Democracy and Human Rights

Benefits of Democracy

  1. People are treated fairly
  2. All people are treated equally before the law
  3. Right to own property
  4. Freedom to choose meet others or practise their belief
  5. People participate in electios to choose leaders of their choice
  6. Right to make decisions on issues affecting them
  7. People develop a sense of belonging and responsibility
  8. Promote equal sharing of national reources
  9. Promote peace and prosperity
  10. Promote freedom of choice

Abuse of Human Rights

It is the act of denying or preventing people from enjoying their rights
Examples are;

  1. Mob justice
  2. Raping
  3. Discrimination and favouritism
  4. Wrongful arrest
  5. Beating of suspects
  6. Unfairness before the law
  7. Child labour
  8. Murder and killings
  9. Bullying others in schools
  10. Mishandling of suspects by the police
  11. Over-working and under paying workers
  12. Beating of wives by their husbands at home and vice versa

Importances of Respecting Human Rights

  1. Preservation of human dignity
  2. Promotion of social justice
  3. Freedom from discrimination
  4. Success of democracy
  5. Fair treatment and equal opportunities for all
  6. Positive critisism to the people’s in power(government)
  7. Involving people in making decisions on matters affecting them
  8. Promotes equal treatment of all people before the law
  9. Reduces misuderstanding between citizens and the government
  10. Controls abuse of power by the government against individual citizens

Drug and Drug Abuse

Drugs – substance taken as medicine or illegal substance which when taken changes how the body
Drug abuse – misuse or wrong use of drugs
Commonly abused drugs and substances

  1. Alcohol
  2. Nicotine(tobacco/cigarettes)
  3. Marijuana(bhang/hashish/cannabis/hemp)
  4. Opium
  5. Cocaine
  6. Heroine/morphine
  7. Miraa
  8. Kuber
  9. Caffeine
  10. LSD(lysergic diethy amide)
  11. Inhalants such as petrol and glue(cobbler’s glue)

Effects of Drug and Substance Abuse

  1. Phsychological instability
  2. Poor health
  3. Social instability
  4. Increase in cases of road accidents
  5. Increase in diseases
  6. Financial problems
  7. Work-related problems

Ways of Curbing Drug and Substance Abuse

  1. Promoting healthy leisure activities
  2. Medical drugs are sold with the doctor’s presciptions
  3. Strengthening police inspection
  4. Educating the danger of drug and substance abuse
  5. Enforce strict lwas on drugs and substance abuse
  6. Parents should be good role models
  7. Provide moral guidance to the youth
  8. Provide warnings on the effects of the use of cretain drugs

Inclusion of Persons with Special Needs in Society

These people include

  1. Visually impaired(the blind)
  2. Hearing impaired
  3. Physically challenged
  4. Mentally challenged
  5. Behaviourally and emotionally disturbed
  6. Speech problems(dumb)

Others include

  1. Street children
  2. Orphan
  3. Refugees
  4. HIV and AIDS
  5. Elderly

They can be helped in the follwing ways

  1. Creating positive attitudes
  2. Creating friendly environment
  3. Providing equal opportunities

Collective Responsibilities

It is the act of citizens teaming up and joining hands to perform a certain duty or task for the benefits
of all in the society.

Things that citizens can do to support one another

  1. Supporting work of police
  2. Encouraging every person to take part in development activities
  3. Upholding moral values in the society
  4. Ensuring environment remains clean
  5. Ensuring people do not use dangerous and harmful drugs
  6. Participating in elections
  7. Being mindful of the welfare of others

Traditional Forms of Government


They are said to have been the earliest inhabitants of southern africa
They consists of khoikhoi and san
They speak with click sound
They similar physical features
They are short


Economic organization

  1. They were formerly known as the hottentots
  2. They were mainly nomadic pastralist
  3. They traded with dutch who arrived in south africa.
  4. Khoikhoi exchanged cattle and sheep for beads, tobacco and iron.

Political organisation

  1. Clan was the basic political unit.
  2. The head of the senoir clan bocame the chief of the community
  3. The position of the chief was hereditary.
  4. The chief had power because decisions were reached through general consensus(government)by consensus
  5. Nomadic life never allowed them to develop a powerful political system

Social organisation

  1. They believed that God was the giver of all goo things on earth.
  2. Rites of passage were marked with special ceremonies
  3. They brewed alcoholic drinks during social occasions
  4. They celebrate festivals of the new moon.


Formerly known as bushmen

Economic organisation

  1. They were m ainly hunters and gatherers
  2. Men hunted wild animals such as buffaloes and antelopes
  3. Women gathered fruits, roots an dvegetable.
  4. They made arrows and spearhead.
  5. They also traded with khoikhoi

Political organisation

  1. They organised into units called hunting bands which consist of about 20to 40 people
  2. They did not have a central government
  3. Disagreement was reached through consensus

Social organisation

  1. They lived in caves or rock shelters
  2. Boys marry at 14 yrs of age
  3. Girls married at 12 yrs of age.
  4. Believed in the existence of God with praying mantis as God’s symbol on earth
  5. Decorated with necklaces made from ostrich eggs and sea shells
  6. Painted themselves for dances
  7. Painted pictures of the animals they hunted
  8. Their goods were stored in leather bags
  9. They also kept dogs used for hunting.

The Kingdom of Old Ghana

  1. Was the earliest of all kingdom of west africa
  2. Was situated between upper section of the niger and senegal rivers
  3. Founded by soninke peolpe
  4. The capital city was at kumbi saleh
  5. The soninke were under kaya maghan
  6. Factors that contributed to the rise of old ghana
  7. The king controlled the trans-saharan trade.(main)
  8. The kingdom had powerful, strong and respected rulers
  9. Well-equiped, strong and capable army
  10. Favourable climate conditions
  11. It was situated in a strategic position in the savannah.

Political organisation

  1. It was ruled by a king
  2. Position of kingship was hereditary(matrilineal)
  3. King was assisted by council of ministers and civil servants
  4. It was divided into;
    1. Ghana proper or metropolitan ghana
    2. Provincial ghana
  5. Kumbi saleh(capital)was divided into two
    1. Al-ghana – lived by king and african traditional
    2. Muslims section – lived by muslims

Social organisation

  1. Lived in mud and grass-thatched houses
  2. King was regarded as the chief priest
  3. They(soninike)believed life after death
  4. King was buried with all his belongings, including servants.

Economic organisation

  1. Traded with people from north
  2. They mined gold from walata
  3. People kept animals and grew crops for food and trade
  4. Trading caravans paid taxes to the kings
  5. Tax paid by the conquered states
  6. NB the main reason for the rise of old ghana kingdom was trans-saharan trade

Reasons for the decline and fall of the kingdom

  1. Kingdom was too large
  2. Lack of clearlydefined boundaries
  3. Succession disputes and political rivalry
  4. Overdependence on one income
  5. The army was weakened
  6. Attacked by almoravids(main)

The Scramble for and Partition of Africa

Scramble – struggle or compete in a disorderly manner
Partition of africa- dividing up africa into smaller parts

The european nations that took part in the scramble for africa were;

  1. Britain
  2. Belgium
  3. France
  4. Germany
  5. Portugal
  6. Italy
  7. Spain

Reasons for the Scramble for Colonies in Africa

  1. Europeans wanted raw materials
  2. Europeans wanted to establish market for their goods
  3. Europeans wanted areas to invest their surplus capital
  4. For prestige and as a show of power
  5. For strategic reasons meant to protect the source and course of the nile
  6. To end slave trade
  7. To spread christianity
  8. To settle surplus population.

The Partition of Africa

  1. During the berlin conference of 1884-1885 the european powers agreed to divide up africa peacefully
  2. They followed the guideline below
  3. They recognized leopold II king of belgium as leader of the congo free state
  4. River niger, zambezi could be used by any traders
  5. Areas not occupied could be claimed by any european power
  6. European to establish effective administration in their spheres of influence
  7. Areas where a europeanpower had laid claim were recognised as spheres of influence of that power.
  8. Any future differences between european nations would be settled through negotiations and agreements
    NB african continent was under european control by 1910 except liberia and ethiopia.
  1. France colonies
    Morocco                  Segal
    Burkina faso            Algeria
    Mauritania               Somalia
    Benin                      Cote d ivoire
    Congo                    Djibouti
    Chad                      Seychelles
    Guinea                   Mauritius
    Mali                        Gabon
    Niger                     Comoros
    Madagascar          Central african republic
  2. Britain colonies
    Egypt                        Sudan
    Somalia                   Uganda
    Kenya                       Gambia
    Sierra leone              Ghana
    Nigeria                       Malawi
    Zambia                   Zimbabwe
    Botswana                Swaziland
    Lesotho                   South africa
  3. Italy colonies
  4. Portugal colonies
    Guinea Cape
    verde Angola
  5. Spain colonies
    Western sahara
  6. Not colonised

Reasons why African were colonised easily

  1. Lack of unity
  2. Had inferior weapons(main)
  3. Not well organised in protecting their resources

African Response to the Scramble and Partition

Some african;resisted – collaborated


Samoure toure’s resistance against the french

  1. Born around 1830 in sanankaro(guinea)
  2. He was a trader
  3. Took title almainly when cnverted to islam
  4. Founded mandinka empire with capital at bissandugu.
  5. Had powerful well trained and equiped army
  6. Resisted french
  7. He signed a peace treaty in 1886 with french
  8. Later french failed to honour the treaty
  9. Samouri imroved his weaponry and reorganised his army and he defeated the french
  10. Later french came back and defeated samouri
  11. He established another empire at dabakala
  12. He was defeated and imprisoned in gabon
  13. Died in 1900

Reasons for resistance

  1. Wanted to remain independent
  2. Against french interferance with his trading activities wiyh the coast
  3. Safeguard the purity of islam against christianity

Why Samouri was able to resist the french for a long time

  1. Used scorshed earth policy tactic (main)
  2. Well-trained, disciplined and strong army
  3. Efficient administration
  4. He used islam as a unifying factor
  5. Encouraged young men to join the french army to learn their tactics and how to use guns

Reasons why samouri was defeated

  1. Lack of support from other african leaders
  2. French had better weapons(main)
  3. French cut off coastal trade and gold mines
  4. Lack of support from his own people



  1. He was leader of lozi people of northern rhodesia present day zambia
  2. Reasons for the lewanika’s collaboration
  3. Feared the german, portuguese and the dutch from interfering with his affairs of his kingdom
  4. Wanted military support against his enemiessuch as ndebele and some chiefs
  5. He was inspired by his friend chief khama of the ngwata of botswana.
  6. The above reasons made him to sign;
  7. Treaty with BSAC which allowed to mine minerals
  8. Treaty which allowed british to have administration over barotseland(malawi)
  9. Treaty which made barotseland a british protectorate. Lewanika became a paramount chief. Lost his political authority over his territory.

Colonial Systems of Administration

  1. Direct rule
    Europeans used the methods used in their own countries to rule the colonies.
  2. Indirect rule
    Europeans rule through the existence of traditional rulers and leaders
  3. Assimilation
    Making africans the same as europeans in terms of culture especially in french colonies.

Belgians in Congo

  1. They used direct rule in congo.
  2. They got involved through their king leopord II who was recognised as the owner of congo during the berling conference of 1884-1885.
  3. Due to oppresion of belgians in congo like;
    1. Severe punishment such as cutting off of people’s hands
    2. Forced labour on rubber plantations.
    3. Forced taxes
    4. It led to the babua and bushilele uprising of 1903-1904
    5. The war made leopold II to surrender it to the belgian government
    6. The belgians divided the country into;
      • Minister for colonies – in charge of all colonies
      • Governor general – in charge of the colony
      • Provincial governors – in charge of provinces
      • District officers – in charge of districts
      • Chiefs – in charge of chefferies(villages)
        1. After the 2nd world war districts were subdivided into zones
        2. Each zone had a;nativecourt, dispensary, school.
        3. Belgians believed in civilizing the africans
        4.  An african who aquired western culture, christianity, literate in french was known as an evolee and were granted certain privilages

Those who were not civilised were denied to:

  • Move from one chefferie to another
  • Own land
  • Provide labour on plantation

The French in Senegal

French grouped their colonies to form federations
Example 1: french west africa federation
Burkina faso
Ivory coast

Example 2. French central africa(equatorial)federation
Congo brazzavile
Central african republic

French regarded their colonies as overseas provinces hence governed directly from france.

