in Tanzania, Lake Turkana in Kenya and Omo River valley in Ethiopia.
    Characteristics of Australopithecus
    • He was the earliest most manlike hominid.
    • He had a pelvis and leg that were similar to modern man‟s.
    • He was bipedal (walked on two limbs).
    • Could defend themselves.
    • Could attack their enemies.
    • Could see or sense impending danger from a distance.
    • Could grasp objects with ease.
    • May have been hairy, short and strong.
    • Had a large face and low forehead.
    • Had stereoscopic vision.
    • Had much larger teeth, skull and jaws.
    • His brain was smaller than modern man‟s, but larger than that of the most intelligent ape: the Gorilla.
  3. Homo habilis (Practical man).
    This was the first species of the genus Homo. His two and a half to one and a half million- year old remains were found at Olduvai Gorge by Jonathan Leakey in 1964, Hadar and Omo River valley in Ethiopia and Koobi-For a in the lake Turkana area in 1972.
    Characteristics of Homohabilis
    • He was five feet tall.
    • He had a skull similar to modern man‟s in shape.
    • He was omnivorous.
    • He could grasp objects.
    • He made and used tools.
  4. HOMOERECTUS (upright man).
    Homoerectus lived between two million to two hundred thousand years ago.
    • He was five and a half feet tall.
    • He was bipedal (walked on two legs).
    • He made and used tools, such as hand-axes, crude spears and arrowheads from stone, bone and wood.
  5. Homo sapiens (Thinking/Intelligent man).
    Homo sapien appeared between two hundred thousand and a hundred and fifty thousand years ago.
    Characteristics of Homosapien
    • He was under six feet tall
    • He had small teeth.
    • He had a steep and well-rounded forehead.
    • He had long straight legs.
    • He made a variety of more refined tools i.e. microliths.
    • He was a fisherman and hunter-gatherer.
    • He domesticated plants and animals.
    • Remains of Homosapien were found at:
      • Eliye springs near Lake Turkana,
      • Kanjera and Kanam in Kenya,
      • Bodo and Omo river valley in Ethiopia,
      • Ngaloba in Tanzania.


Weather is the daily atmospheric conditions of a place at a particular time.

Elements Of Weather

  1. Temperature
    • Measure or degree of hotness or coldness of a place
  2. Humidity
    • The amount of water vapour or moisture in the atmosphere
  3. Precipitation
    • All forms of moisture which fall from the atmosphere to the earth’s surface
    • Rainfall is a form of precipitation formed from clouds that in form of water droplets
  4. Atmospheric pressure
  5. Wind
    • Moving air on the surface of the earth
  6. Sunshine
    • Direct rays of sunlight on the surface of the earth
  7. Cloud cover
    • Mass of tiny droplets of water or ice formed through condensation

Analysis and interpretation of weather conditions

Diurnal/daily Temperature range
-Difference between the maximum and minimum temperature for any one day.

Mean Daily Temperature
-Average of the maximum and the minimum daily temperatures.

Mean Monthly temperature
-Sum of mean daily temperatures in a month divided by the number of days in that month.

Mean Monthly minimum Temperature
-Sum of daily minimum temperatures divided by the number of days in that month.

Mean Monthly Maximum Temperature
-Sum of daily maximum temperatures divided by the number of days in that month.

Mean Annual Temperature
-Sum of mean monthly temperatures divided by 12.

Mean Annual Temperature Range
-Difference between the highest and the lowest mean monthly temperatures in a year.

Monthly Rainfall Total
-Sum of rainfall recorded in a month.

Annual Rainfall Total
-Sum of monthly rainfall totals for 12 months.

Mean Monthly Rainfall
-Sum of rainfall totals for a particular month over several years divided by the number of the years of observation.

Mean Annual Rainfall
-Sum of mean monthly rainfall for 12 months of the year.

Factors To Consider When Siting A Weather Station

Weather Station

  • A place where observation, measuring and recording of weather elements is done

Factors to Be Taken Into Account When Sitting a Weather Station

  1. Open space
    • An open place where there is little obstruction of weather elements.
  2. Accessible place
    • Accessible place so that recording can be done easily.
  3. Gently sloping land
    • A fairly level or gently sloping ground (5◦) so that it’s easy to position weather instruments.
  4. Security
    • The place should have security
  5. The place should provide a wide view of the surrounding landscape and the sky.
  6. The site should be free from flooding.

Constructing Selected Instruments For Measuring Elements Of Weather

Instruments for Measuring Elements of Weather

  1. Thermometer- measures temperature
  2. Hygrometer- measures humidity
  3. Rain gauge-measures rainfall
  4. Barometer-measures air pressure
  5. Sunshine recorder-measures sunshine duration and intensity
  6. Wind vane –measures wind direction
  7. Anemometer-measures wind speed
  1. Constructing a wind stock
    PAGE 52
    Materials needed
    1. A paper cup
    2. Clay and plasticine
    3. A pin
    4. Drinking straw
    5. Marker pen
    6. A white circular cardboard
    7. Square and triangular paper cuttings
    8. A pencil with a rubber head
  2. Constructing a rain gauge
    PAGE 53
    Materials needed
    1. A 2-litre plastic bottle
    2. Ruler
    3. A ballpoint pen
    4. Masking tape
    5. A scalpel or pair of scissors
  3. Constructing a Windsock
    PAGE 53-54
    Materials needed
    1. Cylindrical bag
    2. String
    3. A scalpel
    4. Water paints
    5. An empty plastic fat/magarine tin
    6. Masking tape or cellotape
    7. A pole with a pointed end
    8. Painting brushes or chewed sticks

Significance of weather to human

  1. Helps us to be aware of natural calamities related to weather before they occur so as to take precautionary measures.
  2. Guiding tourists on when to visit national parks.
  3. Helps farmers to plan their activities such as planting, harvesting, etc.
  4. Ensures air and water transport is carried out safely.
  5. Helps sporting people to plan their training and competition schedules.
  6. Helps people to plan many other activities such as mining, electricity generation, holiday events, etc.
  7. Helps fishing communities to plan their activities


Historical Information

Sources of historical information in the society

  1. Monuments
  2. Caves
  3. Historical pictures
  4. Folk songs
  5. Old coins
  6. Recorded folk stories
  7. Archaeological sites
  8. Textbooks
  9. Articles
  10. Myths
  11. Artefacts,
  12. Fossils

Primary and secondary sources of information

Primary source is historical information that are created during the time period studied or were created at a later age by participant in even being practised
Secondary source is historical information that interprets or analyses a historical phenomenon

 Primary sources of historical information    Secondary sources of historical information 

Ways of preserving historical information

Significance of historical information in providing evidence of past accounts

 Sources of historical information   Significance of sources of information   How did it provide evidence of past accounts 
 Primary source  Provide cultural values of the society  They are preserved in museums and cultural centres for   viewing
 Secondary Sources  Provide knowledge to students of history  They are stocked in libraries and archives



The Earth And The Solar System

Solar system is the group of heavenly bodies comprising the sun and the planets.

