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A territory is considered as an organised political community under one government
An extensive group of semi autonomous states ruled by one ruler
A state or territory ruled by a king or queen
Great Zimbabwe was a city near Masvingo in the central part of the modern day Zimabwe, Mozambique and Botstwana.
It existed between 1000BC to 1500BC
Zimbabwe is a shone word meaning “stone houses”
Great Zimbabwe had a centralized government with hereditary kings. This system of government led to the rise and growth of the kingdom
Locating ancient kingdoms on a map of Africa
Locating areas by the Ogiek, Zulu and Asante communities in Africa
Ogiek are southern nilotic speakers
Most of them live in the county of nakuru, mau and mt elgon forests
Zulu are Ngni people, bantu speaking
They occupy Kwazulu natal province in South africa
In the Ngumi languages izulu means heaven or weather
The zulu clans referred to as the isizwe
The zulu society was organised into parilineal sibs. The sibs were further divide into lineages which were composed of descendants of a common ancestor
Most households comprised extended families who lived in one household called kraal
Men inherited everything. Inheritance was patrilineal
The zulu people were polygamous. Men married many wives and lived with them with the extended family in the kraal.
Men paid dowry in terms of cows and gifts during the weeding day umabo
The zulu community believed in Umhlanga or reeds dance ceremony
Beadwork was a prominent wttire that worn at the Umahlanga
Beadworks was a sign of communication
It also symbolised wealth status of a person
Zulu believed in one God called uNkulunkulu
The controlled day to day human life of the Zulu community
The zulu had traditional mediceine men who treated the sick
Asante are Akan speaking people
They live in the central part of the Modern day Ghana
Are organsised into clans whch is headed by a chief
Each clan speaks its own dialect of the Aken language
They believe in one supreme creator called Nyame
Ancestors were believed to connect people to Nyame
Asante empire leader was called Asatehene
He also acted as a spiritual leader
Omamhene and chiefs were all religious leaders who presided over religious ceremonies
Golden stool was th symbol of national unity in the Aasnte empire
It symboised ones and authority from the Asantehene
It was based in Kumasi, the capital of Asant empire
Odwira festival was an annual ceremony
They believed in the spirits of the departed rulers
Asante were socially stratified into 5 main divions
1st division – king and those close to the king
- Lived in the capital of Kumasi
- Were wealthy and lived in luxury
2nd division – consisted of the chiefs and top officials who assisted the king in enforcing law and order
3rd division – those who had acquired a lot of wealth hence respect in the society
4th division – comprised of ordinary farmers, traders and fishermen
5th division – the lowest class was for the slaves
Asante families were extebded and matrilineal – mother’s brother was the legal guardian of her children
Asante were experts in form of decoration, logos, arts, sculture and pottery
These were known as Adinkra symbols
|Aspect of social organisation||The Ogiek||The Zulu||The Asante|
|Art and Clothing|
|Family set up|
|Name of their God||Tororet||believed in one God called uNkulunkulu||supreme creator called Nyame|
|Inheritance||The ogiek were a patriarchal society- men owned property and passed it to their son||Men inherited everything. Inheritance was patrilineal|
|Circumcision||Both boys and girls were initiated|
Personality attributes are qualities or characteristics that differentiate the character, action and attitude of a person from one another
|Openness to experience|
Desirable and undesirable personality attributes in a multicultural society
A state of calmness when there is no war
This is the process or act of solving or settling a disagreement.
Peace and conflict for personal well being
This is an attempt by communities of people to explain their origin.
It is given through Oral Traditions, myths and legends.
It mainly states that the first people were created by God
This presents man and everything else as having been created by God.
It is contained mainly in
Evolution is a natural process of gradual and continuous change of living organisms from a lower (simpler) state to a better-adapted (complex) and superior one.
Archaeological site or prehistoric site
Is a place where human remains were found
Are scientists who excavated the human remains for study
Weather is the daily atmospheric conditions of a place at a particular time.
Diurnal/daily Temperature range
-Difference between the maximum and minimum temperature for any one day.
Mean Daily Temperature
-Average of the maximum and the minimum daily temperatures.
Mean Monthly temperature
-Sum of mean daily temperatures in a month divided by the number of days in that month.