Administrative structure

Minister for colonies – in charge of all colonies
Governor general – for each federation
Lieutenant – for each colony
Commandant de cercle – for each cercle(province)
Chef de sub division – for each commune(district)
Chef de canton(chief) – for each canton(location)
Chef de village(headman) – for each sub-location

French used the policy of assimilation

The requirement for assimilation

  1. Ability to read and write in french
  2. Being a christian
  3. Readiness to practise french ways of life.
  4. Accepting the french adminitration and the french economic set-up.

Rights enjoyed by a french citizen

  1. Vote and to be elected
  2. Learn in institutions in france
  3. Get employment in france
  4. Start a business in france

The four coastal towns where assimilation was used in senegal

  1. Rufisque
  2. St.louis
  3. Goree
  4. Dakar

Africans in the commune were not subjected to forced labour and taxation
The rest of senegal was subdivided into

  1. Province
  2. Districts

Provinces and districts were administred through the policy of association

Through association africans were treated as subjects and not citizens of france e.g.

  1. Denied africans the freedom of movement
  2. Provide forced labour
  3. Pay taxes
  4. Grow cash crops needed in france
  5. Punished without trial
  6. The main work of the chief was to collect taxes and recruit labour

Reasons why policy of assimilation became difficult

  1. French colonies were very many
  2. Many african(subjects)refused to become chriatians
  3. Africans strongly criticized the french policies
  4. Africans refusedto abandon their culture e.g polygamy
  5. It became expensive to provide social facilities e.g. hospitals, schools, and roads
  6. French feared competition from africans.

The Portuguese in Mozambique

They were the 1st europeans to come to africa

Like the french they considered their colonies as overseas provinces

They used direct policy to administer mozambique

Colonies – minister for overseas provinces
Colony – governor general
Province – provincial officer
District – district officer
Location – chief(rogedores)

Africans held only junior posts in administration
Land was rented to british and french companies
British set up tea, sugar and cotton plantation
Plantation was called prazeros
In troublesome areas administration was carried out by millitary commanders

Portuguese administration was harsh and brutal which made africans to flee to malawi and tanganyika as refugees

In 1961 mozambique formed anti-portuguese political groups e.g.FRELIMO

British in Northern Nigeria

Comprised of three protectorates

  1. Lagos
  2. Southern nigeria
  3. Northern nigeria

In northern nigeria british used indirect rule
They used centralised system of traditional rulers called emirs
Each emir was in charge of an emirates
Northern nigeria was divided into provinces and districts
Emirs worked under district officers

Responsibilities of emirs were

  1. Collecting taxes
  2. Listening to cases in the muslim court
  3. Maintaining law and order in the emirates
  4. Abolishing undesirable practises among the citizens

Reasons why the british used indirect rule in northern nigeria

  1. Poor transport and communication network
  2. Cost of running the colony was high
  3. British officers were often sick with malaria
  4. The protectorate was large
  5. The existence of a well established system of administration among the africans
  6. Some chiefs such as nana of itsekiri were ready to co-operate

British overseas colonial officer – in charge of colonies(london)
British high commissioner- in charge of protectorate(northern nigeria)
British resident(provincial)commissioner – in charge of province
District officers – in charge of districts
African chief(emirs) – incharge of local areas(emirates)

Effects of Colonial Rule in Africa


  1. Introduction of new crops e.g.cocoa, tea, rice, coffee, cloves, wheat
  2. Development of infrastructure
  3. Introduction of western education
  4. Provision of social services
  5. Peace among the people
  6. Abolishment of slave trade
  7. Rise and growth of nationalism
  8. Introduction of new goods e.g.manufactured goods.


  1. Loss of independence
  2. Separation of communities
  3. Over-exploitation natural resources
  4. Mistreatment of africans
  5. Neglect of craft industries
  6. Loss of land
  7. Loss of african culture
  8. Creation of political boundaries
  9. Loss of lives and property

Struggle for Independence in Africa

Struggle for Independence in Ghana

Ghana was formerly known as gold coast
It was colonised by the british
Climate and high risk of malaria discouraged mass european settlement

Complaints of Africans in Ghana were

  1. They wanted majority seats in the legco
  2. Traders denied imports and exports licenses
  3. Ex-servicemen wanted employment as reward
  4. Unemployment
  5. Low cocoa prices and the africa being forced to cut down cocoa trees infected with diseases

In 1947 the united gold coast convention (UGCC) PARTY WAS FORMED –LED by J B.Danqah –
president and kwame nkrumah – secretary general.
In 1948 – a boycott of european shops. A demonstration of ex-servicemen
Demands of the party were;

  1. An end to colonial
  2. A policy of self-determination and complete national independence.

Leaders of UGCC were arrested

In 1949 nkrumah was released and formed conventional people’s party(CPP)
Main aim of CPP was to fight for self-governance
Between 1949 and 1950 nkurumah was arrested and other leaders
In 1951 nkrumah was released due to pressure from africas and elections were held
In 1951 CPP did not get a majority to form the government
In 1956- there was election again and CPP won
In 1957 march gold coast was granted full independence with kwame nkurumah as the prime minister.
Gold coast was renamed ghana
1960 – ghana became a republic with nkurumah as the 1st president
NB ghana got independence through peaceful means by using ;

  1. Diplomacy
  2. Negotiations
  3. Strikes
  4. Boycotts
  5. Motions through the legco

The Struggle for Independence in Zimbabwe

Formerly known as southern rhodesia
Colonised by british
In 1889 british government granted BSACO the right to

  1. Mine minerals
  2. Collect taxes
  3. Maintain law and order in zimbabwe

In 1923 british declared rhodesia a self-governing colony
Under colonial rule;

  1. African were given poor education and health facilities
  2. Africans not allowed to vote
  3. Africans were overcrowded in reserves
  4. Africans were poorly paid
  5. Africans had limited movements
  6. Africans were forced to pay high taxes
  7. Africans were controlled because their leaders were arrested

In 1934 african national congress(ANC)was formed to demand the removal of pass law and forced
Settlers formed the rhodesian front party
The africans realised negotaitions would not work and they decided to use armed struggle.
In 1963 ZANU was formed. Its leaders were;

  1. Reverend ndabaningi sitole
  2. Robert mugambe
  3. Herbert chitepo

ZANU liberation army was called ZANLA
ZANLA was to wage guerilla warfare on settler rule.
In 1963 joshua nkomo formed ZAPU.
Later the two parties were banned and its leaders imrisoned
In 1965 rhodesian front party declared unilateral declaration of independence from britain led by ian smith
ZANU and ZAPU established fighting
Ian smith was forced to participate in discussions about the future of rhodesia
Elections were eventually held in 1980
ZANU won and robert mugabe became the prime minister
The name rhodesia changed to zimbabwe.

Contributions of Prominent Leaders in Africa

Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela

  1. Born in transkei province of south africa in 1918.
  2. Bacame a member of the african national congress in 1942
  3. Founded african national congress youth league(ANCYL)together with oliver tambo, walter sisulu, anton lembede.
  4. In 1952 elected deputy president of ANC.
  5. In 1961founded a movement called Umkhonto we sizwe(spear of the nation)
  6. In 1964 sentenced to life imprisonment and sent to roben island prison.
  7. In 1990 he was released by fredrick de klerk
  8. In 1991 he was elected president of ANC.
  9. In 1994 he became president of south africa as the 1st democratically elected
  10. Ruled for five years and retired voluntarily in 1999
  11. He died in December 2013.


  1. United all races in south africa
  2. Set example by retiring from politics
  3. Fought for the abolition of apartheid
  4. Brought peace through negotiations e.g.chairman of the burundi peace talks
  6. Provided leadership to the libration movement through the ANC

Gamal Abdel Nasser

  1. Born on 15th january 1918 at alexandria in eygpt
  2. Trained as a solder
  3. In 1952, he led a revolution which removed king falouk of egypt from 1954, he took over as president of egypt.

Contributions of Gamal Abdel Nasser

  1. Carried out land reforms
  2. Improved woeking conditions
  3. Abolished sharia courts
  4. Improved the living standards e.g.use of birth control, provision of clean water
  5. Encouraged the formation of cooperative societies
  6. Established industries
  7. He planned and completed aswan high dam
  8. Participated in the formation of OAU
  9. Built more schools and universities
  10. He maintained the suez canal
  11. Died in 1970 while still the president

Leopold Sedar Senghor

  1. Born on 9th october 1906 at joal in senegal
  2. Studied poetry and politics
  3. Joined french army and fought germans
  4. He fought in the 2nd world war
  5. He was captured and released later
  6. In 1945 he was elected in french parliament
  7. In 1960 he became president of senagal
  8. He ruler for 20years


  1. He was the greatest writer and poet of africa
  2. Used poetry to spread culture and values of africans
  3. Led senegal in their struggle for independence
  4. Represented p;eople in the french parliament
  5. First african president to retire voluntarily from active politics
  6. Died on 20th December 2001 at the age of 95yrs

Present Systems of Government in Kenya and Swaziland

The System of Government in Swaziland

  1. Swaziland is a landlocked country
  2. It is ruled by a king
  3. Kingdom was founded by king sobhuza I in 1830
  4. Became a british protectorate
  5. Attained independence in 1968 under sobhuza II
  6. King mswati succeeded sobhuza II in 1986
  7. Position of king is hereditary
  8. Title of king is ngwenyama(lion)
  9. Traditional system of government is called tinkhundla
  10. The king national council is called liqoqo
  11. The queen mother is called indlovukazi
  12. Swaziland parliament is called libandla
  13. Parliament has two houses
    1. the senate
    2. the house of assembly
  14. country has traditional courts under chiefs
  15. no political parties in swaziland
  16. there is a civil service

Similarities in the System of Government in Swaziland and Kenya

  1. both king and the president are head of state and government
  2. both king an president are commander-in-chief of the armed forces
  3. both countries have two houses
  4. both countries have civil services

Differences in the System of Government in Swaziland and Kenya

 Kenya   Swaziland 
 It is a republic headed by a president    It a kingdom headed by a king 
 It has executive parliament and judiciary   It has a king, national council and parliament 
 General elections are held after every five years    No general elections
 President rules for a maximum of two five years term  King rules until he dies.
 Many political parties   No political parties
Members of parliament are elected by people
others nominated.
 M.P.are appointed by king and elections by an
electral college


Organisation of African Unity(OAU)

Formation of OAU

Was formed on 25th may 1963
Headquarters in addis-ababa ethiopia
Members present during formation were

  1. Julius nyerere – tanzania
  2. Kwame nkurumah – ghana
  3. Ben bella – algeria
  4. Gamal abdal nasser – egypt
  5. Haile sellasie of ethiopia
  6. Siaka steven – sierra leone

First chairman was haire sellasie

Functions of OAU

  1. Promote peace
  2. Help countries to get independence
  3. Promote cooperation
  4. Protect independence states
  5. Promote friendly relations
  6. Promote, social, economic and political development.

Achievements of OAU

  1. Has assisted countries to get independence
  2. Has promoted economic development
  3. Has tried to find solutions to conflicts in africa
  4. Has encouraged cooperation in trade through trade blocs
  5. Provided forums where heads of state meet
  6. Has promoted economic development

Problems facing the OAU

  1. Lack of standing army
  2. Lack of adequate funds
  3. Lack of unity
  4. Political instability
  5. Interfered with individual government policies
  6. New emerging issues e.g.HIV/AIDS
  7. Border disputes e.g. kenya and uganda
  8. Misunderstanding among members

The African Union(A.U)

OAU was transformed to AU in 2001
AU was officially formed in 2002 in south africa

Reasons for the formation of AU

  1. Some poor policies
  2. New challenges e.g. drought
  3. Hoped that africa will one day work as one economic bloc

Objectives of AU

  1. To achieve greater unity
  2. Defend the sovereighty, borders and independence of its members
  3. Encourage international cooperation
  4. Promote peace
  5. Protect the rights of african people
  6. To work international parteners
  7. To promote democratic principles
  8. To coordinate and harmonise the policies of organizations through NEPAD
  9. To promote research in science and technology

Things that we use to create wealth and meet our needs are called resources.
Activities that people undertake in order to earn income and create wealth are called economic activities


This is growing of crops and rearing of livestocks

Cash Crop Farming

The main cash crops grown in africa include.