The Origin Of The Solar System

  1. The passing star theory
    A star with a greater gravitational pull passed near the sun
    It attracted large quantities of gaseous materials from the sun
    The materials split, cooled and condensed to form planets
    The planets were set in orbit by the passing star
  2. The nebula cloud theory
    There was a slowly rotating cloud of dust and gas called Nebula
    It cooled and began to contact
    Rotation speed increased and successive rings of gaseous materials were formed.
    The rings condensed to form planets
    The central gaseous material remained as the sun

Size of the earth

Equatorial diameter-12756km
Equatorial circumference-40085km
Polar diameter-39995km
Surface area of the earth-510×106 km2
Water surface - 73%.

Nearest from the sun
Its 58m km from the sun
Has no satellites
Takes approximately 88 earth days to revolve around the sun

2nd planet from the sun
It’s 108m km from the sun
One of the brightest planets
Can be seen clearly with naked eyes
Takes approximately 225 earth days to revolve around the sun
Slightly smaller than the earth
Has no satellites
Together with the earth they are called twin planets due to having many similarities

Also called The Red Planet because when it’s observed through a telescope it appears reddish.
The 4th from the sun
Slightly smaller than the earth
Approximately 228m km from the sun
Takes 687 earth days to revolve around the sun
Between Mass and Jupiter there are small celestial bodies called planetoids.
Has no satellite.

5th planet from the sun
Approximately 778m km from the sun
Largest in the universe
Rotates on its own axis at very fast speed
Has flattened poles due to its fast speed of rotation
Has very thick layers of ice on its surface
takes 12 earth years to revolve around the sun
Has 16 satellites

6th planet from the sun
Second largest planet
Approximately 1427m km from the sun
Takes 29 ½ earth years to revolve around the sun
Has a ring around it
Has 18 satellites

7th planet from the sun
About 4 times bigger than the earth
Approximately 2870m km from the sun
Also rotates very fast
Also has flattened poles due to fast speed of rotation
It appears greenish foe being surrounded by methane gas
Has 8 satellites
Takes 84 earth years to revolve around the sun

One of the farthest from the sun
8th planet from the sun
Approximately 4497m km from the sun
Has 8 satellites
Takes 165 earth years to revolve around the sun
Very similar in size, colour and character with Uranus

The shape of the earth

The shape of the earth is called geoid/ovoid/oblate spheroid due to being an imperfect sphere by being wide at the equator and flat at the poles.


The Position Of The Earth In The Solar System

The 3rd planet from the sun
The earth and the heavenly bodies make the universe
The only planet that supports life
The home of man
Approximately 149m km from the sun
Takes 365 ¼ days to revolve around the sun
Has one satellite, the moon


Rotation Of The Earth

Movement of the earth on its own axis (imaginary line through the centre from N pole to S pole
Rotates through 360º
Takes 24 hours (day) to complete 1 rotation
Rotates in an anticlockwise direction (west to east)

Effects of Rotation of the Earth

  1. Creates day and night because at any one time one side of the earth faces the sun (day) and the other remains in darkness (night).
  2. Causes deflection of winds and ocean currents in the N hemisphere to the left and in the S hemisphere to the right.
  3. It causes rising and falling of ocean tides.
  4. Causes time difference between longitudes

Effects of Rotation of the Earth on human activities

 Effects of Rotation   How rotation affects human activities 
 Day and night  Planning day and night activities
 High and low tides  Helps in fishing activities
 Sea transport -
 Deflection of winds and ocean currents 
  • Triggering of cyclones, hurricanes and tornadoes for example the deflection cause pressure changes which affect ocean currents and movement of wind
  • Growing of crops
  • Aviation or sea transport
  • Causes flooding
Time difference
  • Travelling
  • Education
  • Sports


Revolution Of The Earth

  • Movement of the earth in its orbit around the sun.
  • It’s in anticlockwise direction.
  • The orbit of the earth’s revolution is elliptical.
  • Takes 365 ¼ days in a year or 366 days in a leap year (every 4 years).
  • The sun moves from the tropic of cancer to the equator and then towards tropic of Capricorn and back to the tropic of cancer.
  • 21st march and 23rd September are called equinoxes because the length of day and night is equal. The sun is vertically overhead at noon at the equator.
  • 21st June is called summer solstice because its summer in the N hemisphere. The sun is vertically overhead at noon at the tropic of cancer.
  • 22nd December is called winter solstice because its winter in the S. hemisphere. The sun is vertically overhead at noon at noon at the tropic of Capricorn.
  • Solstice is the period of maximum tilting of the earth towards the sun.

Effects Of The Revolution Of The Earth

  1. Causes the four seasons summer, autumn, winter and spring due to the movement of overhead sun causing changes in the heat belt.
  2. Causes variation of day and night’s lengths due to the earth’s axis being inclined to the path of revolution at an angle of 60◦.
    1. Equinoxes have equal lengths of day and night.
    2. Summers have longer days and shorter nights.
    3. Winters have longer nights and shorter days.
  3. Causes changes in the altitude of the midday sun due to the earth’s orbit being elliptical.
    • Highest altitude during equinox
    • Lowest altitude during solstices
  4. Causes lunar eclipse due to revolution bringing the earth in line with the sun and the moon.

Effects of the Revolution of the earth on human activities

 Effects of Revolution   How revolution affects human activities  
 Changes in the position of midday sun at different times of the year   
 Varying length of day and night at different times of the day  


The Internal Structure Of The Earth


  1. Crust/Lithosphere
    • Outermost layer of the earth
    • Made of soils and other loose deposits of sand
    • The dominant rocks are granites.
    • Extends 0-50km
    • Has 2 layers
      1. Sial
        • Also called continental crust
        • Made of light coloured rocks
        • Called sial because it’s made up of silica and aluminium.
      2. Sima
        • Also called oceanic crust
        • Mainly made of basaltic rocks which are brittle.
        • Called sima because it is made of silica magnesium and iron.
  2. Mohorovicic Discontinuity (Moho)
    • A definite zone of discontinuity between the crust and the mantle.
    • Was discovered by Dr. Andrija Mohorovicic in 1909.
  3. The Mantle/Asthenosphere
    • Layer lying between the crust and the core
    • Made of iron and magnesium
    • Has two layers
      1. Upper mantle
        • Rocks are more elastic than those of sima.
        • Temperature is about 1000°c.
      2. lower mantle
        • Rocks are like very viscous liquid.
        • Temperature ranges between 1000°c to 3000°c.
  4. Gutenberg Discontinuity
    A definite zone of discontinuity between mantle and core.
  5. Core/barysphere/Centrosphere
    • The innermost/central layer of the earth.
    • Has 2 layers
      1. Outer Core
        • Composed of very dense rocks
        • Made up of nickel and iron
        • Temperatures are up to 3700°c.
      2. Inner Core
        • A solid mass of mainly iron
        • Temperatures are estimated to be 4500°c to 5000°c.
  6. The Atmosphere
    Layer of gases surrounding the earth.
    The earth revolves with it because its held onto it by gravity
    It’s about 330km thick.
    Composition of the Atmosphere
    • Gases-exist as a mixture
    • Smoke particles
    • Dust particles
    • Water vapour
  7. hydrosphere
    Ocean and seas

Maps And Mapwork

A map is a representation of the earth or part of it on a flat surface.