Mean Monthly minimum Temperature
-Sum of daily minimum temperatures divided by the number of days in that month.
Mean Monthly Maximum Temperature
-Sum of daily maximum temperatures divided by the number of days in that month.
Mean Annual Temperature
-Sum of mean monthly temperatures divided by 12.
Mean Annual Temperature Range
-Difference between the highest and the lowest mean monthly temperatures in a year.
Monthly Rainfall Total
-Sum of rainfall recorded in a month.
Annual Rainfall Total
-Sum of monthly rainfall totals for 12 months.
Mean Monthly Rainfall
-Sum of rainfall totals for a particular month over several years divided by the number of the years of observation.
Mean Annual Rainfall
-Sum of mean monthly rainfall for 12 months of the year.
Primary source is historical information that are created during the time period studied or were created at a later age by participant in even being practised
Secondary source is historical information that interprets or analyses a historical phenomenon
|Primary sources of historical information||Secondary sources of historical information|
Significance of historical information in providing evidence of past accounts
|Sources of historical information||Significance of sources of information||How did it provide evidence of past accounts|
|Primary source||Provide cultural values of the society||They are preserved in museums and cultural centres for viewing|
|Secondary Sources||Provide knowledge to students of history||They are stocked in libraries and archives|
Solar system is the group of heavenly bodies comprising the sun and the planets.
Surface area of the earth-510×106 km2
Water surface - 73%.
Nearest from the sun
Its 58m km from the sun
Has no satellites
Takes approximately 88 earth days to revolve around the sun
2nd planet from the sun
It’s 108m km from the sun
One of the brightest planets
Can be seen clearly with naked eyes
Takes approximately 225 earth days to revolve around the sun
Slightly smaller than the earth
Has no satellites
Together with the earth they are called twin planets due to having many similarities
Also called The Red Planet because when it’s observed through a telescope it appears reddish.
The 4th from the sun
Slightly smaller than the earth
Approximately 228m km from the sun
Takes 687 earth days to revolve around the sun
Between Mass and Jupiter there are small celestial bodies called planetoids.
Has no satellite.
5th planet from the sun
Approximately 778m km from the sun
Largest in the universe
Rotates on its own axis at very fast speed
Has flattened poles due to its fast speed of rotation
Has very thick layers of ice on its surface
takes 12 earth years to revolve around the sun
Has 16 satellites
6th planet from the sun
Second largest planet
Approximately 1427m km from the sun
Takes 29 ½ earth years to revolve around the sun
Has a ring around it
Has 18 satellites
7th planet from the sun
About 4 times bigger than the earth
Approximately 2870m km from the sun
Also rotates very fast
Also has flattened poles due to fast speed of rotation
It appears greenish foe being surrounded by methane gas
Has 8 satellites
Takes 84 earth years to revolve around the sun
One of the farthest from the sun
8th planet from the sun
Approximately 4497m km from the sun
Has 8 satellites
Takes 165 earth years to revolve around the sun
Very similar in size, colour and character with Uranus
The shape of the earth is called geoid/ovoid/oblate spheroid due to being an imperfect sphere by being wide at the equator and flat at the poles.
The 3rd planet from the sun
The earth and the heavenly bodies make the universe
The only planet that supports life
The home of man
Approximately 149m km from the sun
Takes 365 ¼ days to revolve around the sun
Has one satellite, the moon
Movement of the earth on its own axis (imaginary line through the centre from N pole to S pole
Rotates through 360º
Takes 24 hours (day) to complete 1 rotation
Rotates in an anticlockwise direction (west to east)
|Effects of Rotation||How rotation affects human activities|
|Day and night||Planning day and night activities|
|High and low tides|| Helps in fishing activities
Sea transport -
|Deflection of winds and ocean currents||
|Effects of Revolution||How revolution affects human activities|
|Changes in the position of midday sun at different times of the year|
|Varying length of day and night at different times of the day|
A map is a representation of the earth or part of it on a flat surface.
The northern half is very wide while the southern is much narrower
At the cape guardafui extends outwards in the shape of a horn therefore the horn of Africa
Africa is the second largest continent in the world
Has an area of about 30.3 million square kilometres (20% of the total land surface)
It measures 8000 km from north to south and 7400km from east to west
Africa has the largest number of countries in the world making o total of 55 countries
The largest country in Africa is Algeria while the smallest is Seychelles.