  • Coffee
  • Sisal
  • Sugarcane
  • Tea
  • Cocoa
  • Cloves
  • Pyrethrum

Cocoa in Ghana

Was brought from central america
Introduced to west africa countries like:

  • Ghana
  • Cote d ivoire
  • Nigeria
  • Cameroon

Ghana is one of the largest producer of cocoa.
NB Cote d ivoire is the leading producer of cocoa
Varieties of cocoa are;

  1. Cocoa criollo
    Best in central america
    Low yielding but superior quality
  2. Cocoa forastern
    Best in west africa
    High yield but lower quality

Conditions Favouring the Growth of Cocoa.

  1. Plenty of rainfall – 1500mmand 2000mm is most preferred.
  2. High temperatures – 24°C and 28°C
  3. Humid condition
  4. Shelter from strong winds
  5. Deep and well drained soils
  6. Protection from strong sunlight – intercropping with bananans.
  7. Low altitudes of up to 750m.

Cocoa Growing Areas

Grown in small family farms.
Main growing areas is called cocoa triangle.
Cocoa triangle areas are;accra, kumasi, takoradi.

Importance of cocoa to the economy of ghana.

  1. Earns the country foreign exchange.
  2. Leds to creation of jobs
  3. Building of an artificial harbour at takoradi which enhaned transport in the region.
  4. Growth of other industries e.g. drugs, cosmetics, and chocolate industries.
  5. Improved the living standards of the employed
  6. Imrovement of the infrastracture e.g.road and railway.

Cloves in Tanzania

Grows in tropical climates
Grow in clusters
Picked when the buds are full but not open.
It has a life-span of 50-60years
It originated from indonesia.
They were introduced to the island of zanzibar by the arabs
Originally grown in plantations.
Today also grown on small scale farms

Conditions Favouring the Growth of Cloves

  1. Plenty of rainfall – 1500mm and 2000mm per year.
  2. High temperature – 27°C and 30°C
  3. Deep fertile soils
  4. High humidity throughout the year.

Growing areas

  1. Island of pemba
  2. Western highland of zanzibar

Importance of cloves to the economy of Tanzania

  1. Earn foreign exchange – produces about 80% of the world yields
  2. Creates employment
  3. Serve as raw materials for industries e.g. perfume, spices, soap and medicine industries.
  4. Used in the cigarette and confectionary industry.
  5. Farmers earn income for domestic use.

Draw map on our lives today pg 70 showing cloves in tanzania.

Pyrethrum in Kenya

Kenya is the world’s largest producer and exporter.
The plant was introduced from australia in 1929
Grown for its flowers substance called pyrethrin which is used to make pesticides.

Conditions favouring the growth of pyrethrum

  1. Well distributed rainfall- 1000mm and 1500mm per year
  2. Cool temperature
  3. High altitude 1800m
  4. Well drained and fertile soils

Growing areas in kenya

Mainly grown in small farms;

  1. Molo
  2. Nyeri
  3. Kiambu
  4. Meru
  5. Kisii
  6. Nyandarua
  7. Kericho
  8. Mt.elgon

Importance of pyrethrum to the economy

  1. Earn country foreign exchange
  2. Farmers earn income for domestic use
  3. Creates job opportunities
  4. The main growing area is nyandarua county.

Pastoral Farming

Keeping of animals as a way of life is called pastoral farming
Animals mainly kept are

  1. Cattle
  2. Sheep
  3. Goats
  4. Donkeys
  5. Camels

Transhumance – is the migration /movement of pastoralist seasonally between the wet and dry season in search of pasture

Pastoralism is mainly practised in the grassland savannah and some semi-arid areas of africa.

Major pastoral communities in africa:

  1. The maasai
  2. The fulani
  3. The tswana.

The Maasai

Best known nomadic pastoralists of east africa.
Mainly keep cattle, goats and sheep.
They practise transhumance

Conditions favouring pastoral farming among the maasai

  1. Low population
  2. Favourable climate
  3. Flat land for easy movement
  4. Crossing border easily i.e.kenya and tanzania.

The fulani

Are found in west africa
Are largest nomadic group in the world
They keep cattle, sheep, goats and horses
Occupy the savannah area between chad and senegal.
They practise transhumance
They uses horses to search for places where water and grazing land are available.

Conditions favouring pastoral farming among the fulani

  1. Extensive grassland belt
  2. Low population
  3. The absence of tsetse flies in the grassland
  4. Favourable climate to support pasture.
  5. Seasonality in rainfall maens pasture grow in seasons.

The tswana

Are found in botswana.
Kalahari desert lies to the west of the country
Soil is sandy
Soil mainly support savannah grassland vegetation
Water is tapped by drilling wells and boreholes.
Animals kept are cattle, sheep and goats.
Grazing areas are often far from the homestead

Conditions favouring pastoral farming among the tswana

  1. Low population
  2. Presence of grassland in most parts.
  3. Crop farming is generally difficult.

Benefits of Pastoral Farming

  1. Source of income/livelihood.
  2. Earn foreign exchange
  3. Source of wealth for individual pastoralists e.g. fulani.
  4. Good economic use of land
  5. Animal products support other industries e.g. tanneries
  6. Create employment
  7. Animals provide food for the pastoralists.

Problems Facing Pastoral Farming in Africa

  1. Diseases – foot and mouth, rinderpest, east coast fever, antrax.
  2. Drought
  3. Overstocking
  4. Poor quality pasture
  5. Poor quality breeds
  6. Fires
  7. Harsh climatic conditions
  8. Political differences
  9. Transport
  10. Land pressure
  11. Indequate capital
  12. Cattle rustling
  13. Attack by wild animals.

Development in Pastoral Farming Areas in Africa

  1. Cross-breeding
  2. Reduce problem of tsetse flies
  3. Constructed boarding schools and dispensaries
  4. Introduction of mixed farming
  5. Veterinary services are provided
  6. Introduction of group and individual ranching
  7. Selling some livestock to prevent overstocking to K.M.C
  8. Construction of dams and boreholes
  9. The maasai have started alternative economic activities e.g.making and selling handicrafts and curios.

Multi-purpose River Projects

  1. The river tana projects in kenya
  2. The aswan high dam in egypt
  3. The volta river schemes in ghana
  4. The kariba dam in zambia and zimbambwe

River Tana projects


Found along river Tana
Source in the highlands around mt kenya
Involved the construction of seven dams hence the name seven forks schemes

  1. Kindaruma – 1968
  2. Kamburu – 1977
  3. Gitaru – 1980
  4. Masinga – 1986
  5. Kiambere – 1988
  6. Mutonga – not completed
  7. Kgrand falls – not completed

Reasons for establishment

  • Production of HPE
  • Control flooding
  • Availability of large river.

Benefits from the river tana projects

  1. Reduce flooding in the lower tana valley
  2. Fishing e.g. masinga and kiambere
  3. Lakes behind the dam modify the climate around the area
  4. Tourists attraction
  5. Expansion of industries due to availability of HEP
  6. Provide water for domestic use
  7. Pruduction of HEP.

Problems Facing the Tana Projects.

  1. Inadequate fund to complete the projects
  2. Expensive to resettle people
  3. Reduction of water during the dry season
  4. Siltation of dams
  5. Some sections have no water because water moves through underground tunnels to neighbouring dams.

The Aswan High Dam

Found in egypt
Located on river Nile
Completed in 1971
Behind the dam is lake nasser 550km long.
Lake nasser is the second largest after kariba.

Reasons for establishment

  1. Provide water for irrigation(main)
  2. To produce HEP
  3. To contro floods
  4. To pvide water for domestic use.

Benefits resulting from the construction of the dam

  1. Control floods in the lower Nile region.
  2. Irrigated land receives a rugular and sufficient water supply
  3. Improve transportation in southern egypt – linking to sudan due to lake nasser.
  4. Development of fishing
  5. Growth of industries due to production of HEP.
  6. Create employment.
  7. Create tourists attraction
  8. Lake nasser has modified the weather conditions.

Problems facing the aswan high dam.

  1. Displacement of people
  2. Moving of ancient egyptian temples of abu simbel to new location
  3. Expensive to construct dam and egypt to look foreign assistance.
  4. Siltation
  5. Reduction of nutrients that flow down to the mediterrean sea to support aquatic life.
  6. Lack of enough silt to costruct bricks and for pottery.
  7. Erosion of the Nile delta due to lack of silt.

The Volta River Scheme

It is the largest river in ghana
Found across river volta a place called akosombo
A dam is also known as the akosombo dam
The location of the dam was chosen because of its narrow position.
Started in 1962 and completed in 1966.
A lake called lake volta was formed behind the dam
Lake volta is the world’s largest in terms of surface area.

Reason for establishment

  • Control the waters of river volta at akosombo
  • Generate HEP.
  • Reduce the cost of generating electricity from oil.

Benefits from the development of the scheme.

  1. Establishment of fishing industry
  2. Improved water transport between northern and southern ghana through lake volta.
  3. Irrigation increased food production.
  4. Development of industries
  5. Led to earning of foreign exchange, since HEP is sold to togo and benin.
  6. Create employment.

Problems facing the volta river scheme

  1. Requires alot of capital to construct a dam.
  2. Displacement of people
  3. Transportation became difficult
  4. Water borne diseases e.g. bilharzia.

The Kariba Dam

Located at kariba gorge along river zambezi
Found on the boundary between zimbabwe and zambia in central africa.
Construction began in 1955 and completed 1977.
Lake kariba was formed behind this dam.
It is the world’s largest artificial lake by water volume.

Reasons for establishment

  1. There was need for cheap power for industries by the two countries.
  2. HEP production save forest clearing
  3. Existing railway could not transport coal.

Benefits resulting from the kariba dam.

  1. Production of HEP.
  2. Reduction in the cost of energy.
  3. Creation of jobs
  4. Existing railway station was reduced
  5. Reduction of flooding of river zambezi downstream.
  6. Lake kariba provides a safe and cheap method of transport.
  7. Tourist attraction due to dam and lake
  8. Reduction of over-reliance on coal as a source of fuel.
  9. Increased fishing activities.
  10. Forest around the area provides home for wildlife

Problems facing the establishment of the dam

  1. A lot of capital is required to construct a dam.
  2. Negotiation and agreement between zambia and zimbabwe.
  3. Endangered wild animals
  4. Political problems delayed construction.
  5. Bilharzia causing snails spread due to stagnant water
  6. The earth quakes pose danger due to weight of the dam.
  7. Displacement of people.


A forest is a group of trees growing close together over a lrge area of land.
Forestry is the practice of planting and taking care of forests and trees in order to serve different purposes.
Forests in africa are both natural and planted
Natural forest mainly consists of hardwood and some softwood trees.
Planted or cultivated forests consist of softwood trees.

Location of Major Forests in Africa

Draw map showing location of major forests in africa on our lives today pg 88

The main type is the extensive tropical rain forest or the equatorial covers gabon, cote d ivoire, nigeria,
ghana, DRC, Liberia, cameroon and eastern coat of madagascar.

Mountane or mountain forest

Occurs in the highland and mountain regions of africa
Found at ;

  1. Drakensberg mountains
  2. Ethiopia highland
  3. Highland of east africa

Mangrove forests

Found ;

  1. Eastern coast of eastern africa between somalia and natal in south africa.
  2. Western coast of africa between angola and sierra leone.

Savannah woodlands

Found in the savannah belt of africa.

Mediterranean forest

Mixture of hardwood and softwood forest
Found at;

  1. Atlas mountain in north africa
  2. Cape province in south africa

Planted forests

  1. Mostly found in highlands
  2. Planted to replace indigenous trees
  3. Example is the great usutu in swaziland.


Forestry in the DRC.

  1. 57% of the total land is covered by forest
  2. Most forest is natural
  3. Are found in the northern region of the country
  4. Trees include;
    1. Teak
    2. Ebony
    3. Mahogany
    4. African cedar

Importances of forest to the economy of DRC

  1. Source of valuable hardwood timber
  2. Protect the water resources in the country
  3. Home to rich and diverse wildlife
  4. Attracts a lot of attention in scientific research
  5. Provided employment opportunities
  6. Source of revenue to the government.
  7. Problems facing forestry in the DRC.
  8. Locating and cutting needed trees species is expensive and difficult due to the closeness
  9. Buttress roots which make the trees difficult to cut.
  10. Creepers and undergrowth make it difficult to reach the trees needed for logging.
  11. Some trees are huge and when fall destroy unnecessarily
  12. Huge size and the heavy weight make them difficult to handle.
  13. Difficult to maintain roads.
  14. Expensive to transport logs to the market
  15. Valuable species take long time to mature and are in danger of disappearing.
  16. Deforestation.