Position of Africa

  • Africa lies between latitude 37ºN and 35ºS and on longitude 18ºW and 52ºE.
  • Separated by water from all other continent except at the point where it joins Asia.
  • Mostly Easterly point is called ras hafun(cape guardafui)
  • Mostly westerly is cape verde
  • Mostly northerly is cape bon
  • Mostly southerly is cape agulhas
  • Africa is connected to sinai peninsula by suez canal
  • Separated from Spain by strait of gibraltar
  • Separated from Arabia by strait of bab el-mandeb

Shape of Africa

The northern half is very wide while the southern is much narrower
At the cape guardafui extends outwards in the shape of a horn therefore the horn of Africa

Size of Africa

Africa is the second largest continent in the world
Has an area of about 30.3 million square kilometres (20% of the total land surface)
It measures 8000 km from north to south and 7400km from east to west
Other continents

  1. Asia – 43608000km2
  2. Africa – 30335000km2
  3. North America – 25349000km2
  4. South America – 17611000km2
  5. Antarctica – 13340000km2
  6. Europe – 10498000km2
  7. Australia – 8923000km2

Countries That Makes Up The Africa Continent

Africa has the largest number of countries in the world making o total of 55 countries

  1. Algeria 2381741km2
  2. Angola 1246700km2
  3. Benin 115773km2
  4. Botswana 600372km2
  5. Burkina faso 274200km2
  6. Burundi 28490km2
  7. Cameroon 475900km2
  8. Cape verde 7275km2
  9. Central africa republic 622984km2
  10. Chad 1284000km2
  11. Comoros 2117km2
  12. Congo 34965km2
  13. Cόte d’ ivoire 322463km2
  14. Djibouti 23310km2
  15. DR congo 2345409km2
  16. Egypt 1101449km2
  17. Equatorial guinea 28051km2
  18. Eritrea 124320km2
  19. Ethiopia 1221900km2
  20. Gabon 267667km2
  21. Gambia 11369km2
  22. Ghana 238537km2
  23. Guinea 245957km2
  24. Guinea bisau 36125km2
  25. Kenya 582648km2
  26. Lesotho 30460km2
  27. Liberia 111369km2
  28. Libya 1775000km2
  29. Madagascar 592900km2
  30. Malawi 118484km2
  31. Mali 1240192km2
  32. Mauritania 1030700km2
  33. Mauritius 2040km2
  34. Morocco 724730km2
  35. Mozambique 802000km2
  36. Niger 1267000km2
  37. Namibia 824295km2
  38. Nigeria 923773km2
  39. Rwanda 26338km2
  40. Sӑo Tome & principe 964km2
  41. Senegal 196192km2
  42. Seychelles 453km2
  43. Sierra leone 72325km2
  44. Somalia 626541km2
  45. South africa 1221037km2
  46. South sudan 644329km2
  47. Sudan 1886068km2
  48. Eswatini 17368km2
  49. Tanzania 947419km2
  50. Togo 56785km2
  51. Tunisia 164154km2
  52. Uganda 236036km2
  53. Western sahara 252120km2
  54. Zambia 752618km2
  55. Zimbabwe 390759km2

The largest country in Africa is Algeria while the smallest is Seychelles.
Offshore island also form part of Africa;

  1. Seychelles
  2. Sao Tome and principe
  3. Mauritius
  4. Comoros
  5. Madagascar
  6. Cape verde

Locating Places And Features On A Map Using Latitudes And Longitudes

  • When giving the position of a place or features we with start with the latitude and then longitude
    Major latitudes and longitudes
  • Major longitude is called prime meridian also called Greenwich meridian
  • In Africa it passes through:
    1. Ghana(Accra)
    2. Algeria
    3. Burkina faso
    4. Mali
  • All other longitudes are measured and named from prime meridian up to 180 ̊ on both sides
  • Major latitude are 3 passing through Africa
  1. Equator 0 ̊ - divides Africa into two parts
    It passes through;
    1. Gabon
    2. Congo
    3. DR congo
    4. Uganda
    5. Kenya
    6. Somalia
  2. Tropic of cancer 23½ ̊ north of equator
    It passes through;
    1. Western sahara
    2. Mali
    3. Mauritania
    4. Algeria
    5. Libya
    6. Egypt
  3. Tropic of capricorn 23½ ̊ south of equator
    It passes through:
    1. Namibia
    2. Botswana
    3. South africa
    4. Mozambique
    5. Madagascar
  • Other important lines of latitude are far from africa are:
    1. Arctic circle 66½ ̊N
    2. Antarctic circle 66½S
 Place   Degrees North    Degrees South   Degree East   Degree West  
 Kenya   5°N  4½°S  Between 34°W and 42°E   


 Physical feature   Degrees North    Degress South    Degree East    Degrees West 
 Lake Turkana        
 Namid desert        
 Mt. Kilimanjaro        
 River Zambezi        
 Jos Plateau        


Calculating the time of different places in the world using longitudes

  • Rotation of the earth- This is movement of earth on its own axis
  • Distance between longitudes is measured in degrees
  • There are 360 meridians or longitudes
  • One complete rotation is 360 ̊
  • The direction of the rotation is from west to east i.e. anticlockwise direction.
  • One complete rotation takes 24 hours
  • All places found in the east of the Greenwich meridian will see sunrise first and therefore they are one hour ahead of those to the west

Effects of rotation of the earth

  1. Differences in time along different longitudes
  2. Occurrence of day and night

24hrs = 360 ̊
1hr = ?
360×1 ÷24 =15
Therefore 1hr =15 ̊ or 360 ̊ = (24×60)minutes=1440min
̊= 1440÷360 ×1=4min
I Hr the earth covers 15º and 1º it covers 4 minutes

Calculating time of places found to the east of Greenwich Meridian

Example 1
The time in Accra 0° is 7.00am.calculate time in bermbera 45°E
1hr =15°
? = 45° = 45÷15×1 =3hrs
So 3hrs is equivalent to 45°  then add 3hrs to 7.00am to get 10.00am
Example 2
Suppose the time at GWM is 12 noon what is the local time at Watamu 40°E?
Time gained=40×4=160min=2 hours 40min
Local time at Watamu is 12.00+2.40=14.40-1200=2.40pm.
Example 3
At Dar-es-Salaam 40°E time is 12pm what is the time at Ecuador 40°E?
Ecuador is behind in time =12.00-4=8 am.


  • When calculating time to the east of Greenwich meridian, we add the time difference to the local time.

Calculating time of places found to the west of Greenwich Meridian

  • When calculating time to the west of Greenwich meridian we subtract the time difference to the local time
    Example 1
    A plane leaves off in New York, 74ºW at 7 am local time. What is the local time in Stockholm 18ºE


  • If the places are on the same side subtract the degrees to get the difference and add or subtract from the reference time depending on which side the place is.

Pictures, Plan And Maps

 Picture   Plan    Maps  
Image of a real object   Outline of something drawn to scale   Representation of the whole or part of the earth’s surface drawn to scale
Gives details in their visible shapes and sizes Also drawn as if a person was directly above the ground Shows outline of objects on the ground
Can be inform of free hand, drawing, painting or a photograph It represents a very small place Drawn as if the drawer was above the ground
 Not drawn to scale  The scale is large to show details e.g. house plan It shows details
  Gives specific information Most of the features are indicated by symbols.


