It is the act of denying or preventing people from enjoying their rights
Drugs – substance taken as medicine or illegal substance which when taken changes how the body
Drug abuse – misuse or wrong use of drugs
Commonly abused drugs and substances
These people include
They can be helped in the follwing ways
It is the act of citizens teaming up and joining hands to perform a certain duty or task for the benefits
of all in the society.
Things that citizens can do to support one another
They are said to have been the earliest inhabitants of southern africa
They consists of khoikhoi and san
They speak with click sound
They similar physical features
They are short
Formerly known as bushmen
Reasons for the decline and fall of the kingdom
Scramble – struggle or compete in a disorderly manner
Partition of africa- dividing up africa into smaller parts
The european nations that took part in the scramble for africa were;
Reasons for the Scramble for Colonies in Africa
Reasons why African were colonised easily
Some african;resisted – collaborated
Reasons for resistance
Why Samouri was able to resist the french for a long time
Reasons why samouri was defeated
Those who were not civilised were denied to:
French grouped their colonies to form federations
Example 1: french west africa federation
Example 2. French central africa(equatorial)federation
Central african republic
French regarded their colonies as overseas provinces hence governed directly from france.
Minister for colonies – in charge of all colonies
Governor general – for each federation
Lieutenant – for each colony
Commandant de cercle – for each cercle(province)
Chef de sub division – for each commune(district)
Chef de canton(chief) – for each canton(location)
Chef de village(headman) – for each sub-location
French used the policy of assimilation
The requirement for assimilation
Rights enjoyed by a french citizen
The four coastal towns where assimilation was used in senegal
Africans in the commune were not subjected to forced labour and taxation
The rest of senegal was subdivided into
Provinces and districts were administred through the policy of association
Through association africans were treated as subjects and not citizens of france e.g.
Reasons why policy of assimilation became difficult
They were the 1st europeans to come to africa
Like the french they considered their colonies as overseas provinces
They used direct policy to administer mozambique
Colonies – minister for overseas provinces
Colony – governor general
Province – provincial officer
District – district officer
Location – chief(rogedores)
Africans held only junior posts in administration
Land was rented to british and french companies
British set up tea, sugar and cotton plantation
Plantation was called prazeros
In troublesome areas administration was carried out by millitary commanders
Portuguese administration was harsh and brutal which made africans to flee to malawi and tanganyika as refugees
In 1961 mozambique formed anti-portuguese political groups e.g.FRELIMO
Comprised of three protectorates
In northern nigeria british used indirect rule
They used centralised system of traditional rulers called emirs
Each emir was in charge of an emirates
Northern nigeria was divided into provinces and districts
Emirs worked under district officers
Responsibilities of emirs were
Reasons why the british used indirect rule in northern nigeria
British overseas colonial officer – in charge of colonies(london)
British high commissioner- in charge of protectorate(northern nigeria)
British resident(provincial)commissioner – in charge of province
District officers – in charge of districts
African chief(emirs) – incharge of local areas(emirates)
Ghana was formerly known as gold coast
It was colonised by the british
Climate and high risk of malaria discouraged mass european settlement
Complaints of Africans in Ghana were
In 1947 the united gold coast convention (UGCC) PARTY WAS FORMED –LED by J B.Danqah –
president and kwame nkrumah – secretary general.
In 1948 – a boycott of european shops. A demonstration of ex-servicemen
Demands of the party were;
Leaders of UGCC were arrested
In 1949 nkrumah was released and formed conventional people’s party(CPP)
Main aim of CPP was to fight for self-governance
Between 1949 and 1950 nkurumah was arrested and other leaders
In 1951 nkrumah was released due to pressure from africas and elections were held
In 1951 CPP did not get a majority to form the government
In 1956- there was election again and CPP won
In 1957 march gold coast was granted full independence with kwame nkurumah as the prime minister.
Gold coast was renamed ghana
1960 – ghana became a republic with nkurumah as the 1st president
NB ghana got independence through peaceful means by using ;
Formerly known as southern rhodesia
Colonised by british
In 1889 british government granted BSACO the right to
In 1923 british declared rhodesia a self-governing colony
Under colonial rule;
In 1934 african national congress(ANC)was formed to demand the removal of pass law and forced
Settlers formed the rhodesian front party
The africans realised negotaitions would not work and they decided to use armed struggle.
In 1963 ZANU was formed. Its leaders were;
ZANU liberation army was called ZANLA
ZANLA was to wage guerilla warfare on settler rule.
In 1963 joshua nkomo formed ZAPU.
Later the two parties were banned and its leaders imrisoned
In 1965 rhodesian front party declared unilateral declaration of independence from britain led by ian smith
ZANU and ZAPU established fighting
Ian smith was forced to participate in discussions about the future of rhodesia
Elections were eventually held in 1980
ZANU won and robert mugabe became the prime minister
The name rhodesia changed to zimbabwe.
Contributions of Gamal Abdel Nasser
|It is a republic headed by a president||It a kingdom headed by a king|
|It has executive parliament and judiciary||It has a king, national council and parliament|
|General elections are held after every five years||No general elections|
|President rules for a maximum of two five years term||King rules until he dies.|
|Many political parties||No political parties|
|Members of parliament are elected by people
| M.P.are appointed by king and elections by an
Was formed on 25th may 1963
Headquarters in addis-ababa ethiopia
Members present during formation were
First chairman was haire sellasie
OAU was transformed to AU in 2001
AU was officially formed in 2002 in south africa
Reasons for the formation of AU
Objectives of AU
Things that we use to create wealth and meet our needs are called resources.
Activities that people undertake in order to earn income and create wealth are called economic activities
This is growing of crops and rearing of livestocks
The main cash crops grown in africa include.
Was brought from central america
Introduced to west africa countries like:
Ghana is one of the largest producer of cocoa.
NB Cote d ivoire is the leading producer of cocoa
Varieties of cocoa are;
Conditions Favouring the Growth of Cocoa.