Forestry in Swaziland

  1. Industry mainly depends on plantation forests
  2. It covers 120000ha of land
  3. Consists mainly of softwood that is pine and eucalyptus trees.
  4. Main forests are;
    1. Great usutu valley
    2. Piggs peak forest
  5. Swaziland’s forests provide softwood for:
    1. Pulp mills
    2. Saw mills
    3. Box factories

Importances of forests to the economy of swaziland

  1. Earn country foreign exchange
  2. The great usutu forest has helped to reduce soil erosion
  3. Protect water catchment areas
  4. Provide good picnic site thus promotingtourism.
  5. Help to conserve the wildlife
  6. Reduce soil erosion help to prevent flooding
  7. Creation of job opportunities

Problems facing forestry in swaziland

  1. Higher rate of forest exploitation than replacement
  2. Demand for arable land
  3. Attacks by pests and diseases
  4. Difficult in transportation
  5. Destruction by forest fires.


Is the process of extracting or removing minerals from within the ground.
Rocks containing minerals are called ores.

Extraction of Selected Minerals in Africa

  1. Petroleum in nigeria
  2. Copper in zambia
  3. Gold in south africa
  4. Soda ash in kenya

Petroleum in Nigeria

In natural state it is called crude oil
Mined in niger delta

Petroleum drilling

It is done by means of a large metal sructure called derrick.
The drill head is called bit.
Mud is mixed with water to lubricate the bit
Where oil deposits are below the ocean floor, oil rig is floated on the water to drill the oil.
Oil is transported by pipeline to the refineries
Refineries are located at elesa eleme near port harcourt at wari and at kaduna.

Uses of petroleum

  1. Making chemicals
  2. Bitumen(tar)used for tarmacking roads
  3. Kerosene used to light lamps and stoves
  4. Petroluem and diesel used to run motor vehicles and locomotives.
  5. Cooking gas is obtained from petroluem
  6. Making plastics, fertilizers and medicines
  7. Lubricating to reduce friction

Contribution of oil to the economy of niger

  • Earning foreign exchange
  • Created employment
  • Add revenue to the government
  • Some oil is used in the country.

Copper in Zambia

It is shiny, fairly soft and reddish brown in colour
It is easy to bend and shape.
DRC and zambia are leading producer in africa
Copper belt extend from ndola in zambia to lubumbashi in DRC.

Copper Mining

Open cast or stripping method is used.
Also shaft or pit method is used.
Machines called excavators are used.
Open cast is done at Nchanga near chingaola
Deep in ground shaft or pit method is used.

Uses of copper

  1. Making electrical wires
  2. Making telephone wires
  3. Making water and gas pipe
  4. Making coils
  5. Making motor vehicles radiators
  6. Making ornaments, medals and utensils.
  7. Mixed with broze to make brass.

Contribution of copper to the economy of zambia

  1. Earn foreign exchange to the country.
  2. Create employment
  3. Copper sales are used to develop other sectors e.g. health services, education.
  4. Workers provide aready market for the agricultural products.

Gold in South Africa

It is a yellow precious metal
South africa is the largest producer of gold in the world.
Rock cointaining gold is called reefs
Reefs is the ore that is mined
Mining began in 1886 in south africa area called witwatersrand near Johannesburg in trasvaal province.
Other mining areas are orange free state

Gold Mining

Shaft or underground mining is used as method
Electric drills are used to remove gold reef.
Gold is separated from the rocks using chemical
Gold is melted and made into bars called ignots.

Uses of gold

  1. Make medals, ornaments and jewellery items e.g.rings, necklaces.etc.
  2. Used by dentists to replace and coat teeth.
  3. In the past gold were used as money.
  4. Used to coat items e.g.pens
  5. Symbol of wealth and power by kings or emperors

Contribution of gold to the economy

  1. Earns foreign exchange to the country
  2. Employment
  3. Growth of towns e.g.krugers dorp, welkam, klerksorp and johannesburg
  4. Improvement of other industries.

Soda Ash in Kenya

Rock cointaining soda ash is called trona
Mined at lake magadi.
Mining started in 1914.

Soda ash mining

Method is dredging
Machine is called dredger
Mixed with water to form shiny solution called slurry.
In factory unwanted rocks and dirt are removed from slurry
The product is then dried by evaporating
Soda ash is put in bags and exported

Uses of soda ash

  1. Making glass, soap, paper and aluminium
  2. Making dyes, drugs and chemicals
  3. Treat water
  4. Softening water in the cooking refinery
  5. Softening vegetable when cooking.

Contribution of soda ash

  1. Employment
  2. Development of transport network
  3. Growth of town e.g.magadi.
  4. Earn the country foreign exchange – it is the leading mineral export in kenya.
  5. Establishment of industries e.g.drug, glass, dyes and chemical manufacturers.

Problems Associated with Mining in Africa

  1. Led to death e.g. gold mines in south africa.
  2. Displacement of already settled people e.g. kwale district to allow for the mining of titannium.
  3. Other economic activities are neglected.
  4. Leds to diseases e.g. lung diseases due to dust.
  5. It degrade environment through pollution.

Effects of Mining on the Environment

  1. Ugliness of the land
  2. Destruction of plant and animal life.
  3. Pollution

Industrial Development

Is growth and expansion of industries in an area.

Industrial Development in Kenya

The development of industries in kenya started in 1941
Industries are made more diverse covering processing, assemblying, manufacturing, and service industries.

Factoring favouring industrial development in kenya.

  1. Availability of power
  2. Availability of raw materials
  3. Government polisies
  4. Research information.
  5. Economic policy
  6. Availability of capital
  7. Availability of labour
  8. Political stability
  9. Availability of transport
  10. Availability of ready markets

Contributions of industries to the economy of kenya

  1. Creation of jobs
  2. Growth of industries led to improvement of roads
  3. Expansion of townsearn foreign exchange
  4. Increase income to the farmers
  5. Reduce cost of importing similar products.
  6. Development of new technology.

Industrial Development in South Africa

South africa is the most developed (industrialised nation in africa)

Factors favouring growth of Industries in South Africa

  1. Large reserves of coal
  2. Presence of a wide range of minerals
  3. Presence of agricultural raw materials
  4. Availablity of labour
  5. Government policy
  6. Infrastructure
  7. Cheap power
  8. Gold mining
  9. Ready market
  10. Favourable climate
  11. Availability of capital.

Contribution of industries to the economy of south africa

  1. Increased demanded of raw materials
  2. Country became self-sufficient
  3. Growth of industries
  4. Goods are used in domestic market. This saves country foreign exchange.
  5. Leds to growth of towns
  6. Create employment
  7. Earns the country foreign exchange
  8. Provide stable source of income.

Problems experienced due to industrial development

  1. Destruction of the natural environment
  2. High rate of crime
  3. Pollution
  4. Erosion of cultural values
  5. Rural-urban migration
  6. Displacement of people
  7. Loss of agricultural land


Is harvesting of fish from water bodies or fishing grounds.
Can be harvested from fresh or salty water sources.
Fresh water sources of fish are called inland fishing ground
Sea water sources are salty and are called marine fishing ground.

Main Inland Fishing Ground in Africa

Carried out in:

  1. Lakes
  2. Large rivers
  3. Dams
  4. Ponds

Most important fishing ground ;

  1. Lake kyoga
  2. Lake victoria
  3. Lake turkana
  4. Lake tanganyika
  5. Lake malawi
  6. Lake chad

Fish caught are in the above named inland areas are;

  1. Nile perch
  2. Tilapia
  3. Dagaa(omena)

Artificial lakes where fishing is practised;

  1. Lake volta
  2. Lake nasser
  3. Lake kariba
  4. River orange

Rivers where fishing is carried out;

  1. Nile
  2. Niger
  3. Orange
  4. Tana
  5. Zambezi
  6. Congo
  7. Volta

Fish farming is practised in ponds;

  1. Tilapia
  2. Trout which are the main types of fish.

Main Marine Fishing Grounds in Africa

Carried out in seas and oceans

  1. Coast of angola, namibia and south africa
  2. Coast of morocco and algeria
  3. Coastal water of weat africa, gabon, and cameroon.
  4. Coasts of tanzania and kenya
  5. Main fish caught are;
    • Tuna
    • Mackerel
    • Sardine
    • Snapper
    • Barracuda
    • Cavalla

Methods of Fishing

Fishing methods depend on;

  1. The type of fish to be caught
  2. The area where fish are found
  3. The purpose of fishing, wheather commercial or subsistence.

Large scale fishing methods are;

  1. Longlining method
    Improved on the hook and line methods
    Mainly used in deep sea fishing
  2. Trawling
    Uses boat called trawlers
    Used to catch fish which live near the sea bed/deep sea.
  3. Purse-seining
    Uses two boats
    Used to catch fish living near the water surface and found in large groups.
  4. Net drifting
    Net stretched across the river or portion of the lake or ocean.

NB dagaa are attracted to the surface near the fishing boat by light from lamps.

Contribution of Fishing to the Economy of Africa

  1. It is a source of food
  2. It is a source of in come
  3. It is a source of employment
  4. Source of raw materials
  5. Source of foreign exchange.
  6. Led to the growth of some towns
  7. Led to improvement in living standards
  8. It is a tourist attraction
  9. Contributed to growth of other industries.

Problems Facing the Fishing Industry in Africa

  1. Overfishing
  2. Pollution
  3. Inadequate capital and modern equipment
  4. Poor transport system
  5. Mismanagement of co-operatives society
  6. Inability to protect fisheries
  7. Inadequate processing and storage facilities
  8. Growth of water weeds
  9. Use of harmful fishing equipment methods
  10. Destruction by fishing equipment
  11. Inadequate local market for fish
  12. Lack of clearly defined boundaries in fishing ground between different countries.


Is the exchange of goods and serviecs between people or countries.

Regional Trade Organizations in Africa


Formed in 1994
Replaced PTA which was formed in 1981.
Mainly formed to increase trade in eastern and southern africa.
Headquaters are in lusaka zambia.
Members refer our live today pg 114
Mozambique withdrew and lesotho in 1997
Tanzania withdrew in 2000
Namibia withdrew in 2004
Angola has also withdrew.

Objectives of COMESA

  1. Create common market for all members
  2. Make members states to increase raw materials
  3. Promote cooperation in transport and communication.
  4. Promote peace, security and stability among members states.
  5. Promote trade relation between COMESA and rest of the world
  6. Establish common bank.
  7. Promote interaction and exchange of ideas
  8. Widen market
  9. Promote joint research in science and technology.


Formed in 1980 in lusaka zambia
Formed as SADCC.
Headquarters are in gaborone botswana.
Members – refer to our lives today pg 115

Objectives of SADC

  1. Promote trade and widen markets.
  2. Promote friendly relationship
  3. Alleviate poverty
  4. Promote development of transport and communication.
  5. Promote and defend peace and security.
  6. Develop common political values, systems and institutions.
  7. Promote sustainable development and economic development.
  8. To utilize natural resources found in the region.


formed in 1976 in togo.
Headquaters Abuja nigeria
Members – refer our lives today pg 116
Mauritania withdrew in 2000
Guinea suspended in 2008

Objectives of ECOWAS

  1. Promote trade by removing taxes on goods
  2. Promote free movement of people
  3. Promote friendly relations.
  4. Create a common market in the region.
  5. Encourage improvement of intrastructure
  6. Promote co-operation and integration
  7. Encourage industrial development
  8. Raise living standards
  9. Maintain and enhance economic stability
  10. Prevent and settle regional disputes and conflicts.

Benefits of Regional Trade in Africa

  1. Members become economically stronger
  2. Create employment
  3. Increase trade within the organization
  4. Promote political unity
  5. Creation of large market for goods.
  6. Improvement of infrastructure
  7. Create wider market hence lowering prices of goods
  8. Creation of banks to support trading activities.

Problems Facing Regional Trade in Africa

  1. Production of similar goods.
  2. Poor transport systems
  3. Lack of a common currency.
  4. Political differences
  5. Political instability.
  6. Lack of a common tax system
  7. Quota system.
  8. Level of purchasing power
  9. Differences in development levels

Transport and Communication

TRANSPORT is the movement of goods and people from one place to another.
COMMUNICATION is the sending of messages from one person or place to another.

Major Transport Networks in Africa.