Types Of Maps

  1. Topographical maps 
    This shows selected natural physical features on a small portion of a country.
  2. Atlas map this is a collection of maps in one volume
  3. Sketch map maps which are roughly drawn.

A good sketch map should have the following characteristics:

  1. Neat and clear
  2. Title
  3. Frame
  4. Key
  5. Compass direction

Importance of maps in day to day lives

  1. Sketch maps are used to summarise information for easy reference.
  2. Used for locating other countries.
  3. Used for comparing sizes of countries.
  4. For locating climatic regions of different parts of the world.
  5. Give information on distribution of geographical phenomena e.g. vegetation on the earth’s surface.
  6. Help travellers to find their way.
  7. Used to calculate distance of a certain place.
  8. Used to locate physical features like landforms.

Career And Entrepreneurial Opportunities In Social Studies

  • Social studies is a learning area that includes History, Geography and Citizenship
  • The study of social studies provides us with career and entrepreneurial opportunities in different fields.
  • Careers are occupations undertaken for a significant period of a person’s life and with opportunities for progress in life
  • Entrepreneurship is the activity of setting up a business or taking on financial risks with hope of making a profit

Importance Of Social Studies For Personal Development And Service To Humanity

  1. Social studies prepares learners to join various career pathways
  2. Learners are able to utilise available resources to come up with entrepreneurial projects which help them meet their needs.
  3. By learning political development and governance learners are exposed to different styles of leadership
  4. By understanding systems of government, learners are able to make informed decisions once they take up leadership roles in future for the benefit of the community
  5. The historical understanding of some prominent people in the past is key in shaping learners future
  6. Social studies encourages learners to appreciate different cultures, values and traditions from national and global perspective which can be adopted in our locality
  7. learners are able to integrate key aspects of the constitution such as integrity when making decision about governance
  8. Learning of key aspects on democracy, rule of law, responsible citizenry helps learners living harmoniously in the society.
  9. Skills and knowledge in personality, human identity and personal well being in promoting inner peace are all meant to enhance understanding of personal growth and development
  10. Research skills in field work equip learners with data collection, analysis and presentation skills that will help in solving problems affecting our society
                                                               Importance of Social Studies  
   Personal development  Service to humanity  
 1.   Helps one to understand the real world around us    Helps us to utilize the available resources to serve humanity 
 2.  Helps us to become good citizens    Helps us to appreciate and relate well with other people
 3.  Helps us to know the current affairs  


Career opportunities related to social studies

  1. Law -Advocate -Lawyer
  2. Geology –
  3. Museology –
  4. Cartography
  5. Urban planning
  6. Meteorology and climatology
  7. Aviation
  8. Archaeology
  9. Medicine
  10. Teaching
  11. Survey
  12. Engineering
 Geography   History   Citizenship  
 Land economics   Archaeology   Public administrator  


Entrepreneurial opportunities for social studies  

Some of the entrepreneurial opportunities for social studies in our socisty include

  1. Pottery
  2. Basketry
  3. Ecotourism
  4. Horticulture
  5. Agro forestry
  6. Fishing
  7. Dairy farming

Gender Stereotypes Associated With Career Choices And Entrepreneurial Opportunities In Social Studies

Gender is the state of being male or female in relation to social and cultural roles.
Stereotypes are fixed general ideas or images that assume that a person behaves in a particular way.
Stereotypes limit aspirations and development of talents.
They create gender differences.
These gender differences ought to be addressed using appropriate strategies.
A strategy is a careful plan or method of dealing with an issue
We can address gender stereotypes in career and entrepreneurial opportunities related to social studies through the following strategies

  1. Committing and encouraging both males and females to take a full range of careers and business opportunities
  2. Ensuring representation of both genders in leadership
  3. Treating both males and females equally by using texts and circular that does not promote gender bias
  4. Develop policies, law and decision making process that represent both males and females

Recognising Biological Difference Devoid Of Stereotypes In Career Choices And Entrepreneurial Opportunities In Social Studies

  • There are biological differences between male and female people.
  • Biological difference should never be a hindrance to one’s career choice and entrepreneurial opportunities
  • Both male and female should be given equal opportunities to pursue their dreams

Demonstrating respect for one’s gender identity in pursuit of social studies careers and entrepreneurial opportunities


Background To The Birth Of Jesus Christ

Prophecies About The Coming Of Jesus Christ

  • The coming of Jesus Christ was predicted by many prophets such as Isaiah and Jeremiah.
  • A prophecy is a prediction of what will happen in the future.
  • It is declared by a prophet who is inspired by the spirit of God.
  • Prophets communicate God’s message, condemns evils in the society, give hope to people, anoint kings and teach people the ways of God

Isaiah’s prophecy about the coming of Jesus Christ

Isaiah 9:6-7

Isaiah prophesied that

  • The messiah shall be called
    1. Wonderful counsellor
    2. Mighty God
    3. Eternal father
    4. Prince of peace
  • The messiah shall sit upon the throne of David and shall rule with justice and righteousness forever

Jeremiah prophecy about the coming of Jesus Christ

Jeremiah 23:5-6

Jeremiah prophesied that

  • The messiah would be a righteous king from the house of David
  • The messiah shall execute justice and righteous in the land
  • He shall guarantee security and safety in the land of Israel.
  • He shall be called “the lord of righteousness”
  • He would bring salvation upon Judah
  • He would reign as a king
  • He would rule wisely

Fulfilment of the Old Testament prophecies about the coming of Jesus Christ

Mathew 1:18-23, Jeremiah 23:5-6, Isaiah 9:6-7

 Old testament prophecies   How they were fulfilled  
 The Messiah would be a descendant of David   Jesus established an everlasting kingdom of God 
 He would bring salvation upon Judah  Mary conceived as a virgin
 The messiah would rule on the throne of David forever   Joseph, the father of Jesus was descendant of king David 
 A virgin will become pregnant and have a son and He will be called Immanuel   Jesus brought salvation to the whole world


The annunciation and the birth of John the Baptist

Luke 1:5-25

  • To announce means to make known.
  • The old testaments said that John the Baptist was to prepare the way for the Messiah.
  • Angel Gabriel announced the birth of John the Baptist during the reign of king Herod.
  • Angel Gabriel appeared to Zechariah, who was a priest in the temple.
  • Both Zechariah and his wife Elizabeth were advanced in age and did not have children , Elizabeth was barren.
  • Zechariah, the priest was burning incense at the temple when Angel Gabriel appeared to him
  • The angel told him that his wife Elizabeth would bear him a son. His name would be John.
  • The angel said the following about the child that would be born
    1. The child would bring joy and gladness to many
    2. He will be great before the Lord
    3. He will not drink wine or strong drink
    4. He will be filled with the Holy Spirit
    5. He will bring back many of the people of Israel to the lord their God
    6. He would be source of joy to his parents
    7. He will go ahead of the lord strong and mighty
    8. He will prepare people for the Lord
  • Zechariah, due to his old age, could not believe the Angel’s message. The angel told him that he would be dump until all was fulfilled. His wife conceived after five months.