Cocoa Growing Areas
Grown in small family farms.
Main growing areas is called cocoa triangle.
Cocoa triangle areas are;accra, kumasi, takoradi.
Importance of cocoa to the economy of ghana.
Grows in tropical climates
Grow in clusters
Picked when the buds are full but not open.
It has a life-span of 50-60years
It originated from indonesia.
They were introduced to the island of zanzibar by the arabs
Originally grown in plantations.
Today also grown on small scale farms
Conditions Favouring the Growth of Cloves
Importance of cloves to the economy of Tanzania
Draw map on our lives today pg 70 showing cloves in tanzania.
Kenya is the world’s largest producer and exporter.
The plant was introduced from australia in 1929
Grown for its flowers substance called pyrethrin which is used to make pesticides.
Conditions favouring the growth of pyrethrum
Growing areas in kenya
Mainly grown in small farms;
Importance of pyrethrum to the economy
Keeping of animals as a way of life is called pastoral farming
Animals mainly kept are
Transhumance – is the migration /movement of pastoralist seasonally between the wet and dry season in search of pasture
Pastoralism is mainly practised in the grassland savannah and some semi-arid areas of africa.
Major pastoral communities in africa:
Best known nomadic pastoralists of east africa.
Mainly keep cattle, goats and sheep.
They practise transhumance
Conditions favouring pastoral farming among the maasai
Are found in west africa
Are largest nomadic group in the world
They keep cattle, sheep, goats and horses
Occupy the savannah area between chad and senegal.
They practise transhumance
They uses horses to search for places where water and grazing land are available.
Conditions favouring pastoral farming among the fulani
Are found in botswana.
Kalahari desert lies to the west of the country
Soil is sandy
Soil mainly support savannah grassland vegetation
Water is tapped by drilling wells and boreholes.
Animals kept are cattle, sheep and goats.
Grazing areas are often far from the homestead
Conditions favouring pastoral farming among the tswana
Found along river Tana
Source in the highlands around mt kenya
Involved the construction of seven dams hence the name seven forks schemes
Reasons for establishment
Benefits from the river tana projects
Problems Facing the Tana Projects.
Found in egypt
Located on river Nile
Completed in 1971
Behind the dam is lake nasser 550km long.
Lake nasser is the second largest after kariba.
Reasons for establishment
Benefits resulting from the construction of the dam
Problems facing the aswan high dam.
It is the largest river in ghana
Found across river volta a place called akosombo
A dam is also known as the akosombo dam
The location of the dam was chosen because of its narrow position.
Started in 1962 and completed in 1966.
A lake called lake volta was formed behind the dam
Lake volta is the world’s largest in terms of surface area.
Reason for establishment
Benefits from the development of the scheme.
Problems facing the volta river scheme
Located at kariba gorge along river zambezi
Found on the boundary between zimbabwe and zambia in central africa.
Construction began in 1955 and completed 1977.
Lake kariba was formed behind this dam.
It is the world’s largest artificial lake by water volume.
Reasons for establishment
Benefits resulting from the kariba dam.
Problems facing the establishment of the dam
A forest is a group of trees growing close together over a lrge area of land.
Forestry is the practice of planting and taking care of forests and trees in order to serve different purposes.
Forests in africa are both natural and planted
Natural forest mainly consists of hardwood and some softwood trees.
Planted or cultivated forests consist of softwood trees.
Draw map showing location of major forests in africa on our lives today pg 88
The main type is the extensive tropical rain forest or the equatorial forest.it covers gabon, cote d ivoire, nigeria,
ghana, DRC, Liberia, cameroon and eastern coat of madagascar.
Mountane or mountain forest
Occurs in the highland and mountain regions of africa
Found at ;
Found in the savannah belt of africa.
Mixture of hardwood and softwood forest
Importances of forest to the economy of DRC
Importances of forests to the economy of swaziland
Problems facing forestry in swaziland
Is the process of extracting or removing minerals from within the ground.
Rocks containing minerals are called ores.
In natural state it is called crude oil
Mined in niger delta
It is done by means of a large metal sructure called derrick.
The drill head is called bit.
Mud is mixed with water to lubricate the bit
Where oil deposits are below the ocean floor, oil rig is floated on the water to drill the oil.
Oil is transported by pipeline to the refineries
Refineries are located at elesa eleme near port harcourt at wari and at kaduna.
Uses of petroleum
Contribution of oil to the economy of niger
It is shiny, fairly soft and reddish brown in colour
It is easy to bend and shape.
DRC and zambia are leading producer in africa
Copper belt extend from ndola in zambia to lubumbashi in DRC.
Open cast or stripping method is used.
Also shaft or pit method is used.
Machines called excavators are used.
Open cast is done at Nchanga near chingaola
Deep in ground shaft or pit method is used.
Uses of copper
Contribution of copper to the economy of zambia
It is a yellow precious metal
South africa is the largest producer of gold in the world.
Rock cointaining gold is called reefs
Reefs is the ore that is mined
Mining began in 1886 in south africa area called witwatersrand near Johannesburg in trasvaal province.
Other mining areas are orange free state
Shaft or underground mining is used as method
Electric drills are used to remove gold reef.
Gold is separated from the rocks using chemical
Gold is melted and made into bars called ignots.
Uses of gold
Contribution of gold to the economy
Rock cointaining soda ash is called trona
Mined at lake magadi.
Mining started in 1914.
Soda ash mining
Method is dredging
Machine is called dredger
Mixed with water to form shiny solution called slurry.
In factory unwanted rocks and dirt are removed from slurry
The product is then dried by evaporating
Soda ash is put in bags and exported
Uses of soda ash
Contribution of soda ash
Is growth and expansion of industries in an area.
The development of industries in kenya started in 1941
Industries are made more diverse covering processing, assemblying, manufacturing, and service industries.
Factoring favouring industrial development in kenya.