  1. Road transport
  2. Pipeline transport
  3. Railway transport
  4. Cables transport
  5. Water transport
  6. Air transport

Road Transport

  1. All-weather
    Made of murram or tarmac
  2. Dry-weather road
    They are not tarmacked
    Used during dry season.

Major international roads

  • Trans-african highway
    Runs from mombasa to lagos in nigeria.
  • Great north road
    Runs from cape town to cairo in egypt
  • Trans-sahara highway
    Runs from lagos to algiers in algeris
  • Cotonou-gao-oudja highway
    Runs/connects benin with morocco
    The road has a branch at gao that stretches to dakar in senegal.

Railway Transport

Built during colonial period
Few were built after independence.
South africa has the most developed railway notwork in africa
Somalia, rwanda, burundi and niger do not have a railway.
It transports bulky goods.

  1. The tanzania – zambia railway(tazara)
    Connects zambia to the port of dar es salam
  2. The trans-cameroon railway
    Connects chad and the central african republic with the coast
    Used to exploit forest and minerals e.g. bauxite in cameroon.
  3. The south african railway
    Connects other countries such as zimbabwe, zambia, mozambique, botswana and DRC.
    NB most railway are narrow gauge
    This means they are one metre wide
    In zimbabwe, south africa, morocco, algeria, tinisia and the DRC.there are sections of electrified railway line.

Water Transport

It is cheap form of transport
Water transport in rivers and lakes is called inland water transport.
Water transport in sea and ocean is called sea transport.


Mainly not navigable because;

  • Seasonal flow
  • Floating vegetation and weeds
  • Rapids
  • Waterfalls
  • Shallow water depth
  1. The nile
    Only navigable from lake albert in uganda up to nimule on the border with sudan
    Between juba and khartoum in sudan
    At lake nasser in egypt.
  2. The congo
    Only navigable at between its mouth and matadi
    Between kinshasa and kisangani
    Between ibundu and kindu.
  3. The niger
    Only navigable between kouroussa and bamako
    Ansongo and border between mali and niger
  4. The benue
    Only navigable betwee where it joins the niger and garoua in cameroon.
    NB Rivers senegal and gabia are also navigable.
    Artificial lake are l.nasser, kainji, cobora bassa and volta.

Pipeline Transport

Transport water, petroleum and gas
Biggest concentration is in north africa.

Air Transport

Major airlines in africa are;

  • South africa
  • Kenya airlines
  • Ethiopia airlines
  • Egypt airline
  • Nigeria airways 

Cable(wire) Transport

Mainly used to transport electricity from the power stations to the consumers.


Advantages of road   Disadvantages of road 
Wide spread  Traffic jams
Flexible  Maximum load is limited 
Quite fast  High rate of accident
Goods delivered directly to their destination   Few passengers at a time
Wide variety of goods can be transported by road   Greatly affected by weather.
Convenient all time  Expensive to maintain
   Gases cause air pollution
Railway advantages  Railway disadvantages
Convenient for bulky goods  Expensive to build
Minimal accidents  Expensive to buy wagon, trains 
Cost is low for transport  Gauge are narrow
No traffic jam  Require flat land to build
More durable  Stopping point are far
Not greatly attected by thief  Not economical when quantities are small 
Low consumption of fuel  Not flexible
Comfortable for passengers travelling over long distances   Greatly affected when there are breakdown 
Does not require alot of labour  Generally slow
   Very dependent on infrastrature only when there is a  railway
Water transport advantages  Water transport disadvantages
Occurs naturally therefore no maintaince  Slow form of transport
Suitable for bulky goods   Waterfalls and rapids
Cheapest  Expensive to construct ports
Suitable for transporting special goods e.g.petroleum  Affected by storms
Can reach many parts of the world bordered by water bodies   Not accessed by all especially landlocked countries
  Harsh climate 
Air transport advantages  Air transport disadvantages
Fastest form of transport   Expensive to buy and maintain aeroplanes
Few theft cases   Not used for bulky goods
Transport distant countries  Operate on strict timetable
Low damage of goods  carry limited number of people
   Affected by weather
   Require high qualified people
Pipeline tranport advantages  Pipeline tranport disadvantages
Enables continousflow of commodities  Expensive to build
It is fast   Great losses through leakage
Laid on both land and in the sea   Not flexible
Low maintenance cost  Economical only where gas and oil is constant
Reduces damages on roads   Cannot transport solid commodity
Reduces cases of theft  Cannot transport people
Require very little human labour.   
Cable transport advantages  Cable transport disadvantages
Delivery of the product is constant  Expensive to install
Used above the surface and underground  Dangerous if wire drop to the ground
Require very little human labour.   
Used above the surface and underground  
Power can be transported over long distances  
Last for long time  

Current Development in Communication Systems in Africa

The recent ICT development iclude the introduction and uses of;

  1. Mobile phones
    Majority replaced the fixed line telephones
  2. Card phones
    Used when making calls from public telephone booth instead of coins
  3. Computers
  4. Used mainly to send emails, browse the internet, look for jobs
  5. Cybercafes are opened in most towns
  6. Many radio and television stations(digital)
  7. Fibre – optic cable
  8. Makes connectivity faster and cheaper


Is the movement of people from one place to another for leisure, sightseeing and also for business.

Main Tourist Attractions in Africa

  • Wildlife
  • Historical sites
    This tells us about the way of life of the people inthe past.
    1. e.g pyraids and ruins in egypt.
    2. Slave forts and port of goree island- senegal
    3. Shimoni caves – mombasa
    4. Old slave market – zanzibar
    5. Olduvai gorge – tanzania
    6. Kariandusi and olorgesailie – kenya
    7. Sango bay – uganda
    8. Lalibela and lowervalley of river omo – ethiopia
  • Beaches
    Morocco, algeria, south africa, tunisia, mauritius and kenya.
  • Scenery
    Snow – capped mountain
    Great rift valley
    River nile and wind surfing
    Hot spring and geysers
  • Cultural heritage
    African traditional crats, artifacts
    Mode of dressing
    Traditional foods
  • Climate
    Warm climate

Main Tourist Destinations in Africa

Is a place where tourist desire to visit.

 Country in africa    Main tourist attraction 
 Kenya Game parks and reserves e.g. maasai mara, tsavo,
warm beaches, historical and pre-historical sites
e.g. koobi fora, gedi ruins
 South Africa Kruger national park, table mountains, roben island,
coastal beaches
 Egypt Pyramids at giza, valley of king, cairo musuem, nile
cruises ,library at alexandria
Zimbabwe Victoria falls, lake kariba, hwango national park, city
of harare 
Mauritius Coastal beaches and warm climate, black gorges
national park, ruins of europeans settlement
Morocco  Ancient town of marakach, sandy beaches, berber
villages, atlas mountains. 


Contributions of Tourism to the Economy

  1. Earn foreign exchange
  2. Employment oppounities
  3. Development of infrastructure network
  4. Led to growth of the building and construction of industries
  5. Creation of market for goods and services
  6. Increase in agricultural activities
  7. Improvement on retions between africa and rest of the world

Challenges Facing Tourism in Africa

  1. Overdependence on tourists from particular regions
  2. Poor marketing of destinations
  3. Stiff competition from other tourist destinations
  4. Competition for land e.g. agricultural and wildlife
  5. Poaching
  6. Environmental threats and calamities
  7. Human-wildlife conflicts
  8. Political instability
  9. High taxation costs and fees
  10. Insecurity
  11. Diseases

Possible Solutions to Challenges Facing Tourism

  1. Making african destination cheaper
  2. Diversify tourist attraction
  3. Manage well wildlife and human conficts
  4. Improving transport and communication network.
  5. Market tourist destinations
  6. Improve and maintain peace and security
  7. Encourage group tourist visit
  8. Reducing the cost of tourist trade e.g. cut down trees


The growth and development of towns and urban centres

Capital cities in africa
Is town where central government operates from
Also called seat of government

Reasons for the Rapid Growth of Towns in Africa

  1. Transport systems e.g. road and railway.e.g.nairobi, kisumu, addis ababa.
  2. Establishment of industies and commercial activities e.g.lagos, dar es salaam.
  3. Mining activities – johannesburg, tema and accra.
  4. Administrative centres e.g.nairobi, cairo, addis ababa, kampala, abidjan, antananarivo.
  5. Functions as a port e.g. kinshasa, abidjan, lagos, maputo, mombasa, dar el salaam.
  6. Political factor e.g. dodoma, abuja

Social relations refers to the way members of the society relate or get on with each other.
Cultural activities refers to things or activities done according to the way of life of people.

The Family

Is a group of people related and joined by blood, adoption or marriage.
Is the smallest basic unit of a society.
It begins when an adult man and an adult woman are joined together in marriage.


Is a lawful union between an adult man and woman as a husband and wife.
Marriage is for companionship, love and procreation.

Marriage Systems

  1. Customary marriage
  2. Civil marriage
  3. Religious marriage

Customary marriage

Also called traditional marriage
Is conducted according to the traditional customs and culture of the community.
Is presided over by the elders within a community.
Dowry is paid as per the customs of the community
It allows polygamy
Dowry strengths the marriage bond.
Marriage certificate is not issued.

Civil marriage

It takes place in a government office
Is presided over by a government officer general, magistrate, a district commissioner
The couple gives 21 days or three weeks notice
It is strictly monogamous
Is registered after the exchange of vows.
A marriage certificate is issued
Bride price is usually given to the brides parents before the wedding .

Religious marriage

Is carried out according to the religious beliefs of the couple.
Is presided over by a religious leader
Is conducted in a mosque, church or a temple.
It is monogamous except in islam.
Islamic law allows a maximum of 4 wives(polygamay)
Vows are exchanged
Marraige certificate is issued
Bride price is paid before the wedding.

Importance of the institution of marriage

  • It ensures the continuity of the family and community.
  • It provides campanionship
  • It is the base for building family life.
  • It provides security to family members
  • It gives identity/sense of belonging to family members.
  • It enriches the culture of different communities.
  • It helps to control the spread of sexually transmitted diseases.
  • It promotes responsibility for both men and women.

The School

This is a place where children go to learn.
Is a place where children acquire knowledge and skills.

The School Administration

This is the day to day management of the school.
This refers to how an institution or organization is run or managed.
Public schools are built and managed by the government
A well managed school runs property and pupils learn well.
The team involved in school administration include;

  1. School committee
  2. Headteacher
  3. Deputy headteacher
  4. Teachers
  5. Pupils
  6. Parents

The School Committee

Is hresponsible for managing each public primary school
Is made up of ;

  • Headteacher
  • Members of local community
  • Parents representatives
  • Schoolsponsors
  • D.E.B rep

It is headed by a chairman
The headteacher is the secrectary to the school committee.

The Headteacher

Incharge of day to day running of the school
Links between the teachers and the ministry of education.
Ensures good discipline and cleanliness in the school.
Secretary to the school committee.
Keeps important school records.
Takes care of the school property
Ensures safety of everyone in the school
Admits new pupils to the school.
Supervises work done by teachers, pupils and other workers.
Receives all school funds an behalf of the school committee.
Ensures school finances and resources are well used.
Assigns duties to other members of staff.

Deputy Headteacher

Assists the headteacher
Heads disciplinary committee in the school
Supervises teacher lesson attendance
Writes minutes during staff meetings
Prepares school timetable and duty roster.
Incharge of discipline in the school.
Teaches his/her subjects.


Main role is to teach
Supervising pupils on thier responsibilities
Maintaining discipline among pupils
Guiding and counseling pupils
Role model to the pupils
Day to day running of the school as teachers on duty.
Preparing and maintaining class registers and progress records.
Identifying and developing talents in pupils.


Making sure their children attend school
Making sure their children attend to their homework.
Attending all school meetings called by the school management.
Contribute funds and other materials to build the school.

Importance of the school administration

  • It decides on the pupils enrolment
  • Coordinates the running of the school and its programmes
  • Promotes high standards of discipline
  • Ensures high academic standards
  • Ensures that pupils needs are met.
  • It looks for teachers to teach the pupils who come to school.
  • Purchases school books, desks and other equipment.
  • Is a link between the community, the school and the government.

The role of the school in community development

  • Teaching pupils to obey the law of the land.
  • Equip pupils with necessary skills to help them in their life.
  • Helps pupil to discover and nurture their talents
  • Offering employment the community in the school.
  • Helps in preservation of the community’s culture.
  • It provides facilities such as playing fields, halls for use by the community.
  • Pupils and teachers participate in community projects e.g.tree planting and cleaning the environment.