Relating the Birth of John the Baptist to the coming of Jesus Christ

Luke 3:16, John 1:29-30  

  • Jesus was the son of God whom John the Baptist had come to prepare the way for.
  • John the Baptist introduced Jesus as the lamb of God who takes away the sins of the world.
  • John acknowledged Jesus as one before him
  • Jesus was greater than John the Baptist
 John the Baptist    Jesus Christ 
 John baptized people with water but said Jesus would be greater   Jesus Christ was greater than John the Baptist 
 John introduced Jesus as the lamb of God  Jesus Christ came to where John was batising as the lamb of God 
 John said Jesus came to forgive sins  Jesus Christ came to forgive sins
 John baptized people with water  Jesus Christ would baptize people with the holy spirit and fire


How Christians apply the message of John the Baptist

 Teaching   How Christians apply the teaching 
 The warning of people on God’s punishment   Christians repent their sins
 Urging people to repent their sins  
 Share clothes and food with the needy  
 Do not collect more tax then what is allowed by the law   
 Do not take money from any one by force  
 Do not accuse anyone falsely  
 Be happy with whatever amount of money you are paid   


Skills that Christians need to avoid evils condemned by John the Baptist

  1. Creative thinking
    • Enables one to have ideas on how to avoid evil
  2. Critical thinking
    • Enables one to make an informed judgement not to commit sin
  3. Decision making
    • Helps us to make moral decisions that are appropriate
  4. Self esteem
    • Have a feeling of self worth
  5. Assertiveness
    • Express one’s actions with confidence

Appreciating the fulfilment of the Old TESTAMENT Prophecies

Pupil’s activity

Page 86-87

The Birth And Childhood Of Jesus Christ

Events that took place during the annunciation and the birth of Jesus Christ

Luke 1:26-38

  • An event is something that takes place and it is of importance.
  • The annunciation of the birth of Jesus Christ was important
  • During the sixth month of Elizabeth’s pregnancy . angel Gabriel was sent to a virgin woman named Mary, who was engaged to Joseph, a descendant of King David.
  • Mary was troubled and he (the angel) told her not to be afraid for she had found favour in the Lord
  • The angel announced the following concerning Jesus to mary
    1. He shall bear a son
    2. He shall be called Jesus
    3. He will be great
    4. He will be called the son of the Most High God.
    5. He will rule over the house of Jacob forever.
    6. The Lord would give Him the throne of his Father, David
    7. His kingdom would last forever
    8. He will be conceived through the power of the Holy Spirit

Events that took place during the Birth of Jesus Christ

Luke 2:1-20



The Bible is the inspired word of God.

How the Bible is used in different places and occasions

  1. The Bible is used when taking oaths in courts of law.
  2. It is used in schools and colleges for learning, during graduation ceremonies, prayers and research.
  3. It is used in statehouse or during state functions, during the swearing in ceremonies and prayers.
  4. It is used in churches and during crusades for preaching.
  5. It is used at home for personal use during prayer time and home study
  6. In hospitals when praying for the sick
  7. Some Christians use the Bible before travelling to pray for journey mercies

Importance of Bible

John 1:1-2, Proverbs 30:5-6  

  • It contains the word of God
  • It gives hope to Christians
  • It helps us to understand biblical truths
  • The Bible helps a person to discover the will of God
  • God speaks to people through the scriptures
  • The Bible corrects people when they are wrong and teaches them to do right. Christians should used exemplary lives.
  • God protects those whose seek his protection and rebukes liars
  • The Bible is the word of God and it was written by people who inspired by the spirit of God.
  • The Bible unites people of God, strengthens the faith of the belivers and outlines values for quality Christian living.

How the Bible is used to spread the word of God   

The Bible is used in spreading the word of God in the following ways:

  1. Christians songs are composed using Bible messages
  2. The Bible is distributed to individuals to read the word of God
  3. It is used for instructing and teaching new converts of Christian doctrine
  4. It is used to take oaths therefore, increasing the faith of those who participate
  5. Christians translate the Bible to vernacular so that many people can read and understand.

The role of the Bible for holistic growth

Holistic growth involves physical, emotional, social, intellectual and spiritual growth.
The Bible helps Christians to grow holistically

How the Bible promotes spiritual growth

Spiritual growth includes

  1. Increasing your knowledge and understanding of the word of God
  2. Increase in faith and trust in God
  3. Developing Christ-like qualities

Role of the Bible in promoting physical growth


Pupil’s activity
Page 51

Role of the Bible in promoting moral growth

Moral growth is the process of developing proper attitudes and behaviuour towards other people based on cultural norms and love

Pupil’s activity
Page 51

Role of the Bible in promoting social, emotional and intellectual growth

Social growth

The Bible tells us that everyone is created in God’s image. Therefore we should not discriminate against others.
We should help those in need, respect and love our neighbour as we love ourselves

Emotional growth

The Bible builds our emotions. When facing sad and difficult situations. It brings us close to God. God provides everything for our enjoyment and we should express our joy to him.

Intellectual growth

As we grow in strength, the Bible helps us to grow in wisdom. God gives us the ability to comprehend, think, reason and remember. The Bible helps us to make correct decisions for quality Christian living.

How God’s word inspires different services among Christians

Christian service is demonstration of who we are in Christ.

  • The Bible teaches people to love God and humankind. Helping the needy in the society improves a person’s relationship with God
  • Service offered to others is part of Christian living and makes the world a better place to live. Serving others makes one happy and enriches other people’s lives.
  • The word of God has inspired different services among Christians. For example, Christians visit the orphans, give them food, clothes and even take them to school.
  • Christians donate food, money and medicine to help people suffering when disasters like floods, accidents earthquakes, drought and famine occur
  • Christians support refugees by counselling, educating and giving medical care. They also offer shelter, food and sometimes employment.
  • For people who are unable to attend church service, the gospel is taken to them through crusades and public rallies.

Divisions of the Bible

The Bible has 2 divisions

  1. Old testaments - 39 books
  2. New testaments – 27 books

Why are there two divisions of the Bible

  • The two divisions were written at different times in human history
  • The two divisions were addressed to different people and individuals
  • The messages contained in the two testaments address different issues that were of specific concern to the people addressed.

Importance of the two divisions of the Bible to Christians

  • The old testaments talks about how the world was created, the Exodus of Israelites and Ten Commandments given to Moses by God.
    The testaments also includes real life stories
    The function of this testament is to teach Christians through the experiences of other people throughout history.
    Several books also foretell the arrival of the Messiah and the end of the world.
  • The New Testament focuses more on the life and teachings of Jesus and the early church.
    The stories are narrated through gospels and emphasise the importance of the sacrifices of Jesus.
    The function of the New testaments is to lead people to follow the example of Jesus more closely. The other books, written by various authors also talk about the end of the world.

The books of the old testaments according to classification


It was originally written in Hebrew.
It was written before Jesus Christ came to exist physically.
It was later translated to Greek and other languages.
The following are groups of books in the Old Testament respective of their appearance.

  1. Torah/Pentateuch/law/mosaic.
  2. Historical books.
  3. Major Prophets Books.
  4. Minor prophet books.

They were written by Moses.

  1. Genesis
  2. Exodus
  3. Leviticus
  4. Numbers
  5. Deuteronomy

Genesis means origin or beginning
Exodus means coming out or departure
Numbers means census
Leviticus explains rules and regulation of priests.

The Ten Commandments (Decalogue) are found in the book of exodus and Deuteronomy.