Availability of ready markets
Contributions of industries to the economy of kenya
South africa is the most developed (industrialised nation in africa)
Factors favouring growth of Industries in South Africa
Contribution of industries to the economy of south africa
Is harvesting of fish from water bodies or fishing grounds.
Can be harvested from fresh or salty water sources.
Fresh water sources of fish are called inland fishing ground
Sea water sources are salty and are called marine fishing ground.
Carried out in:
Most important fishing ground ;
Fish caught are in the above named inland areas are;
Artificial lakes where fishing is practised;
Rivers where fishing is carried out;
Fish farming is practised in ponds;
Carried out in seas and oceans
Fishing methods depend on;
Large scale fishing methods are;
NB dagaa are attracted to the surface near the fishing boat by light from lamps.
Is the exchange of goods and serviecs between people or countries.
Formed in 1994
Replaced PTA which was formed in 1981.
Mainly formed to increase trade in eastern and southern africa.
Headquaters are in lusaka zambia.
Members refer our live today pg 114
Mozambique withdrew and lesotho in 1997
Tanzania withdrew in 2000
Namibia withdrew in 2004
Angola has also withdrew.
Objectives of COMESA
Formed in 1980 in lusaka zambia
Formed as SADCC.
Headquarters are in gaborone botswana.
Members – refer to our lives today pg 115
Objectives of SADC
formed in 1976 in togo.
Headquaters Abuja nigeria
Members – refer our lives today pg 116
Mauritania withdrew in 2000
Guinea suspended in 2008
Objectives of ECOWAS
TRANSPORT is the movement of goods and people from one place to another.
COMMUNICATION is the sending of messages from one person or place to another.
Major international roads
Built during colonial period
Few were built after independence.
South africa has the most developed railway notwork in africa
Somalia, rwanda, burundi and niger do not have a railway.
It transports bulky goods.
It is cheap form of transport
Water transport in rivers and lakes is called inland water transport.
Water transport in sea and ocean is called sea transport.
Mainly not navigable because;
Transport water, petroleum and gas
Biggest concentration is in north africa.
Major airlines in africa are;
Mainly used to transport electricity from the power stations to the consumers.
|Advantages of road||Disadvantages of road|
|Wide spread||Traffic jams|
|Flexible||Maximum load is limited|
|Quite fast||High rate of accident|
|Goods delivered directly to their destination||Few passengers at a time|
|Wide variety of goods can be transported by road||Greatly affected by weather.|
|Convenient all time||Expensive to maintain|
|Gases cause air pollution|
|Railway advantages||Railway disadvantages|
|Convenient for bulky goods||Expensive to build|
|Minimal accidents||Expensive to buy wagon, trains|
|Cost is low for transport||Gauge are narrow|
|No traffic jam||Require flat land to build|
|More durable||Stopping point are far|
|Not greatly attected by thief||Not economical when quantities are small|
|Low consumption of fuel||Not flexible|
|Comfortable for passengers travelling over long distances||Greatly affected when there are breakdown|
|Does not require alot of labour||Generally slow|
|Very dependent on infrastrature only when there is a railway|
|Water transport advantages||Water transport disadvantages|
|Occurs naturally therefore no maintaince||Slow form of transport|
|Suitable for bulky goods||Waterfalls and rapids|
|Cheapest||Expensive to construct ports|
|Suitable for transporting special goods e.g.petroleum||Affected by storms|
|Can reach many parts of the world bordered by water bodies||Not accessed by all especially landlocked countries|
|Air transport advantages||Air transport disadvantages|
|Fastest form of transport||Expensive to buy and maintain aeroplanes|
|Few theft cases||Not used for bulky goods|
|Transport distant countries||Operate on strict timetable|
|Low damage of goods||carry limited number of people|
|Affected by weather e.g.food|
|Require high qualified people|
|Pipeline tranport advantages||Pipeline tranport disadvantages|
|Enables continousflow of commodities||Expensive to build|
|It is fast||Great losses through leakage|
|Laid on both land and in the sea||Not flexible|
|Low maintenance cost||Economical only where gas and oil is constant|
|Reduces damages on roads||Cannot transport solid commodity|
|Reduces cases of theft||Cannot transport people|
|Require very little human labour.|
|Cable transport advantages||Cable transport disadvantages|
|Delivery of the product is constant||Expensive to install|
|Used above the surface and underground||Dangerous if wire drop to the ground|
|Require very little human labour.|
|Used above the surface and underground|
|Power can be transported over long distances|
|Last for long time|
The recent ICT development iclude the introduction and uses of;
Is the movement of people from one place to another for leisure, sightseeing and also for business.
Is a place where tourist desire to visit.
|Country in africa||Main tourist attraction|
|Kenya||Game parks and reserves e.g. maasai mara, tsavo,
warm beaches, historical and pre-historical sites
e.g. koobi fora, gedi ruins
|South Africa||Kruger national park, table mountains, roben island,
|Egypt||Pyramids at giza, valley of king, cairo musuem, nile
cruises ,library at alexandria
|Zimbabwe||Victoria falls, lake kariba, hwango national park, city
|Mauritius||Coastal beaches and warm climate, black gorges
national park, ruins of europeans settlement
|Morocco|| Ancient town of marakach, sandy beaches, berber
villages, atlas mountains.
The growth and development of towns and urban centres
Capital cities in africa
Is town where central government operates from
Also called seat of government
Social relations refers to the way members of the society relate or get on with each other.
Cultural activities refers to things or activities done according to the way of life of people.
Is a group of people related and joined by blood, adoption or marriage.
Is the smallest basic unit of a society.
It begins when an adult man and an adult woman are joined together in marriage.
Is a lawful union between an adult man and woman as a husband and wife.
Marriage is for companionship, love and procreation.
Also called traditional marriage
Is conducted according to the traditional customs and culture of the community.
Is presided over by the elders within a community.
Dowry is paid as per the customs of the community
It allows polygamy
Dowry strengths the marriage bond.
Marriage certificate is not issued.