Contributions of the community in the school development.

  • Taking their children to school
  • Source of labour for the school
  • Donates land for building or expanding the school
  • Donating materials needed for constructing school.
  • Providing resource personnel for guidance and counselling.
  • Allows schools to use their facilities.e.g halls
  • Giving moral support to the school e.g.
    • During prize giving
    • Sports days.
  • Providing pupils with necessary materials e.g. books, pens.

Major Language Groups in Africa

A language group is a group of who speak same or similar language.
Communities in africa belong to different language groups
The people of africa are grouped geographically
They include;

  1. The people of west africa
  2. The people of north africa
  3. The people of central africa
  4. The people of southern africa

The People of North Africa

This region is made up of egypt, morocco, libya, algeria, western sahara, tunisia and mauritania.
People is this region include.
B – Berbers
A – arabs(semites)
T – tuaregs
Arabs mainly came to: trade, spread islam.
Berbers are found in tunisia, morocco, western sahara, libya, algeria.
Arabs are found in tunisia, libya, egypt, algeria, morocco and north sudan.
Tuaregs live in ahaggar plateau in algeria.

The People of Western Africa

This is the largest group in africa
They include;

  1. Mande speakers
  2. Kwa speakers
  3. Voltaic speakers
  4. West atlantic speakers
  5. Nilo – saharan speakers
  6. Afro-asiatic speakers

The Mande speakers

They are also called mandinkas or mandigoes
They are mainly cultivators
They live in;

  1. Mali
  2. Senegal
  3. Ghana
  4. Guinea bissau
  5. Burkina faso
  6. Sierra leone

They include;
S – Soninke
M – mande
S – susu
M – malinke
B – bambara

The Kwa speakers

They are the largest language group in west africa
They initially lived in north africa
Mostly live in ghana and nigeria
They include;
Ashanti, kwahu, akyem, akwapim, fanti, wassa, nzima, fula, denkyira and ga.
Igbo, yoruba, nupe edo, ijaw, igala and efik.

Voltaic speakers

They moved from lake chad.
They live between the upper and lower volta rivers
They were prominent traders
They are found mainly in ghana and burkina faso
They include;
Ewe – ewe
Mo – mossi
Gu – gurma
Da – dagomba
Be – bergu
Fo – fon
Eg – egun.

West Atlantic speakers

They live along the coast of atlantic ocean.
They are mainly pastorists
They are found in senegal, mali, gambia, guinea, mauritania, guinea bissau.
They include:
Fu – fulani
Tu – tukolor
Wo – wolof
Se – serer
Te – temme
C – creole
K – kru.

Afro-asiatic speakers

Are as a result of intermarriage betwee africans and arabs
Were mainly traders
Played an important role in the tras-saharan trade
They include
Ha – hausa
Tu – tuaregs
A – andarawa

 Hawa    In northern nigeria 
 Tuaregs   Niger, chad, mauritania, sahel region in mali 
 Andarawa   Burkana faso.


The Nilo-Saharan speakers

They migrated from nile region to west africa through sahara.
They live in nigeria, niger, mali and cameroon,
They include;
So – songhai
Za – zarma
De – dendi
Ka – kanuri.

The People of Central Africa

Majority of the people are bantu
The earliest inhabitants of the region were the khoikhoi, san, and pygmies.
The pygmies are also called the bambuti
The pygmies lived in the forests
The san and khoikhoi were forced to move southwards
The bantu were mainly cultivators
Some of the bantu group of central africa are:

 Bakongo, balunda, baluba, banyamlenge   D.R.C 
 Yao, makwa  Mozambique 
 Nyanya, yao, chewa,lambya, sena, manganja, mgonde, mgoni, nyasa, tonga.  Malawi
 Shona ndebele,ngoni  Zimbabwe
 Mbundu, ovimbundu  Angola
 Bemba,lozi, onga, lala lunda, luba, kaonde  Zambia
 Tutsi, twala, hutu   Rwanda and burundi 
 Sara  Central africa republic 
 Farig  Cameroon


Also called bambuti
Are forest people
Are mainly hunters and gatherers
They lead a communal life i.e.sharing most of the food they get.
They are found in the forest lands of:

  1. Central african republic
  2. Congo republic
  3. Gabon
  4. D.R.C

The People of Southern Africa

  1. Southern africa countries include;
    • South africa
    • Lesotho
    • Botswana
    • Swaziland
    • Namibia
    • Madagascar
  2. Main language groups in southern africa are the khoisan, bantu, afrikaners
  3. Majority of the people here are the bantu

The khoisan

They are the earliest and oldest inhibitants of southern africa
They migrated from congo forest
They speak with click sounds
They are made up of
Khoikhoiand the san

The khoikhoi

Also called hottentos
Are pastoralists
Are mainly found in namibia

The san

Also called the bushmen
Are hunters and gatherers
Are mainly found in kalahari desert in botswana and namibia

The bantu speaking people of southern africa

 Tswana, bechuana, bulala, kalahari,   Botswana 
 Sotho, bajuto   Lesotho 
 Swazi  Swaziland 
 Ovambo, herero, griqua  Namibia
 Xhosa, zulu, ndebele, tsonga, ovahimba, bakwena, venda    South Africa 


The Afrikaners

They are also known as the dutch
They migrated from the holland/netherlands
They came as settlers in 1652 in south africa
They were also called boers a dutch wod for farmers
They speak a language called afrikaans
They fought with british colonialists and were granted independence 1934

Other Language Groups in Southern Africa

They include asians and coloureds.


Are mainly indians
They were brought to work in sugar plantations of natal
They live in towns as businessmen


Are as a result of intermarriage between
Whites and blacks, white and asians, asians and blacks
Are mainly found in the urban centres of south africa

Interactions Among African Communities

Interactions refers to the coming together of different communities
Communities in the past interacted through the following ways:

  1. During migrations
  2. Through intermarriages
  3. During wars and raids
  4. Through games and sports
  5. During famine and drought
  6. Through trading(main)

Modern Ways of Interaction

  1. Trade i.e local and international trade
  2. Games and sports e.g. CECAFA,All african games, african cup of nations.
  3. Regional organisations e.g.E.A.C, IGAD,AU
  4. International workshops, seminars and conferences
  5. Intermarriages
  6. Reliious organisations e.g. catholic women association
  7. Ceremonies and celebrations
  8. Migrations e.g.emmigration
  9. Women and youth groups e.g. federation for african women educators
  10. Employment i.e places of work
  11. Local and international tourism.

Benefits of Interaction among Communities

  • It promotes trust among people
  • It promotes economic development
  • It promotes friendly relations
  • It enables people to appreciate other’s culture
  • It facilitates learning and exchange of new ideas and skills
  • It promotes spiritual growth through religion
  • Promotion of international peace and security
  • It improves transport and communication
  • Rich nations offers support to the poor countries

Factors Influencing Population Distribution

  1. Population distribution is the way people are spread over an area
  2. Population is not evenly distributed in africa
  3. Some areas are densely populated whereas others are sparsely populated
  4. Most people of africa live in rural areas
  5. Urban centres have high population densities
  6. Densely populated areas include;
    1. Major towns and cities
    2. Mining areas
    3. Highland areas
    4. River valleys
    5. Lake basins
    6. Coastal lowlands
  7. Sparsely populated areas include:
    1. Deserts
    2. Forests
    3. Swamps
    4. Mountain tops
    5. Pest infested areas
    6. Steep slopy areas

Factors Influencing Population Distribution in Africa


Areas receiving high rainfall are densely populated
Areas receiving low rainfall and high temperatures are sparsely populated


Steep slopes of hills and mountaions are sparsely populated
Gentle slopes of highlands are densely populated
Cold and rocky peaks of mountaions are unihabited


River valleys are densely populated due to irrigation
Poorly drained areas such as swamps are sparsely populated


Areas with fertile soils are densely populated
Areas with infertile sandy soils are sparsely populated


Areas with thick rainfall do not allow human settlement
People are not allowed to live in forest reserves

Pests and diseases

Areas infested with pests like tsetse flies discourages human settlement e.g. miombo woodland and lambwe


Urban areas are densely populated because of development of trade industries, employment opportunities and good social amenities.

Mining activities

Presence and discovery of minerals attracts large number of people
This encourages setting up of business centres and related industries
Natural disasters/calamities/catastrophies e.g floods, eruption of volcanoes, landslides
Such areas are sparsely populated


Areas with good political stability are densely populated
Areas experiencing instability due to civil wars are sparsely populated.

Social amenities

Areas with good social facilities like schools, hospitals, roads and recreational facilities are densely populated.

Government policy

Government ideas of settlement or irrigation schemes attracts large population
Gazettement of forest resrves makes some areas to have little or no population.


Vegetation refers to the total plant life/cover on the earth sorface.
It consists of trees, bushes, thickets and grasses.
We have natural vegetation and planted vegetation.

Natural vegetation
This is a type of vegetation that grows on its own

Planted vegetation
Also called man-made or artificial vegetation
This is a type of vegetation cultivated by human beings.

Vegetation Zones in Africa

  1. Tropical rainforest
  2. Savannah vegetation
  3. Mediterranean vegetation
  4. Temperate grassland vegetation
  5. Mountain vegetation
  6. Desert and semi desert vegetation
  7. Mangrove vegetation

Factors Influencing Distribution of Vegetation

  1. Climate
  2. Altitude an relief
  3. Soils
  4. Human activities
  5. Government policy
  6. Animal activities

Characteritics of Vegetation in Different Zones

Tropical Rainforests

It is also called equatorial vegetation
Is located latitude 5°N and 5°S of equator.
Are found in equatorial climatic zone.
Are found in:

  • Eastern madagascar
  • Gabo
  • Congo
  • Ghana
  • Cote d ivoire
  • Cameroon
  • Nigeria
  • Benin
  • Togo


  1. Tall evergreen trees
  2. Tops of trees form layers called canopies
  3. Trees have straight trunks
  4. Trees have buttress roots
  5. Trees have broad leaves
  6. The forest has little or no undergrowth
  7. Has climbing plants such as lianas
  8. Consists of different tree species
  9. Trees are mainly hardwood e.g.
    • Oak
    • Ebony
    • Obeche
    • Rosewood
    • Sapele
    • Camphor
    • Teak
    • Mahogany
    • Iroko
    • Ironwood
    • Mvule
    • Heartwood.

Savannah Vegetation

It covers the largest portion of africa
Is found between 5°N and 15°S of equator
Grows in tropical type of climate
It is made up of; savannah woodland and savannah grassland

Savannah Woodland

  1. Main vegetation are trees
  2. Trees are of medium height
  3. Trees have umblerra shape at the top
  4. Trees are widely spaced
  5. Trees are decidious
  6. Tall grass grow between the trees
  7. Trees have thick barks and deep roots
  8. Main trees are acacia and baobao

Savannah Grassland

  1. Main vegetation is grass
  2. Is made up of grass and trees
  3. Trees are few and scattered
  4. Grasses are tall and have stiff blades
  5. Main trees are acacia and baobao
  6. Trees have small leaves and thorns
  7. Trees have dep roots and thick barks
    Examples of savannah woodland in africa
    • Miombo woodland in tanzania
    • Shimba hills forest of kenya
    • Zambia
    • Malawi
    • Angola

Mediterranean Vegetation

Also called marguis vegetation
Grows in the mediterranean climatic zone


  1. Is made up of woodland(trees)and shrubs
  2. Trees are short and thin
  3. Main trees are oak, olive, fir, cedar, beech, pine, cypress, parasal.
  4. Trees are short and cone shaped
  5. Trees have small hard evergreen leaves
  6. Trees have deep taproots and thick stems
  7. Aromatic shrubs such as thyme, lavender, rosemary, aloe, sage.
  8. Other plants have fleshy stems and shiny leaves.

Desert and Semi-desert Vegetation

Found in areas experincing arid and semi-arid climate
Found in sahara and namib desert, kalahari and sahel regions
Consists mainly of drought resisitance shrub


  1. Mainly includes fleshy and thorny plants e.g.cactus and euphorbia
  2. Plants are deep rooted
  3. Plants have thin, spiky needle shaped leaves
  4. Scattered thorny bushes and tough bunch of grass
  5. Plants store water in fleshy stems and leaves
  6. In some places the ground is bare

Temperate Grassland Vegetation

Grows in warm temperate climatic zone
Is also called the veld
Main vegetation is grass


  1. Tuft/short grass and shrubs
  2. Grass turns yellow-brown during the dry season
  3. Has shrubs,bulbons plants and few trees.
  4. Few trees are found along the river valleys.