Historical books.    

Contains the history of what happened to the Israelites and its neighbours.

 Joshua  Joshua
 Judges  Samuel 
 Ruth   Samuel 
 1 Samuel   Samuel, Gad, Nathan  
 2 Samuel  Gad and Nathan
 1 Kings  Jeremiah 
 2 Kings  Jeremiah 
 1 Chronicles   Ezra
 2 Chronicles  Ezra 
 Ezra  Ezra
 Nehemiah  Nehemiah
 Esther  Mordecai

Poetic/wisdom books 

 Job  Moses
 Psalms   David 
 Proverbs   Solomon 
 Ecclesiastes   Solomon 
 Song of Solomon   Solomon

Major prophetic books  

 Isaiah  Isaiah 
 Jeremiah   Jeremiah 
 Lamentation   Jeremiah 
 Ezekiel  Ezekiel 
 Daniel  Daniel

Minor prophetic books   

 Hosea  Hosea 
 Joel  Joel
 Amos  Amos 
 Obadiah   Obadiah 
 Jonah  Jonah 
 Micah  Micah
 Nahum  Nahum
 Habakkuk   Habakkuk 
 Zechariah  Zechariah
 Malachi  Malachi


Genesis is the first book of the Bible and the Old Testament.
Malachi is the last book of the Old Testament.

The books of the New testaments according to classification

The New Testament is the period after Christ is born, it is the fulfilment of tthe old testament  prophecies of Jesus.


  • It was originally written in Greek.
  • Written after Christ.
  • The groups of books found in the new testament are:
    1. Gospel books.
    2. Historical books.
    3. Pauline epistles.
    4. General epistles.
    5. Prophetic book

Gospel books

They explain the events in life of Jesus from birth to his ascension in Bethany.

 Matthew   Matthew 
 Mark  Mark 
 Luke  Luke 
 John  John 

Gospel books are divided into two groups:

  1. Synoptic books
  2. Non- synoptic book.

Synoptic Books  

They explain full life history of Jesus
They are: Matthew, mark and Luke.

Non- Synoptic Book.   

It does not explain full history of Jesus.
It is the book of John.

Historical book   

  1. Acts of apostle
    The writer of acts of apostle was Luke.
    It explains the life of believers in the early church.

Pauline epistles

These are letters which were written by Paul while he was in prison.
They are

  1. Romans
  2. 1 Corinthians
  3. 2 Corinthians
  4. Galatians
  5. Ephesians
  6. Philippians
  7. Colossians
  8. 1 Thessalonians
  9. 2 Thessalonians
  10. 1 timothy
  11. 2 Timothy
  12. Titus
  13. Philemon

General epistles   

Written by different writers who were inspired by God.

 Hebrews   Unknown 
 James  James the brother of Jesus  
 1 Peter  Apostle Peter
 2 Peter  Apostle peter 
 1 John  John 
 2 John  John 
 3 John  John
 Jude  Jude the brother of Jesus


Prophetic books

It was written by John after having a vision on Patmos Island.
Revelation contains the writings about the last days.
Matthew is the first book of the New Testament.
Revelation is the last book of the Bible and the New Testament.

Bible Translation

To translate means to express spoken or written words in a language that is different from one that was initially used.

How People Benefited From Different Translations Of The Bible

  • Spread of the word of God and the general growth of the church.
  • Higher demand for formal education in Africa so as to read the Bible.
  • It increased the number of Africans in church leadership.
  • Unity of mankind, especially through ecumenism.
  • It made African Christians more active than passive.
  • Africans leaned foreign languages e.g. English.
  • Many missionaries were able to learn African languages.
  • African languages developed from oral to written form.
  • Introduction of new concepts and terms into local languages.
  • Development of African theology.
  • Many employment opportunities. For instance, people are employed to work for the Bible Society of Kenya.
  • Emergence of African indigenous churches.
  • Africans rediscovered their culture and developed confidence in it.
  • Fast growth of the printing industry.
  • Establishment of Bible societies in Africa e.g. the Bible society of Kenya

Reasons that led to the translations of the Bible into local languages

  1. To enable the word of God to reach more people
  2. To train local people to take leadership skills
  3. To facilitate the expansion of the church
  4. To indigenise Christianity
  5. To establish local translation society for example Kenya’s Bible society

The Different Translations Of The Bible

  • When missionaries began to evangilise in African there was a need to translate the Bible into local languages of the local people to have the scripture in a language they could understand
  • Today the Bible has been translated into local languages
  • In Kenya, the Bible society of Kenya is the main body mandated to translate the Bible
  • Some of the translated Bibles include Kamba, Swahili, kikuyu, Kimiiru/kimeru, Somali, Samburu, Borana, Luhyia Bibles

The Different Versions Of The Bible

A version is the construction of the languages that a translator of the Bible uses in their work

  1. The Revised Standard Version;
  2. Good News;
  3. King James Bible;
  4. The Living Bible;
  5. The Jerusalem Bible;
  6. The New International Version;
  7. The Gideon International Bible;
  8. The Holy Bible;
  9. The New English Bible;
  10. The Jerome Bible;
  11. The African Bible;
  12. The Common Bible;
  13. The New Life Version;
  14. The Authorised Bible;
  15. The New King James Version

Social effects of the translation of the Holy Bible into local languages

  1. People can now read the Bible in their local languags and understand it better
  2. It has led to the development of African independent churches
  3. It has led to the development of local languages which have ben put down in written form
  4. Africans have become leaders in their established churches as catechists, priests , pastors and deacons

Economic effects of the translation of the holy Bible into local languages   

  1. It has led to the establishment of BIBLE translations societies. The societies offer employment opportunities
  2. It has led to the development of the Christian printing press and bookshops.

Leadership in the Bible: Moses

Exodus 2:11-13, exodus 3:1-2, Exodus 6:12

During the call of Moses, god told Moses that he had heard the cry of his people (Israelites) God wanted to send Moses to the king of Egypt so that he could lead his people out of the country

Characteristics Of A Good Leader

  1. God fearing.
  2. Ready to serve
  3. Hardworking
  4. Good decision maker
  5. Gentle
  6. Have respect
  7. Honest
  8. Humble
  9. Loyal
  10. Loving
  11. Peaceful
  12. Be a role model
  13. Have integrity

How God prepared Moses for Leadership

Exodus 2:11-13, Exodus 3:1-2, Exodus 6:12

  • In the society leaders are prepared to take up their position in different ways, for example through training
  • Like today leaders, God prepared Moses for leadership in different ways
  • Speaking from a miraculously burning bush, God says he will send Moses to lead His people from Egyptian slavery
  • This mission was overwhelming to Moses. He responded to Gods call with doubt. He did not see himself as the best person to free the jews or an appropriate leader for the task. However God often calls the most unlikely people to accomplish his greatest tasks
  • God prepare Moses for leadership by making him witness the suffering of the Hebrews under the Egyptians
  • God prepare Moses to solve conflicts among his people and the Israelites
  • Life in the desert made Moses bold and ready to face hardship
  • As a shepherd, Moses learnt to be keen and responsible in leading Israelites

Roles performed by Moses during the Exodus

  1. Moses was the prophet who led Israelites out of slavery in Egypt and brought them to the edge of the promised land
  2. Moses played various roles during the exodus
  3. He asked Israelites to trust in god and not to be afraid
  4. He interceded on behalf of the Israelites
  5. He led the people of Israel away from the red sea. The seas waters separated when Moses lifted his rod and held it over the sea.
  6. Moses sought for providences for the people of Israel when they were in the wilderness. God responded to his prayer and made bitter water fit to drink.
  7. Moses received the laws God had given the people of Israel. the laws would help to safeguard their relationship with God and among themselves
  8. Moses also appointed judges to help him administering justice among israelites . he taught the Israelites the ten commandments and advertised them to obey

Qualities of Moses that Christians can emulate

  1. Responsibility
  2. Obedience
  3. Honesty
  4. Justice

Advantages of choosing good leaders in the society  

  • A good leader, among other qualities should be God fearing, trustworthy, a team player, obedient, responsible, and humble.
  • Good leadership promotes peace, love, unity and development of many nation
  • Leaders should follow the example of Moses.