It takes place in a government office
Is presided over by a government officer e.g.attorney general, magistrate, a district commissioner
The couple gives 21 days or three weeks notice
It is strictly monogamous
Is registered after the exchange of vows.
A marriage certificate is issued
Bride price is usually given to the brides parents before the wedding .
Is carried out according to the religious beliefs of the couple.
Is presided over by a religious leader
Is conducted in a mosque, church or a temple.
It is monogamous except in islam.
Islamic law allows a maximum of 4 wives(polygamay)
Vows are exchanged
Marraige certificate is issued
Bride price is paid before the wedding.
Importance of the institution of marriage
This is a place where children go to learn.
Is a place where children acquire knowledge and skills.
This is the day to day management of the school.
This refers to how an institution or organization is run or managed.
Public schools are built and managed by the government
A well managed school runs property and pupils learn well.
The team involved in school administration include;
The School Committee
Is hresponsible for managing each public primary school
Is made up of ;
It is headed by a chairman
The headteacher is the secrectary to the school committee.
Incharge of day to day running of the school
Links between the teachers and the ministry of education.
Ensures good discipline and cleanliness in the school.
Secretary to the school committee.
Keeps important school records.
Takes care of the school property
Ensures safety of everyone in the school
Admits new pupils to the school.
Supervises work done by teachers, pupils and other workers.
Receives all school funds an behalf of the school committee.
Ensures school finances and resources are well used.
Assigns duties to other members of staff.
Assists the headteacher
Heads disciplinary committee in the school
Supervises teacher lesson attendance
Writes minutes during staff meetings
Prepares school timetable and duty roster.
Incharge of discipline in the school.
Teaches his/her subjects.
Main role is to teach
Supervising pupils on thier responsibilities
Maintaining discipline among pupils
Guiding and counseling pupils
Role model to the pupils
Day to day running of the school as teachers on duty.
Preparing and maintaining class registers and progress records.
Identifying and developing talents in pupils.
Making sure their children attend school
Making sure their children attend to their homework.
Attending all school meetings called by the school management.
Contribute funds and other materials to build the school.
A language group is a group of who speak same or similar language.
Communities in africa belong to different language groups
The people of africa are grouped geographically
This region is made up of egypt, morocco, libya, algeria, western sahara, tunisia and mauritania.
People is this region include.
B – Berbers
A – arabs(semites)
T – tuaregs
Arabs mainly came to: trade, spread islam.
Berbers are found in tunisia, morocco, western sahara, libya, algeria.
Arabs are found in tunisia, libya, egypt, algeria, morocco and north sudan.
Tuaregs live in ahaggar plateau in algeria.
This is the largest group in africa
They are also called mandinkas or mandigoes
They are mainly cultivators
They live in;
S – Soninke
M – mande
S – susu
M – malinke
B – bambara
They are the largest language group in west africa
They initially lived in north africa
Mostly live in ghana and nigeria
Ashanti, kwahu, akyem, akwapim, fanti, wassa, nzima, fula, denkyira and ga.
Igbo, yoruba, nupe edo, ijaw, igala and efik.
They moved from lake chad.
They live between the upper and lower volta rivers
They were prominent traders
They are found mainly in ghana and burkina faso
Ewe – ewe
Mo – mossi
Gu – gurma
Da – dagomba
Be – bergu
Fo – fon
Eg – egun.
They live along the coast of atlantic ocean.
They are mainly pastorists
They are found in senegal, mali, gambia, guinea, mauritania, guinea bissau.
Fu – fulani
Tu – tukolor
Wo – wolof
Se – serer
Te – temme
C – creole
K – kru.
Are as a result of intermarriage betwee africans and arabs
Were mainly traders
Played an important role in the tras-saharan trade
Ha – hausa
Tu – tuaregs
A – andarawa
|Hawa||In northern nigeria|
|Tuaregs||Niger, chad, mauritania, sahel region in mali|
They migrated from nile region to west africa through sahara.
They live in nigeria, niger, mali and cameroon,
So – songhai
Za – zarma
De – dendi
Ka – kanuri.
Majority of the people are bantu
The earliest inhabitants of the region were the khoikhoi, san, and pygmies.
The pygmies are also called the bambuti
The pygmies lived in the forests
The san and khoikhoi were forced to move southwards
The bantu were mainly cultivators
Some of the bantu group of central africa are:
|Bakongo, balunda, baluba, banyamlenge||D.R.C|
|Nyanya, yao, chewa,lambya, sena, manganja, mgonde, mgoni, nyasa, tonga.||Malawi|
|Bemba,lozi, onga, lala lunda, luba, kaonde||Zambia|
|Tutsi, twala, hutu||Rwanda and burundi|
|Sara||Central africa republic|
Also called bambuti
Are forest people
Are mainly hunters and gatherers
They lead a communal life i.e.sharing most of the food they get.
They are found in the forest lands of:
They are the earliest and oldest inhibitants of southern africa
They migrated from congo forest
They speak with click sounds
They are made up of
Khoikhoiand the san
Also called hottentos
Are mainly found in namibia
Also called the bushmen
Are hunters and gatherers
Are mainly found in kalahari desert in botswana and namibia
The bantu speaking people of southern africa
|Tswana, bechuana, bulala, kalahari,||Botswana|
|Ovambo, herero, griqua||Namibia|
|Xhosa, zulu, ndebele, tsonga, ovahimba, bakwena, venda||South Africa|
They are also known as the dutch
They migrated from the holland/netherlands
They came as settlers in 1652 in south africa
They were also called boers a dutch wod for farmers
They speak a language called afrikaans
They fought with british colonialists and were granted independence 1934
They include asians and coloureds.