Mangrove Vegetation

Is found along the muddy coasts of eastern and western africa.


  1. Trees grows in salty water
  2. Trees are hardwood and of medium height.
  3. Trees are evergreed and they grow close together
  4. Trees have aerial/breathing roots above the water surface.

Mountain Vegetation

Is found in the highlands and mountain regions
It grows in belts or zones according to the altitudes
It changes with increase in altitude
It is also known as afro-alpine vegetation
At average altitude above 400m there is no vegetation.
It grows on the slopes of :

  1. Nyandarua ranges
  2. Cameroon highlands
  3. Ethiopia highlands
  4. Atlas mountains
  5. Mt.kilimanjaro
  6. Mt.kenya

Position, Shape and Size of Africa


Africa lies between latitude 37°N and 35°S and on longitute 18°W and 52°E.
Separated by water from all other continent except at the point where it joins Asia.
NOTE; When giving the position start with the latitude and then longitude.
Mostly Easterly point is called ras hafun(cape guardafui)
Mostly westerly is cape verde
Mostly northerly is cape bon
Mostly southerly is cape agulhas
Africa is connected to sinai peninsula by suez canal
Separated from spain by strait of gibraltar
Separated from rabia by strait of bab el-mandeb


The northern half is very wide while the southern is much narrower
At the cape guardafui extends outwards in the shape of a horn therefore the horn of africa.


Africa is the second largest continent in the world
Has an area of about 30.3 million square kilometres(20% of the total land surface)
It measures 8000 km from north to south and 7400km from east to west
Other continents

  1. Asia – 43608000km2
  2. Africa – 30335000km2
  3. North america – 25349000km2
  4. South america – 17611000km2
  5. Antarctica – 13340000km2
  6. Europe – 10498000km2
  7. Australia – 8923000km2

Countries of Africa and their Location

Africa has the largest number of countries in the world making a total of 55 countries
The newest country is South Sudan
African countries are given below in alphabetical order:

Algeria                                              2381741km2
Angola                                             1246700km2
Benin                                               115773km2
Botswana                                         600372km2
Burkina faso                                     274200km2
Burundi                                             28490km2
Cameroon                                        475900km2
Cape verde                                      7275km2
Central africa republic                      622984km2
Chad                                               1284000km2
Comoros                                          2117km2
congo                                               34965km2
cόte d’ ivoire                                     322463km2
djibouti                                              23310km2
DR congo                                         2345409km2
Egypt                                                1101449km2
Equatorial guinea                             28051km2
Eritrea                                              124320km2
Ethiopia                                            1221900km2
Gabon                                              267667km2
Gambia                                            11369km2
Ghana                                              238537km2
Guinea                                             245957km2
Guinea bisau                                    36125km2
Kenya                                               582648km2
Lesotho                                            30460km2
Liberia                                              111369km2
Libya                                                 1775000km2
Madagascar                                      592900km2
Malawi                                              118484km2
Mali                                                   1240192km2
Mauritania                                         1030700km2
Mauritius                                            2040km2
Morocco                                            724730km2
Mozambique                                     802000km2
Niger                                                 1267000km2
Namibia                                             824295km2
Nigeria                                               923773km2
Rwanda                                             26338km2
Sόo Tome & principe                         964km2
Senegal                                            196192km2
Seychelles                                         453km2
Sierra leone                                       72325km2
Somalia                                             626541km2
South africa                                       221037km2
South sudan                                     644329km2
Sudan                                              1886068km2
Swaziland                                          17368km2
Tanzania                                            947419km2
Togo                                                   56785km2
Tunisia                                               164154km2
Uganda                                              236036km2
Western sahara                                 252120km2
Zambia                                              752618km2
Zimbabwe                                         390759km2
The largest country in africa is Algeria while the smallest is Sychelle.
Offshore island also form part of africa;

  1. Seychelle
  2. Sao Tome and principe
  3. Mauritius
  4. Comoros
  5. Madagascar
  6. Cape verde


Draw and label map of africa(including all countries)

Major Latitudes and Longitudes

Major longitude is called prime meridian also called greenwich meridian
In africa it passes through:

  1. Ghana(Accra)
  2. Algeria
  3. Burkina faso
  4. Mali

All other longitudes are measured and named from prime meridian upto 180° on both sides

Major latitude in are three passing through africa

  1. Equator 0°

    •  divides africa into two parts
    • It passes through;
      1. Gabon
      2. Congo
      3. DR congo
      4. Uganda
      5. Kenya
      6. Somalia
  2. Tropic of cancer 23½° north of equator

    It passes through;
    1. Western sahara
    2. Mali
    3. Mauritania
    4. Algeria
    5. Libya
    6. Egypt
  3. Tropic of capricorn 23½° south of equator

    It passes through:
    1. Namibia
    2. Botswana
    3. South africa
    4. Mozambique
    5. Madagascar

Other important lines of latitude are far from africa are:

  1.  Arctic circle 66½° N
  2. Antarctic circle 66½° S

Rotation of the Earth

This is movement of earth on its own axis. One complete rotation is 360°
The direction of the rotation is from west to east i.e.anticlockwise direction. One complete rotation takes 24 hours

Effects of Rotation of the Earth

  1. Differences in time along different longitudes
  2. Occurrence of day and night
    Effects on time note:
    1hr= ?
    (360 × 1) ÷ 24 =15
    Therefore 1hr=15 or 360 = (24×60)minutes=1440min
    1 = 1440 ÷ (360 ×1)= 4min

    Example 1
    The time in accra 0° is 7.00am.calculate time in bermbera 45°E
    1hr =15
    ? = 45 = (45×1) ÷ 15 =3hrs
    So 3hrs is equavalent to 45 then add 3hrs to 7.00am to get 10.00am

Revolution of the Earth

It is the movement of the earth around the sun on its own axis through a path known as orbit

Effects of the Revolution of the Earth

  1. Causes different seasons
    1. Summer
    2. Winter
    3. Spring
    4. Autumn
      The four seasons follows
      Summer → Autumn → Winter → Spring (SAWS)
  2. Differences in length of day and night
    • In December North pole experiences longer hours of darkness than days
    • In June south pole experiences longer hours of darkness than day
    • In March and September days and night are equal. This is because neither south pole or north pole is facing the sun or away from it.
  3. Position of the midday sun
    • On 21st June the sun is overhead at the tropic of cancer. This is called summer solstice
    • On December 22nd the sun is overhead at the tropic of capricon. This is called winter solstice.
    • On March 21st and September 23rd the sun is overhead at the equator. This is called Equinox.

Map Reading and Interpretation

A map is a representation of the earth or part of it on a flat surface.
The symbols used in a map help to identify;

  1. Economic activities
  2. Population distribution
  3. Relief
  4. Drainage of an area

Economic activities

These are things that people engage in to obtain wealthe.g –mining,fishing, farming, livestock keeping,trading,

 Quarry  People keep cattle or livestock
 Road  People and goods are transported using road
 Fish trap  People practise fishing
 National Park   Tourism activities are carried out


This is physical appreance of the earth’s surface. They include;

  1. Hills
  2. Valleys
  3. Plateaus
  4. Mountains
  5. Plains

High ground or plateaus may be identified by the presence of;

  1. Mountain
  2. River source
  3. Tea
  4. Coffee
  5. Pyrethrum

Low attitude or plains may be identified by presence of;

  1. Swamps
  2. Direction of flow of rivers
  3. Cotton

On the atlas colour:

  • Light green represent plains
  • Yellow represents plateaus
  • Brown represents highlands
  • Purple represents mountain tops


Includes all water features. They are;

  1. Rivers
  2. Lakes
  3. Swamps
  4. Ponds
  5. Wells
  6. Human made lakes

Colour is used to represent drainage

  • Seasonal rivers – broken blue lines
  • Permanent rivers – continuous blue lines

Swampy areas have few settlement because they are breeding ground for mosquitoes

Population distribution and settlement

Many dots in an area indicate there are many people living there. Such areas are said to be densely populated.

When dots are far apart or scattered the area is said to be sparsely populated.

Physical Features

Main Physical Features of Africa

The main physical features in africa are:

  1. Plateaus
  2. Basins
  3. Valley
  4. Swamps
  5. Lakes
  6. Rivers
  7. Mountains and highlands

Our lives today pg 17
Draw map of africa showing main physical features


It is a high area which is generally level or flat ot the top

They are made up of very old and hard rocks

 Plateaus surface   Country where found
 Fouta Djallon  Guinea
 Bie plateau   Angola 
 Nyika plateau  East Africa
 Jos plateau  Nigeria



These are broad and shallow depressions. Most prominent ones are:

  1. Congo
  2. El Djouf
  3. Sudan
  4. Chad
  5. Kalahari
  6. Danakil depression

Other smaller basins – qattara in egypt,Lake victoria – kyoga basin

The lowest depression in africa is danakil depression


It is a long depression on the earth surface
The world’s biggest and most famous is the great rift valley. It covers a distance of 5600km.

Great rift valley is divided into four sections

  1. Ethiopia rift valley
  2. Eastern branch
  3. Western branch
  4. Malawi rift valley

Ethiopian rift valley

  • It begins from the red sea and extends down to lake turkana

Eastern branch

  • Begins from lake turkana through kenya down to tanzania

Western branch

  • Starts from lake rukwa in tanzania and runs along the borders of uganda and DRC to south sudan border.lake tanganyika, kivu,goerge,albert and edward are found in this branch.

Malawi rift valley

  • It is a continuation of the eastern branch. Starts from lake malawi and ends at port of beira in mozambique
    River shire valley, luangwa of zambia and the urema trough of mozambique are found here

Mountains and Highlands

The main highlands in africa include:

  1. Ethiopian highlands 
  2. Guinea highlands
  3. Adamawa highlands in cameroon.
 Mountain    Country where found 
 Kilimanjaro   Tanzania 
 Kenya  Kenya 
 Elgon  Kenya/Uganda 
 Cameroon  Cameroon 
 Gimbala  Sudan 
 Ras dashan  Ethiopia 
 Margherita  Uganda/Congo 
 Toubkal  Morocco


 Mountain Range    Country where found 
 Atlas  Morocco 
 Drankensberg  South Africa, Lesotho, Swaziland  
 Usambara  Tanzania 
 Cape Ranges  South Africa 
 Ruwenzori  Uganda 
 Ahaggar  Algeria 
 Tibesti  Chad 
 Aberdare  Kenya



Natural lakes

Lake victoria, tanganyika, malawi, chad, bangweulu.

  • Victoria is the second largest lake in the world
  • Tanganyika is the deepest (second)lake in the world

Human made lakes

Volta – ghana, kainji – nigeria, nasser – egypt, kariba on border of zambia and zimbabwe.

Some lakes are salty e.g. magadi, natron, shala, bogoria, nakuru.

Salty lakes have no river flowing out of them.


Major rivers include the:nile, congo, niger, zambezi, benue, orange, limpopo, volta, senegal,

River Nile is the longest in africa

Rivers that form delta are; Niger, and Nile

Niger delta is the largest in africa

Other rivers drain into the sea or lake in a single channel called estuary.
Examples: are zambezi, congo and senegal.


They are areas of soft,wet land covered with vegetation.

They are named according to the types of vegetation in them e.g.papyrus swamps have papyrus reeds

Mangrove swamps have mangrove trees.

Examples of swamps are;

  • Okavango and makarikari in botswana
  • Sudd along the nile in south sudan
  • Lorian in kenya
  • Lake – kyoga in uganda
  • Malagasi in tanzania
  • Swamp around lake chad

Formation of Mountains

There are four types of mountains

  1. Block mountain
  2. Volcanic mountain
  3. Fold mountains
  4. Residual mountains

Fold mountains

Formed after sedimentary rock fold at the edges

Examples of fold mountains includes:

  • atlas in north africa
  • Cape ranges in south africa
  • Drankenberg in south africa

Residual mountains

Formed when rock masses are reduced in size after many years of erosion

Examples are namuli – mozambique, homboli – mali

Other smaller features which may be formed in smaller manner are inselbergs

Formation of Lakes

A lake is hollow or depression on the surface of the earth which is filled with water. Lakes are formed in different ways

  1. Erosion
  2. Earth movements
  3. Deposition
  4. Volcanic actions
  5. Human activities


May be either through action of wind or glaciers

Wind actions
Examples are maghra, birket(lake siwa)both in egypt

Glacier actions
A glacier is a big block of moving ice

It is found on top of high mountains

Glacial lakes are known as tarns or corrie lake. Examples are teleki, hanging, gallary

Materials eroded by ice(moraine)may be deposited to form a barrier in a valley.