Pupil’s activity
Page 75


Accounts of Creation

The Biblical Accounts Of Creation

  1. First account
  2. Second account

The first biblical account of creation

Genesis 1:131, 2:1-4

  • It gives record on what was created within the first 6 days.
  • Humans’ beings were created last
     Day   God's Creation  
     First    Day and light and darkness 
     Second    Sky/dome/firmament
     Third   Earth(land, plants and water bodies 
     Fourth   Heavenly bodies( sun, moon and stars) 
     Fifth   Sea creatures and birds
     Sixth   Land creatures and man
     Seventh    God rested and called the day Sabbath
  • From the first account of creation, we learn God is all powerful because He created the universe with one command.
  • He is a God or order. He created the universe and everything in it in an orderly manner.
  • God is the provider. He provides for human beings to meet their needs.
  • Leisure time was instituted.

The second Biblical account of creation

Genesis 2;4-25

  • In the second account of creation, there was no one to cultivate the land when God created the universe.
  • God took soil from the ground and formed man. God breathed life into him
  • Human beings were created first.
  • Man was created out of dust
  • God breathed life into mans nostrils
  • Man was put into the Garden of Eden.
  • The tree of knowledge and life giving stood in the middle of the garden.
  • Men was commanded to use everything in the garden except tree of knowledge of good and evil
  • The forbidden fruit from the tree was not supposed to be eaten.
  • Eating from the tree would result to death.
  • God gave man the responsibility to take care of the environment
  • God created all birds and all animals
  • Man was given the responsibility of naming all the creatures
  • He named all the birds and animals, but none was suitable helper for him
  • Adam became lonely.
  • A woman was created out of Adam’s rib for companionship and a helper.

Attributes/nature of God from the Genesis stories of creation

  • God is omnipotent/ all powerful
  • God is orderly and perfect
  • God is omnipresent/ everywhere
  • God is transcendent
  • God is the sustainer/ provider
  • God is the sole creator
  • He is a moral God
  • He is a loving God
  • He is a spirit
  • He is everlasting/ self existence
  • God is source of goodness
  • God is Holy
  • God is a worker
  • There is only one God.

Similarities and Differences between The Two Biblical Accounts of Creation

Similarities in the two biblical accounts of creation

  1. In both accounts, God is the sole creator
  2. In both God created male and female
  3. In both, human beings are special
  4. In both God provides for human beings
  5. In both, human beings are given domination over the rest of the creation
  6. The uniqueness of human beings is brought forth in the second accounts
  7. Man shares in the life of God since he is made in the likeness of God
  8. Creation involves both the living and non-living things.

Differences in the two biblical accounts of creation

 First Account   Second Account  
 1.Days on the order of creation are given   There is no mention of the days on order of creation 
 2.Marriage is made for procreation  Marriage is made for companionship
 3.Man was created last   Man was created first



  • There is a chronological order of events in the first account of creation as opposed to the second
  • In the first account, male and female are created at the same time whereas in the second account man is created first then woman is out of his ribs
  • In the first account, creation is out of the command “let there be”, yet, in the second, man is made out of dust
  • In the first account, man names what he creates as opposed to the second where man is given the opportunity to name the animals
  • A Sabbath day allocated for rest appears on the first while in the second account it wasn’t mentioned
  • The Garden of Eden mentioned in the second account wasn’t in the first
  • In the second creation account are four rivers (Tigris, Euphrates, Gihon and Pishon), which were not mentioned in the first
  • Man was given a responsibility to till the land in the second but not in the first
  • In the second account, the forbidden tree appears but this misses in the first account
  • In the first account, God created human beings for procreation while in the second account they were created for companionship
  • The second account of creation is human centred while the first does not shore this. It is man centred
  • In the first account God created in union with the spirit (Holy Trinity) while in the second account God is alone
  • In the first account human beings were created last while in the second they came first
  • The first account takes six days to be complete unlike the second where days were not mentioned
  • In the first account, God appreciates everything he creates. We are not told this in the second.

Importance of learning about creation

  1. Helps us to know and understand God’s creation work.
  2. Helps to appreciate God’s great work
  3. Helps us to know how the first account differs from the second on

Similarities and differences between the biblical account and African creation stories

Africans view creation

  • Africans believe that creation originated from God the creator.
  • Each community has a myth that explains its origin
  • Africans see God as mysterious in his deeds, for they fail to explain how he created the earth.
  • Africans see human beings as special and that God creates everything for them.
  • God provided the first human beings with all the necessities of life.
  • The first people lived happily with God and lacked nothing.
  • Marriage was mainly for procreation.

Similarities - biblical account and African creation stories

  • In both, God is the sole creator.
  • Man is the climax of creation.
  • God is supreme.
  • In both, man was given a wife for company.
  • God is portrayed as a potter.
  • God is the provider
  • Creation of human took place at the end of the creation of things

Differences Between the biblical account and African creation stories

  1. In biblical view, the order of creation is given, while the order of creation in the traditional view is not mentioned
  2. In biblical view , everything was created to benefit human beings, some communities believe that god gave specific things to specific communities

Christian responsibility over animals, fish and birds

Biblical teaching on responsibility given to human beings over animals birds and fish

  • Christians have stewardship over Gods creation and they should care for everything in it
  • Our responsibility is to take care of these creations and use them for our benefits but in a responsibly way

Pupil’s activity
Page 19-20

Ways in which Christians apply biblical teachings to protect animals , fish and birds

  • According to Genesis 2:15-20 and James 3;7 human beings are give authority to name and tame animals , birds and fish.
  • The responsibility to name the animals and birds means man was given authority to control all the creatures
  • Taming animals is a show of authority over them.

Pupil’s activity
Page 20-21

Ways in which Christians promote and protect animals, fish and birds

  • There are different strategies for taking care of God’s creatures like
    1. Constructing good houses for domestic animals
    2. Fencing our farms well to keep away wild animals
  • Animals need food, shelter and security to be healthy.

Pupil’s activity
Page 21-22

Reducing conflicts between human beings and wild animals

The Kenya constitution protects animals from violence, overworking them when they are unwell, starvation, denial of water, abandonment, poisoning, careless surgery procedures, hunting and killing them.
We should learn to co exist with wild animals to reduce conflicts with them.