Are mainly indians
They were brought to work in sugar plantations of natal
They live in towns as businessmen
Are as a result of intermarriage between
Whites and blacks, white and asians, asians and blacks
Are mainly found in the urban centres of south africa
Interactions refers to the coming together of different communities
Communities in the past interacted through the following ways:
Areas receiving high rainfall are densely populated
Areas receiving low rainfall and high temperatures are sparsely populated
Steep slopes of hills and mountaions are sparsely populated
Gentle slopes of highlands are densely populated
Cold and rocky peaks of mountaions are unihabited
River valleys are densely populated due to irrigation
Poorly drained areas such as swamps are sparsely populated
Areas with fertile soils are densely populated
Areas with infertile sandy soils are sparsely populated
Areas with thick rainfall do not allow human settlement
People are not allowed to live in forest reserves
Areas infested with pests like tsetse flies discourages human settlement e.g. miombo woodland and lambwe
Urban areas are densely populated because of development of trade industries, employment opportunities and good social amenities.
Presence and discovery of minerals attracts large number of people
This encourages setting up of business centres and related industries
Natural disasters/calamities/catastrophies e.g floods, eruption of volcanoes, landslides
Such areas are sparsely populated
Areas with good political stability are densely populated
Areas experiencing instability due to civil wars are sparsely populated.
Areas with good social facilities like schools, hospitals, roads and recreational facilities are densely populated.
Government ideas of settlement or irrigation schemes attracts large population
Gazettement of forest resrves makes some areas to have little or no population.
Vegetation refers to the total plant life/cover on the earth sorface.
It consists of trees, bushes, thickets and grasses.
We have natural vegetation and planted vegetation.
This is a type of vegetation that grows on its own
Also called man-made or artificial vegetation
This is a type of vegetation cultivated by human beings.
It is also called equatorial vegetation
Is located latitude 5°N and 5°S of equator.
Are found in equatorial climatic zone.
Are found in:
It covers the largest portion of africa
Is found between 5°N and 15°S of equator
Grows in tropical type of climate
It is made up of; savannah woodland and savannah grassland
Also called marguis vegetation
Grows in the mediterranean climatic zone
Found in areas experincing arid and semi-arid climate
Found in sahara and namib desert, kalahari and sahel regions
Consists mainly of drought resisitance shrub
Grows in warm temperate climatic zone
Is also called the veld
Main vegetation is grass
Is found along the muddy coasts of eastern and western africa.
Is found in the highlands and mountain regions
It grows in belts or zones according to the altitudes
It changes with increase in altitude
It is also known as afro-alpine vegetation
At average altitude above 400m there is no vegetation.
It grows on the slopes of :
Africa lies between latitude 37°N and 35°S and on longitute 18°W and 52°E.
Separated by water from all other continent except at the point where it joins Asia.
NOTE; When giving the position start with the latitude and then longitude.
Mostly Easterly point is called ras hafun(cape guardafui)
Mostly westerly is cape verde
Mostly northerly is cape bon
Mostly southerly is cape agulhas
Africa is connected to sinai peninsula by suez canal
Separated from spain by strait of gibraltar
Separated from rabia by strait of bab el-mandeb
The northern half is very wide while the southern is much narrower
At the cape guardafui extends outwards in the shape of a horn therefore the horn of africa.
Africa is the second largest continent in the world
Has an area of about 30.3 million square kilometres(20% of the total land surface)
It measures 8000 km from north to south and 7400km from east to west
Africa has the largest number of countries in the world making a total of 55 countries
The newest country is South Sudan
African countries are given below in alphabetical order:
Burkina faso 274200km2
Cape verde 7275km2
Central africa republic 622984km2
cόte d’ ivoire 322463km2
DR congo 2345409km2
Equatorial guinea 28051km2
Guinea bisau 36125km2
Sόo Tome & principe 964km2
Sierra leone 72325km2
South africa 221037km2
South sudan 644329km2
Western sahara 252120km2
The largest country in africa is Algeria while the smallest is Sychelle.
Offshore island also form part of africa;
Draw and label map of africa(including all countries)
Major longitude is called prime meridian also called greenwich meridian
In africa it passes through:
All other longitudes are measured and named from prime meridian upto 180° on both sides
Major latitude in are three passing through africa
Other important lines of latitude are far from africa are:
This is movement of earth on its own axis. One complete rotation is 360°
The direction of the rotation is from west to east i.e.anticlockwise direction. One complete rotation takes 24 hours
It is the movement of the earth around the sun on its own axis through a path known as orbit
A map is a representation of the earth or part of it on a flat surface.
The symbols used in a map help to identify;
These are things that people engage in to obtain wealthe.g –mining,fishing, farming, livestock keeping,trading,
|Quarry||People keep cattle or livestock|
|Road||People and goods are transported using road|
|Fish trap||People practise fishing|
|National Park||Tourism activities are carried out|
This is physical appreance of the earth’s surface. They include;
High ground or plateaus may be identified by the presence of;
Low attitude or plains may be identified by presence of;
On the atlas colour:
Includes all water features. They are;
Colour is used to represent drainage
Swampy areas have few settlement because they are breeding ground for mosquitoes
Many dots in an area indicate there are many people living there. Such areas are said to be densely populated.
When dots are far apart or scattered the area is said to be sparsely populated.
The main physical features in africa are:
Our lives today pg 17
Draw map of africa showing main physical features
It is a high area which is generally level or flat ot the top
They are made up of very old and hard rocks
|Plateaus surface||Country where found|
|Nyika plateau||East Africa|
These are broad and shallow depressions. Most prominent ones are:
Other smaller basins – qattara in egypt,Lake victoria – kyoga basin
The lowest depression in africa is danakil depression
It is a long depression on the earth surface
The world’s biggest and most famous is the great rift valley. It covers a distance of 5600km.
Great rift valley is divided into four sections
Ethiopian rift valley
Malawi rift valley
The main highlands in africa include:
|Mountain||Country where found|
|Mountain Range||Country where found|
|Drankensberg||South Africa, Lesotho, Swaziland|
|Cape Ranges||South Africa|
Lake victoria, tanganyika, malawi, chad, bangweulu.
Human made lakes
Volta – ghana, kainji – nigeria, nasser – egypt, kariba on border of zambia and zimbabwe.