Offshore island also form part of Africa;
|Place||Degrees North||Degrees South||Degree East||Degree West|
|Kenya||5°N||4½°S||Between 34°W and 42°E|
|Physical feature||Degrees North||Degress South||Degree East||Degrees West|
Effects of rotation of the earth
24hrs = 360 ̊
1hr = ?
360×1 ÷24 =15
Therefore 1hr =15 ̊ or 360 ̊ = (24×60)minutes=1440min
̊= 1440÷360 ×1=4min
I Hr the earth covers 15º and 1º it covers 4 minutes
The time in Accra 0° is 7.00am.calculate time in bermbera 45°E
? = 45° = 45÷15×1 =3hrs
So 3hrs is equivalent to 45° then add 3hrs to 7.00am to get 10.00am
Suppose the time at GWM is 12 noon what is the local time at Watamu 40°E?
Time gained=40×4=160min=2 hours 40min
Local time at Watamu is 12.00+2.40=14.40-1200=2.40pm.
At Dar-es-Salaam 40°E time is 12pm what is the time at Ecuador 40°E?
Ecuador is behind in time =12.00-4=8 am.
|Image of a real object||Outline of something drawn to scale||Representation of the whole or part of the earth’s surface drawn to scale|
|Gives details in their visible shapes and sizes||Also drawn as if a person was directly above the ground||Shows outline of objects on the ground|
|Can be inform of free hand, drawing, painting or a photograph||It represents a very small place||Drawn as if the drawer was above the ground|
|Not drawn to scale||The scale is large to show details e.g. house plan||It shows details|
|Gives specific information||Most of the features are indicated by symbols.|
A good sketch map should have the following characteristics:
|Importance of Social Studies|
|Personal development||Service to humanity|
|1.||Helps one to understand the real world around us||Helps us to utilize the available resources to serve humanity|
|2.||Helps us to become good citizens||Helps us to appreciate and relate well with other people|
|3.||Helps us to know the current affairs|
|Land economics||Archaeology||Public administrator|
Entrepreneurial opportunities for social studies
Some of the entrepreneurial opportunities for social studies in our socisty include
Gender is the state of being male or female in relation to social and cultural roles.
Stereotypes are fixed general ideas or images that assume that a person behaves in a particular way.
Stereotypes limit aspirations and development of talents.
They create gender differences.
These gender differences ought to be addressed using appropriate strategies.
A strategy is a careful plan or method of dealing with an issue
We can address gender stereotypes in career and entrepreneurial opportunities related to social studies through the following strategies
Isaiah prophesied that
Jeremiah prophesied that
Mathew 1:18-23, Jeremiah 23:5-6, Isaiah 9:6-7
|Old testament prophecies||How they were fulfilled|
|The Messiah would be a descendant of David||Jesus established an everlasting kingdom of God|
|He would bring salvation upon Judah||Mary conceived as a virgin|
|The messiah would rule on the throne of David forever||Joseph, the father of Jesus was descendant of king David|
|A virgin will become pregnant and have a son and He will be called Immanuel||Jesus brought salvation to the whole world|
Luke 3:16, John 1:29-30
|John the Baptist||Jesus Christ|
|John baptized people with water but said Jesus would be greater||Jesus Christ was greater than John the Baptist|
|John introduced Jesus as the lamb of God||Jesus Christ came to where John was batising as the lamb of God|
|John said Jesus came to forgive sins||Jesus Christ came to forgive sins|
|John baptized people with water||Jesus Christ would baptize people with the holy spirit and fire|
|Teaching||How Christians apply the teaching|
|The warning of people on God’s punishment||Christians repent their sins|
|Urging people to repent their sins|
|Share clothes and food with the needy|
|Do not collect more tax then what is allowed by the law|
|Do not take money from any one by force|
|Do not accuse anyone falsely|
|Be happy with whatever amount of money you are paid|
The Bible is the inspired word of God.
John 1:1-2, Proverbs 30:5-6
The Bible is used in spreading the word of God in the following ways:
Holistic growth involves physical, emotional, social, intellectual and spiritual growth.