Pupil’s activity
Page 22-23

Importance of protecting animals, fish and birds

  • Animals, fish and birds are important to human beings
  • They provide food, clothing and income.
  • Some animals provide manure for farming.
  • Animals are companions and help us to work
  • Their products support dairy industries, wool industries, leather and fishing industries.
  • These sectors employ many people
  • Birds help in the pollination of plants. As a result human beings, animals and birds also get food.

Pupil’s activity
Page 22-25

Christian responsibility over plants

Different plants found in the environment


Pupil’s activity
Page 27-28

Responsibilities given to human beings over plants

Genesis 1:29, Genesis 2:15, Psalms 104:14   

They were to be in charge of the Garden of Eden
To eat from the fruits of the garden
To take care of God’s creation.

  • God has provide us with plants. Human being have been given the responsibility to take care of the plants to benefit themselves and animals.
  • We care for plants by applying manure, weeding, watering and spraying pesticides.
  • We also take care protecting them from animals that feed them

Pupil’s activity
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How Christians apply biblical teachings on the care for plants and conserve the environment

Human beings have a responsibility to conserve the environment. We can conserver the environment by

  1. Through afforestation and reafforestation
  2. Evading/eradicating environmental pollution.
  3. Use of proper farming methods e.g. contours farming.
  4. Conserving water towers.
  5. Through provision of education, geared towards teaching people how to cope with the environment.
  6. Carrying out irrigation

Ways in which prudent use of plants contributes to economic growth

  1. Prudent use of plants contributes to economic growth.
    • Prudent is the careful use of what you have to benefit you now and in the future.
    • Prudent use of plants means taking care of plants, using what they produce carefully so that they can benefit us now and in the future
  2. Economic growth is an increase of plants in the production of goods and services from one period of time to another.
  3. It is good to take care of plants and harvest them properly. These practices will ensures that there is food for consumption. The surplus can be sold to avoid wastage and earn revenue.
  4. Storing farm produce well after harvest is important.
    • One can use the harvest for a period and save the farmer from buying the same foodstuff in the future.
    • The money which would have been used to purchase similar produce is used for other purpose.
  5. Well stores seeds can be planted in the future, saving one from buying the same farm input.
  6. Reforestation and replanting crops ensure that one has enough to use and at the same time, ensure a regular supply of the produce to the farmer. This contributes to steady source of income.

African teachings on responsibility over plants and animals

There are different types of plants and animals that Africans keep.
Some crops initially grown by specific African communities in specific geographical locations
The Africans took care of plants and animals as a responsibility from God

Types of indigenous plants

  1. Cassava
  2. Sweet potatoes
  3. Millet
  4. Sorghum
  5. Yams
  6. Pumpkins
  7. Arrowroots

Types of indigenous animals

  1. Cattle
  2. Chicken
  3. Bees
  4. Goats
  5. Camels
  6. Donkey

The importance of taking care of plants and animals in African context

  1. They were sources of food.
    2. The plants provided medicinal herbs
    3. Other plants provided wood for construction of houses and making utensils
    4. Wood was used as a source of energy
    5. Plants and animals provided materials for making musical instruments like kayamba
    6. Some plants and animals were also used as totems.
    7. Animals provided skins and hides for making clothes
    8. Some animals like dogs provide security to man
    9. Other were used as pack animals and others were used for transport. Example donkey
    10. Animal horns were used for horn blowing which was means of communication.

Ways in which Africans promoted care and conservation of all types of plants

  1. The Africans protected plants by weeding, pruning, mulching, shading, trapping and scaring away animals that fed on the plants.
  2. They also preserved seeds of the plants to last longer during dry periods and to protect them from small such as rats and weevils.
    This conservation ensured that Africans had seeds to plants during the rainy seasons.
  3. Preserved seeds and plants served as source of food during drought.
  4. Africans used fire to make plants sprout out more serving as food for the animals.

How Africans ensured protection of all types of animals and birds

African ensured protection of all animals, fish and birds in different ways


Pupil’s activity
Page 42

How Africans ensured protection of fish

  1. Avoid overfishing
  2. Use of proper nets

Pupil’s activity
Page 43

How Africans promoted health of animals

  • Africans cared for and protected domestic animals against wild animals by fencing their compounds and sleeping in the same place with the animals.
  • They scared away wild animals that predated on their domestic animals by using different methods. Eg use of scarecrows, fire, noise
  • In the events of disease. Africans treated their animals using selected plants such as Aloe vera while making them healthier by providing lick stones with mineral salts. They knew how to take care of animals during birth which ensured the growth in population.
  • Animal products such as meat were preserved to last long for use during drought. Preservation was a way of ensuring food was not wasted
  • Young animals were left to suckle up to a time when they could eat grass and other types of vegetation.

Importance of studying CRE

The meaning of studying CRE

  • CRE involves the study of religious beliefs and practices of Christians.
  • It is the study of how human beings depend on God and how God intervenes to save human beings.
  • CRE is a subject studied in Kenyan schools to develop the mind, behaviour and character of the learners.
  • It is also a subject that shows God’s relationship with man.

Importance of studying CRE

Studying CRE is important because

  1. It makes one understand that God the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit operate as one.
  2. It helps one dispute knowledge and attitude s to make the right decisions in life.
  3. Enables one think critically and make moral decisions on challenges affecting one’s life and the society
  4. One becomes exposed to cultural heritage, enhancing national unity through respect for each community.
  5. One develops as a whole person, body, soul and spirit
  6. One becomes courageous in the study of creation one is empowered to utilise the ability to control God’s creation
  7. It helps you relate with each other well through care and hospitality
  8. The moral values you acquire helps you to take care of the environment
  9. One acquires respect for oneself and hence living a productive life
  10. One acquires the principle of sharing and social justice, enabling them to coexist with others
  11. One acquires the skills that enable him or her promote economic development
  12. It enables one to acquire ICT skills as they search for more knowledge
  13. One develops communication skills through discussion and debate with other learners.
    • It provides answers to life mysteries e.g. the question of life after death, the origin of mankind, etc.
    • It enables students to develop vivid awareness of God and how God reveals himself.
    • It is a career subject, whose learners major in Law and theological training.
    • It instils respect, protection and conservation of God’s creation.
    • It highly promotes human dignity.
    • It helps students to appreciate their culture as well.
    • It equips the youth with life skills such as critical thinking, which enables them to face challenges wisely.
    • With regard to national goals of education, it promotes national development by instilling a positive attitude towards work. It equips learners with values that promote economic development.
    • It helps learners to understand themselves better.
    • It enables students to see the power of God controlling their own lives. It enables students to respond adequately to God’s teachings and to relate well to others.
    • It is a service of natural guidance.
    • It promotes cultural integration.
    • It promotes social equality and justice.

How Cre Helps Us To Relate Well With Others

  1. It has helped developed skills as ability to listen
  2. It helps acquire values such as respect for self and others
  3. It helps someone to make moral decisions. This helps people to associate with the right people
  4. Obedience to God’s command of loving our neighbour teaches us to care about others

Moral And Religious Values Acquired From Studying Of Cre

  1. Humility
  2. Respect
  3. Hard work
  4. Discipline
  5. Honesty
  6. Integrity
  7. Responsibility
  8. Unity
  9. Love
  10. Hospitality