Some lakes are salty e.g. magadi, natron, shala, bogoria, nakuru.
Salty lakes have no river flowing out of them.
Major rivers include the:nile, congo, niger, zambezi, benue, orange, limpopo, volta, senegal,
River Nile is the longest in africa
Rivers that form delta are; Niger, and Nile
Niger delta is the largest in africa
Other rivers drain into the sea or lake in a single channel called estuary.
Examples: are zambezi, congo and senegal.
They are areas of soft,wet land covered with vegetation.
They are named according to the types of vegetation in them e.g.papyrus swamps have papyrus reeds
Mangrove swamps have mangrove trees.
Examples of swamps are;
There are four types of mountains
Formed after sedimentary rock fold at the edges
Examples of fold mountains includes:
Formed when rock masses are reduced in size after many years of erosion
Examples are namuli – mozambique, homboli – mali
Other smaller features which may be formed in smaller manner are inselbergs
A lake is hollow or depression on the surface of the earth which is filled with water. Lakes are formed in different ways
May be either through action of wind or glaciers
Examples are maghra, birket(lake siwa)both in egypt
A glacier is a big block of moving ice
It is found on top of high mountains
Glacial lakes are known as tarns or corrie lake. Examples are teleki, hanging, gallary
Materials eroded by ice(moraine)may be deposited to form a barrier in a valley.
Behind such a barrier water may be collected to form a moraine dammbed lake.
They are of two types.these are;faulting and downwarping
The lakes formed in this manner are ox-bow lakes
Such lakes can also form in a delta areas e.g. lake manzala on nile delta.
draw diagrams on our lives today pg 24.
Lakes formed as a result of human activities are called artificial lakes
Relief regions in africa are
Is high and generally level ground
They lie between 400 – 2600 m above sea level
They have residuals hills (inselbergs)and valleys\
They are separated by short steep slopes known as scarps or escarpments.
The great rift valley enters africa from the red sea to beira in mozambique.
The narrowest part is about 30km wide while the widest is about 100km.
There are depressions occupied by lakes; e.g. bogoria and malawi etc
There are hills and mountains e.g. mt.longonot, suswa and ruwenzori
Some rivers flow along the floor of the rift valley .e.g. kerio, ewaso nyiro, and semliki
Areas lying above 2000m can be described as highlands
Areas lying aove 2600m form mountains
The main highlands and mountains in africa
Mt.kilimanjaro is the highest in africa 5895m
Mt kenya – 5199m
Mt ruwenzori – 5109m
These are low – lying areas that border coast
They lie 0 – 400m above sea level.
They are narrow
Many parts are covered by sandy beaches
Climate is the average weather conditions of a particular place over a long period of time normally 30-35years
It influences the temperatures, the higher you go the cooler it becomes. The rate for every 100m of vertical height is 0.6
It also affects rainfall
Onshore wind absorbs water vapour from the sea and therefore bring rain to the land.
Offshore wind are dry winds and bring no rainfall.
The wind which influenceclimate in africa are;
Draw map of africa showing the winds.our lives today bk 7 pg 29
This is the distance from equator.
Places near the equator experiences high temperatures while those far awy expriences lower temperatures
Africa lies within the tropics that is 23½° N and 23½° S. This region does not experience big change in
temperature during the different seasons.
Places outside the tropics experience winter and summer seasons. This is because the farther away one moves
from the tropics the cooler it gets.
These are the horizontal movements of water in the ocean.
They can be either be cold or warm.
Cold moves toward the equator while warm away from the equator.
The cold ocean currents are;
Warm currents are;
Places that are far away from the sea receive low rainfall than those that are near.
This rainfall is called convectional rainfall
The sea also helps in the formation of cool sea breezes and land breezes
When winds blow parallel to the coastline, they bring no rainfall to the land e.g. coast of ghana
Example axim town receives more rainfall than accra.
Africa has the following climatic regions
Characteristics of climatic regions of africa
Also called hot and wet climate It is experienced in;
Also called tropical climate.
Mainly found within the tropics
It is experienced to the north africa along coast of;morocco, algeria, tunisia and around benghazi in libya.
Also experienced in south africa around cape town.
Experienced in kalahari and the sahal regions
This region have low rainfall and high temperatures
True desert are experienced in sahara in north africca and in the namib in namibia
Experienced in the coastal areas of eastern cape province and natal in south africa and also in mozambique.
Is influenced by warm mozambique currents and south east trade wind.
Also known as the high veld climate
Experienced between the mediterranean climate zone of cape region in south africa and the humid subtropical
Also known as alpine climate
It is influenced by altitude
Activity draw the diagrams on our lives today bk 7 pg 37
Places outside the equatorial regions but within the tropics, we have tropical region.these regions experience dry seasons and rainy seasons during other parts of the year.
Places farther away from equatorial and tropical regions experiences the four seasons
Mediterranean lands experiences hot and dry summer and cool, wet winter
Arid and semi-arid regions experiences hot and dry seasons throughout the year.