The Bible helps Christians to grow holistically
Spiritual growth includes
Role of the Bible in promoting physical growth
Moral growth is the process of developing proper attitudes and behaviuour towards other people based on cultural norms and love
The Bible tells us that everyone is created in God’s image. Therefore we should not discriminate against others.
We should help those in need, respect and love our neighbour as we love ourselves
The Bible builds our emotions. When facing sad and difficult situations. It brings us close to God. God provides everything for our enjoyment and we should express our joy to him.
As we grow in strength, the Bible helps us to grow in wisdom. God gives us the ability to comprehend, think, reason and remember. The Bible helps us to make correct decisions for quality Christian living.
How God’s word inspires different services among Christians
Christian service is demonstration of who we are in Christ.
The Bible has 2 divisions
Why are there two divisions of the Bible
Importance of the two divisions of the Bible to Christians
It was originally written in Hebrew.
It was written before Jesus Christ came to exist physically.
It was later translated to Greek and other languages.
The following are groups of books in the Old Testament respective of their appearance.
They were written by Moses.
Genesis means origin or beginning
Exodus means coming out or departure
Numbers means census
Leviticus explains rules and regulation of priests.
The Ten Commandments (Decalogue) are found in the book of exodus and Deuteronomy.
Contains the history of what happened to the Israelites and its neighbours.
|1 Samuel||Samuel, Gad, Nathan|
|2 Samuel||Gad and Nathan|
|Song of Solomon||Solomon|
Major prophetic books
Minor prophetic books
Genesis is the first book of the Bible and the Old Testament.
Malachi is the last book of the Old Testament.
The New Testament is the period after Christ is born, it is the fulfilment of tthe old testament prophecies of Jesus.
They explain the events in life of Jesus from birth to his ascension in Bethany.
Gospel books are divided into two groups:
They explain full life history of Jesus
They are: Matthew, mark and Luke.
Non- Synoptic Book.
It does not explain full history of Jesus.
It is the book of John.
These are letters which were written by Paul while he was in prison.
Written by different writers who were inspired by God.
|James||James the brother of Jesus|
|1 Peter||Apostle Peter|
|2 Peter||Apostle peter|
|Jude||Jude the brother of Jesus|
It was written by John after having a vision on Patmos Island.
Revelation contains the writings about the last days.
Matthew is the first book of the New Testament.
Revelation is the last book of the Bible and the New Testament.
To translate means to express spoken or written words in a language that is different from one that was initially used.
A version is the construction of the languages that a translator of the Bible uses in their work
Economic effects of the translation of the holy Bible into local languages
Exodus 2:11-13, exodus 3:1-2, Exodus 6:12
During the call of Moses, god told Moses that he had heard the cry of his people (Israelites) God wanted to send Moses to the king of Egypt so that he could lead his people out of the country
Exodus 2:11-13, Exodus 3:1-2, Exodus 6:12
Advantages of choosing good leaders in the society
Genesis 1:131, 2:1-4
|First||Day and light and darkness|
|Third||Earth(land, plants and water bodies|
|Fourth||Heavenly bodies( sun, moon and stars)|
|Fifth||Sea creatures and birds|
|Sixth||Land creatures and man|
|Seventh||God rested and called the day Sabbath|
The second Biblical account of creation
|First Account||Second Account|
|1.Days on the order of creation are given||There is no mention of the days on order of creation|
|2.Marriage is made for procreation||Marriage is made for companionship|
|3.Man was created last||Man was created first|
Differences Between the biblical account and African creation stories
The Kenya constitution protects animals from violence, overworking them when they are unwell, starvation, denial of water, abandonment, poisoning, careless surgery procedures, hunting and killing them.
We should learn to co exist with wild animals to reduce conflicts with them.
Different plants found in the environment
Genesis 1:29, Genesis 2:15, Psalms 104:14
They were to be in charge of the Garden of Eden
To eat from the fruits of the garden
To take care of God’s creation.
Human beings have a responsibility to conserve the environment. We can conserver the environment by
There are different types of plants and animals that Africans keep.
Some crops initially grown by specific African communities in specific geographical locations
The Africans took care of plants and animals as a responsibility from God
Types of indigenous plants
African ensured protection of all animals, fish and birds in different ways
Studying CRE is important because