Insha hii huwa na hisi mbili: furaha na huzuni
Vinaweza visa vya kubuni au halisi
Mtahiniwa aweza kutahiniwa mara tatu
Mwanzo wa handithi – dokezo
Mtahiniwa lazima aane insha na atamatishe kwa kutumia kimalizio hicho
Visawe vya huzuni ni masikitiko, majonzi, jitimai, buka, chonda na msiba
Hivi ni visa vinanyoleta majonzi, huzuni, simanzi, sikitiko au jitimai
Mikasa ni matukio yaletayo maafa, masaibu na matatizo kwa watu
Mifano ya mikasa
Furaha hutokana na
Msamiati na mapambo
Vipokezi vya methali
Ni maono anayoyapata mtu akiwa usingiziniBarua/Waraka
Huketa hisia za furaha au huzuni
Mtu anaweza kupiga mayowe au kuweweseka kulinga na ndoto
Ndoto za huzuni zinaweza kuhusu
Wakati mwingine mhusika hutokwa na jasho, kutabawali au kujikuta mvunguni mwa kitanda
Ndoto ya furaha humfanya mhusika kujilaumu kuwa ilikuwa ni ndoto tu. Inaweza kuhusu
Mwandishi asianze kwa kusema kuwa alianza kuota
Kuna aina mbili
Huandikwa ili kupeana mwaliko, kujuliana hali, kufahamisha au kuarifu kuhusu jambo
Kwa sahibu yangu, fundi msanifu ,
Ni mimi wako,
Sehemu muhimu za barua hii ni anwani ya mwandishi
Haya ni maamkizi na kujuliana hali
Anwani ya mwandishi
Anwani ya mwandikiwa
Hubeba ujumbe wa barua
Maudhui hutegemea nia au lengo la barua
Lugha iwe rasmi
Ni mwisho wa barua
Huandikwa pembeni upande wa kulia sehemu ya chini
Herufi ya kwanza iwe kubwa
Methali ni usemi wa kisanii wa kimapokeo unaofikiliwa na jamii na hutumiwa kufumbia jambo fulani
Methali hutahiniwa kwa namna tatu
Ikiwa kama mada
Mwanafunzi anafaa aeleze maana ya juu na ya ndani yake na matumizi yake iwapo anaifahamu vyema
Methali hutahiniwa kwa njia tatu
Mwanzo – mwanafunzi huhitajika kuendeleza bila kufafanua maana ya methali
Kimalizio – lazima kisa kishahibiane na methali ile.
Ikiwa methali itakuwa mada, mtahiniwa atahitajika kueleza maana ya nje, ya ndani na matumizi endapo anafahamu
Mapambo na msamiati
Hutumiwa kuwaonya adinasi dhidi ya kudanganyika au kuhadaika na uzuri wa kitu bila kudadisi matokeo na athari zake.
Methali ikiwa kama kichwa huhitajika kuelezea maana ya nje, ya ndani na matumizi
Mfano wa visa
Vipokezi vya methali
Hutoa ufafanuzi kuhusu jambo, mtu, mahali au kitu fulani
Maelezo haya huwa ni sifa au hoja maalum
Insha hizi hutahadharisha, huelezea, huarifu na huburudisha
Mtahiniwa atangulize kwa ufafanuzi wa mada yake
Ahitimishe kwa kutoa changamotokwa waliohusika
Mtahiniwa asijadili chini ya hoja sita. Atoe hoja za ukweli
Ni jambo lifanywalo kwa ajili ya kujifurahisha kujichangamsha au kupoteza wakati
Baadhi ya michezo
Pia huitwa kambumbu, soka , gozi au mpira wa miguu
Hushirikisha timu mbili pinzani
Katikati ya uwanja huitwa kitovu/senta
Otea – kujificha kwa makusudi ya kushambulia kwa ghafla
Penalty – adhabu kwa mlindalango
Mlindalango, mdakaji, golikipa
Ngware – cheza visivyo
Kipindi cha lala salama ni kipindi cha nwishi
Kadi nyekundu huonyesha kutimuliwa kwa mchezaji
Kadi ya jano – onyo
Huwa na wachezaji kumi na mmoja katika kila upande
Ni kitu chochote kinachoathiri fahamu au mwili wa binadamu
Dawa hizi ni kama vile
Anayeuza dawa hizi huitwa mlaguzi
Njia ya kutumia dawa hizi ni
Madhara ya dawa za kulevya
Mwongozo ambao ni mwanzo wa insha kisha aendeleze
“maji yana manufaa anuwai ___________ ”
Maana ya maji
Maji ni kiowevu kisicho na rangi kinapatikana mtoni, ziwani, baharini na hata kutokana
Maji ni uhai
Umuhimu wa maji
Hotuba ni maneno au malezo maalum yanayotokana na mtu mmoja mbele ya hadhira
Anayetoa hotuba huitwa hatibu
Hadhira ni watu wanaohutubiwa
Hotuba inaweza kuwa ya
Elimu ni mafunzo yanayopatikana shuleni na maishani
Mja hujielewa, huelewa wengine na ulimwengu
Huweza kutumia raslimali vilivyo
Elimu huondoa ujinga/ujuha
Mwanafunzi humakinika katika maisha ya baadaye
Elimu ya vitabu humsaidia mtu kuhifadhi siri ujumbe na kumbukumbu za kutumia na kizazi cha baadaye
Insha sampuli hii huwa na sehemu mbili: Kuunga na kupinga
Mwanafunzi ana uhuru wa kuunga ama kupinga
Katika sehemu ya hitimisho mtahiniwa anatarajiwa kutoa mawazo yake
Ningependa kuwajuza kuwa ______________
Ningeomba sote tupinge kwa jino na ukucha _____________
tusiwe kama chachandu wa kujipalia makaa kwa ______________
Ni maarifa ya sayansi na matumizi yake katika mitambo, vyombo na zana katika viwanda, kilimo, ufundi na njia za mawasiliano
Viunganishi vya insha ya maelezo
Mazungumzo ni maongezi, mahojiano ama malimbano baina ya mtu na mwengine au kundi moja na jengine
Yanaweza kuwa Porojo/soga/domo
Ni mazungumzo ya kupitisha wakati
Kutafuta ujumbe maalum
Hufanywa kwa njia ya mahojiano
Kudadisi au kumwelekeza mtu
Baina ya mtu na tajriba na Yule anayetakamsaada
Hadithi hutambiwa kwa njia ya kusimuliwa
Hurejelea matukio au visa vyenye nasaha kwa jamii
Visa hivi hutumiwa
Enzi za kale watoto walisimuliwa visa hivi na babu au nyanya wakati wa jiono
Ikiwa kisa kilisimuliwa na mwingine mwanafunzi atahitajika kunukuu kazi yake
“ babu alizoea kutuambia ngano.alianza hivi ____________”
Baada ya kuhitimisha kisa mtahiniwa anahitajika kufunga
Ahitimishe kwa ushauri au nasaha
Insha hii yaweza kuchukua mikondo tofauti
Sanasana wahusika huwa wanyama ambao huwa na hisia za binadamu
Huku ni kuvibadili vitenzi kwa kurefusha viambishi tamati ili kuleta kauli mbalimbali Kauli hizi ni.
Huu ni upachikaji wa viambishi kwenye mzizi wa kitenzi ili kuunda vitenzi vipya
Huonyesha kuwa kitendo kimesababishwa na kitu Fulani
Vitenzi hivi hutambulishwa na vitenzi vya, za, sha, fya, na ,sa
Kauli hii huonyesha dhana ya kurudia rudia tendo
Kata – katakata
Imba – imbaimba
Tia – tiatia
Ruka – rukaruka
Ni kuunda maneno yenye kivumishi au kusifu nomino kutoka kwenye viarafa
Sifa hizi huwa ni herufi kama f, v, mw
Amini – mwaminifu
Tii – tiifu
Dhulumu – dhalimu
Ni maneno yanayoonyesha au kuiga milio ya sauti, hali Fulani, sura au vitendo mbalimbali. Hutumia kusisitiza namna vitendo vilivyo, vinavyotendeka au kitakavyotendeka
Katika na –ni ni vihusishi vinavyotumiwa kumaanisha ndani ya au kwenye
Vihusishi hivi havitumiwi pamoja katika sentensi
-ni huambishwa kwenye nomino za kawaida kisha nomino hiyo huorodheshwa katika ngeli ya PAKUMU
Pia hutumika kuonyesha ndani ya au mahali ndani
Vijiko vimo jikoni
Walimu wamo majilisini
Ni alama zinazotumiwa ili kuwasilisha nia halisi na maana kamili ya kwenye maandishi
Alama hizi pia hufanya kusomeka kwa sentensi kuwa rahisi
Hutumiwa kuunganisha mawazo mawili
Ninataka kuondoka mapema; sipendi kuchelewa
Hutumiwa kuonyesha orodha ndefu
Nenda ununue vutu vifuatavyo:maziwa, mkate, sukari, mafuta na chumvi
Ukubwa ni hali ya kukuza nomino na udogo ni hali ya kudunisha nomino
Wastani ni hali ya kawaida ya nomino
Nomino katika ukubwa huwekwa katika ngeli ya LI – YA na nomino katika hali ya udogo huwekwa
katika ngeli ya KI – VI
Zipo kanuni ambazo hutumiwa
Wakati wa amri hukanushwa kwa kutumia si
Aende – asiende
Nimpe – nisimpe
Ule – usile
Swali lije baadaye
Wewe kunywa dawa
Wewe usikunywe dawa
Wakati wa sasa hukanushwa kwa ha
unasoma – mnasoma – hamsomi
unakula – mnakula – hamli
Vivumishi hivi ni ote, o-ote, enye, enyewe na ingine
Ni maneno yaliyo na maana zaidi ya moja
Ni neno linalosimama badala ya nomino kama yeye, sisi, wewe
Mifano ya ngeli:
Ngeli hii inahusisha majina yenye sifa na hali ya wanyama, nyuni, malaika, samaki na wanadamu
Kutoa mifano katika umoja na wingi
Mnyoo – minyoo
Kiwete – viwete
Nzi – nzi
Mkunga – mikunga
Nomino za ngeli hii huchukua upatanisho wa U katika umoja na I katika wingi
Mkono – mikono
Muundi – miundi
Mzigo – mizigo
Mtaa – mitaa
Muhula – mihula
Mwaka – miaka
Mlingoti – milingoti
Nomino za ngeli hii ni vitu vya kawaida
Majina huanza kwa ‘ki’ katika umoja na ‘vi’ katika wingi
Mengine huanza kwa ‘ch’ kwa umoja na ‘vy kwa wingi
Kiazi – viazi
Kiatu – viatu
Kioo – vioo
Kina – vina
Kikuba – vikuba
Cheti – vyeti
Chakula – vyakula
Chanda – vyanda
Chungu – vyungu
Maneno katika ngeli hii huanza na ma, me
Maneno yote katika hali ya ukubwa huingizwa katika ngeli hii
Dirisha – madirisha
Embe – maembe
Zulia – mazulia
Guu – maguu
Jibwa – majibwa
Maneno katika ngeli hii huanza kwa U katika umoja na Ya katika wingi
Ugonjwa – magonjwa
Uuaji – mauaji
Ujazi - majazi
Upana - mapana
Nomino zote huanzia kwa ma
Masihara - masihara
Makazi - makazi
Mahakama - mahakama
Maakuli - maakuli
Mawasiliano - mawasiliano
Nomino hazibadiliki katika umoja na wingi
Mashine - mashine
Sinia - sinia
Sahani - sahani
Ngozi - ngozi
Taa - taa
Pete - pete
Sakafu - sakafu
Shingo - shingo
Maneno katika ngeli hii huwa na upatanisho wa U na ZI katka wingi
Ubeti – beti
Uchane – chane
Uchega – chega
Ubavu – mbavu
Ubao – mbao
Ulimi – ndimi
Udevu – ndevu
Ujari – njari
Ujiti – njiti
Ugoe – ngoe
Uzi – nyuzi
Ufa – nyufa
Waadhi – nyaadhi
Walio – nyalio
Waraka – nyaraka
Huchukua U katika umoja na U katika wingi
Kuelezea maneno hayabadiliki katika umoja na wingi
Moto - moto
Ugali - ugali
Wema - wema
Ufisadi - ufisadi
Wizi - wizi
Ubaya - ubaya
Uzembe - uzembe
Maneno katika ngeli hii huchukua upatanisho wa kisarufi KU
Majina ya nomino hii huchukua upatanisho wa sarufi kuwa I katika umoja na I katika wingi
Ni ngeli ya mahali
Huelezea hali tatu
Kuelezea viambishi tofauti