Behind such a barrier water may be collected to form a moraine dammbed lake.

Earth movements

They are of two types.these are;faulting and downwarping

  1. Faulting
    Examples are:
    • Lake tanganyika – tanzania
    • Eyasi – tanzania
    • Malawi – malawi
    • Edwajrd and george – uganda
    • Turkana, baringo and magadi – kenya
  2. Downwarping
    Examples of downwarping lakes are:
    • Victoria
    • Kyoga
    • Bangweulu
    • Chad


The lakes formed in this manner are ox-bow lakes
Examples are:

  • Utange – on river rufiji in tanzania
  • Kanyaboli – on river yala in kenya
  • Gambi – on river tana in kenya.

Such lakes can also form in a delta areas e.g. lake manzala on nile delta.

draw diagrams on our lives today pg 24.

Volcanic activity

  1. Crater lakes
    Examples of crater lakes are:
    • Lake shala – ethiopia
    • Lake nyos – cameroon
    • Lake paradise – kenya
  2. Lava – dammed lakes
    Formed when water accumulates behind the lava barrier to form a lake
    • Lake kivu – uganda
    • Lake tana – etiopia
    • Lake itasy – madagascar
    • Lake bunyoyi – uganda

Human activities

Lakes formed as a result of human activities are called artificial lakes

  • Lake nasser
  • Lake kariba
  • Lake volta

Relief Regions of Africa

Relief regions in africa are

  1. Plateaus
  2. Rift valley
  3. Highlands and mountains
  4. Coastal and lowlands


Is high and generally level ground
They lie between 400 – 2600 m above sea level
They have residuals hills (inselbergs)and valleys\
They are separated by short steep slopes known as scarps or escarpments.

The rift valley

The great rift valley enters africa from the red sea to beira in mozambique.
The narrowest part is about 30km wide while the widest is about 100km.
There are depressions occupied by lakes; e.g. bogoria and malawi etc
There are hills and mountains e.g. mt.longonot, suswa and ruwenzori
Some rivers flow along the floor of the rift valley .e.g. kerio, ewaso nyiro, and semliki

Highlands and mountains

Areas lying above 2000m can be described as highlands
Areas lying aove 2600m form mountains
The main highlands and mountains in africa

  1. Atlas mountains – morocco
  2. Ethiopia highlands – ethiopia
  3. East african highlands
  4. Ahaggar and tibesti mountains – chad
  5. Adamawa highlands – cameroon.
  6. Drankens berg and cape ranges – south africa
  7. Guinea highland – guinea

Mt.kilimanjaro is the highest in africa 5895m
Mt kenya – 5199m
Mt ruwenzori – 5109m

Coastal plains and lowlands

These are low – lying areas that border coast
They lie 0 – 400m above sea level.
They are narrow
Many parts are covered by sandy beaches


Climate is the average weather conditions of a particular place over a long period of time normally 30-35years

Factors Affecting Climate

  1. Relief and altitude
  2. Wind
  3. Latitudes
  4. Ocean currents
  5. Shape of the coastline
  6. Distance from the sea

Relief and Altitude

It influences the temperatures, the higher you go the cooler it becomes. The rate for every 100m of vertical height is 0.6
It also affects rainfall


Onshore wind absorbs water vapour from the sea and therefore bring rain to the land.
Offshore wind are dry winds and bring no rainfall.
The wind which influenceclimate in africa are;

  1. Westerly winds – bring rainfall to mediterranean
  2. North-east trade winds – they are offshore wind since they originate from asia.
  3. South-easttrade winds – they bring alot of rainfall to eastern africa
  4. South-westerly winds – they bring alot of rain to west africa and congo basin.
  5. Hamarttan winds – they are hot and dry. They cause dry conditions to the north and west africa.

Draw map of africa showing the winds.our lives today bk 7 pg 29


This is the distance from equator.
Places near the equator experiences high temperatures while those far awy expriences lower temperatures
Africa lies within the tropics that is 23½° N and 23½° S. This region does not experience big change in
temperature during the different seasons.
Places outside the tropics experience winter and summer seasons. This is because the farther away one moves
from the tropics the cooler it gets.

Ocean Currents

These are the horizontal movements of water in the ocean.
They can be either be cold or warm.
Cold moves toward the equator while warm away from the equator.
The cold ocean currents are;

  1. Canary current
  2. Benguela current
    Cold current cause fog and mist to land

Warm currents are;

  1. Somali current
  2. Mozambique current
  3. Guinea current
    Warm currents causes rainfall to the land

Distance from the sea

Places that are far away from the sea receive low rainfall than those that are near.
This rainfall is called convectional rainfall
The sea also helps in the formation of cool sea breezes and land breezes

Shape of the coast line

When winds blow parallel to the coastline, they bring no rainfall to the land e.g. coast of ghana
Example axim town receives more rainfall than accra.

Climatic Regions of Africa

Africa has the following climatic regions

  1. Equatorial
  2. Tropical/savannah
  3. Mediterranean
  4. Mountain
  5. Desert and semi desert
  6. Humid sbtropical
  7. Warm continental

Characteristics of climatic regions of africa

Equatorial Climate

Also called hot and wet climate It is experienced in;

  • Nigeria
  • Liberia
  • Cote d ivoire
  • Sierra leone
  • Gabon
  • Cameroon
  • Congo
  • Democratic repblic of congo


  • Receives heavy rainfall – highest rainfall between April to June and lowest rainfall between september to october
  • Have double maxima rainfall
  • Most of the rainfall is convectional
  • Rainfall is accompanied by thunder and lightning
  • Temperatures are high throughout the year
  • No dry season
  • Dinurnal temperature range is small
  • High humidity

Savannah Climate

Also called tropical climate. 
Mainly found within the tropics


  • Experiences hot rainy season and acool dry season
  • Temperature range is between 15 C to 25 C.
  • When the rainy season is being experienced in the north of the equator, the dry season inthe south of africa and vice versa
  • Rainfall ranges from 380mm to 2000mm p.a.

Mediterranean Climate

It is experienced to the north africa along coast of;morocco, algeria, tunisia and around benghazi in libya.
Also experienced in south africa around cape town.


  • Experience hot, dry summer and cool, wet winter
  • During the winter season, winds are on shore hence rain , while during summer winds are offshore hence no rain.
  • Annual rainfall varies from 500 – 750mm
  • Most rainfall is brought by westerly winds
  • Temperatures range between 13 C and 24 C.

Semi – desert Climate

Experienced in kalahari and the sahal regions
This region have low rainfall and high temperatures


  • Rainfall between 380-500mm p.a.
  • Temperature between 22 C to 27 C
  • The skies are generally clear

Desert or Arid Climate

True desert are experienced in sahara in north africca and in the namib in namibia


  • Lands are dry
  • Highest temperatures 58°C and lowest 4°C
  • The skies are normally cloudless
  • Diurnal
  • Temperature range is very big.
  • Rainfall is less than 250mm p.a. it fall within short period accompanied by storms.

Humid Subtropical Climate

Experienced in the coastal areas of eastern cape province and natal in south africa and also in mozambique.
Is influenced by warm mozambique currents and south east trade wind.


  • Rainfall between 900 to 11500mm
  • Most rainfall falls in summer.
  • Both convectional and relief rainfall are recieved.
  • Temperature range betwwen 13°C to 26°C.

Warm Continental Climate

Also known as the high veld climate
Experienced between the mediterranean climate zone of cape region in south africa and the humid subtropical


  • Rainfall received all year
  • Annual rainfall between 780mm in the east and 400mm in the west
  • Winds from the indian ocean influence the rainfall.
  • Temperature from 10°C to 19°C.

Mountain Climate

Also known as alpine climate
It is influenced by altitude


  • Temperature decreases with increase in altitude
  • High rainfall is received in mountain areas due to rising of moist air.
  • Seasons exprienced in africa

Activity draw the diagrams on our lives today bk 7 pg 37

Places outside the equatorial regions but within the tropics, we have tropical region.these regions experience dry seasons and rainy seasons during other parts of the year.

Places farther away from equatorial and tropical regions experiences the four seasons

Mediterranean lands experiences hot and dry summer and cool, wet winter

Arid and semi-arid regions experiences hot and dry seasons throughout the year.

Influences of Climate on Human Activities

  1. Savannah are used for grazing
  2. Wild animals in savannah encourage tourism
  3. In the hunid subtropical region of south africa sheep are reared for meat and wool.
  4. Sawmilling is common in equaltorial regions
  5. Nomadic pastralism is practised in desert and semi desert regions
  6. Farming is practised in equatorial, modified equatorial, tropical and subtropical climatic zone.
  7. Tourism is practised at the top of mt.kenya, kilimanjaro and ruwenzori mountain because of snow.
  8. Climate influences types of houses to be built wet areas the roof is steep for water to drain while flat tops are built in hot areas e.g. manyatta among the maasai.
  9. Areas that encourages breeding of mosquitoes and tsetse discourage settlement e.g.miombo woodland in tanzania and lambwe valley in kenya

Insha ya Masimulizi

Insha hii huwa na hisi mbili: furaha na huzuni

Vinaweza visa vya kubuni au halisi

Mtahiniwa aweza kutahiniwa mara tatu

Mwanzo wa handithi – dokezo
Huhitajika aendeleze

Mtahiniwa lazima aane insha na atamatishe kwa kutumia kimalizio hicho

Huzuni au Tanzia

Visawe vya huzuni ni masikitiko, majonzi, jitimai, buka, chonda na msiba

Hivi ni visa vinanyoleta majonzi, huzuni, simanzi, sikitiko au jitimai

  • Mikondo
  • Ujambazi/unyang’anyi/uporaji/wizi
  • Utekajinyara
  • Ujangili
  • Wizi wa mifugo
  • Ulaghai
  • Magendo
  • Ugomvi wa kijamii
  • Uvamizi na watu katili
  • Migomo

Misamiati na mapambo

  • Mayowe – ukemi, usiahi, mayowe
  • Wasiwasi- jekejeke, jakamoyo, kiherehere
  • Kufa – kata kamba, enda ahera, jongomeo
  • Hasira – pandwa na mori, kuwa na tumbo joto, kama zaibaki kwenye kipimajoto
  • Nilinyapianyapia/nilinyatianyatia nyatunyatu
  • Joho la kiwewe lilinivaa
  • Nilichana mbuga/nilitifua vumbi ili kuyaokoa maish -
  • Moyo ulinidwikadwika/ulinipapa kama ngoma za mahepe
  • Malaika yalinisimama wima
  • Tulisikia sauti zilizotweta kama
  • Sikuyaamini macho nilipoona
  • Nilipiga usiahi ambao ungewafufua wafu
  • Ulimi uliniganda kinywani
  • Nililia kwa kite na imani lakini kilio si dawa
  • Nilitoka shoti kama
  • Ngeu ilimtiririka kama
  • Milio ya risasi ilitamalaki kwenye anga
  • Parafujo za miguu ziliregea
  • Macho yalinitoka pima kama
  • Nilitetemeka kama unyasi nyikanu
  • Kijasho chembamba kikaanza kunitoka


  • Mbwa hafi maji akiona ukoko
  • Damu ni nzito kuliko maji
  • Tama mbele mauti nyuma
  • Unjanja wa nyani huishia jagwani
  • Siku za mwizi ni arubaini
  • Pwagu hupata pwaguzi


  • Juhudi ziligonga mwaba
  • Maisha yalianza kuingia ufa
  • Jaribu kwa udi na uvumba
  • Sijui alipandwa na pepo gani
  • Mambo yalimwendea tege/upogo upogo
  • Alitoka na michirizi ya damu
  • Alipigwa kitutu/kipopo


  • Alifunzwa na ulimwengu usiokuwa na huruma
  • Huruma zake ziligeuka kama umande
  • Alilia kilio cha kite na shake bila kufahamu kilio si dawa
  • Alivamiwa vaa bin vu


  • Haambiliki hasemezeki
  • Hana hanani
  • Hazindishi hapunguzi
  • Hapiki hapakui
  • Jando wala togo

Insha ya Mikasa

Mikasa ni matukio yaletayo maafa, masaibu na matatizo kwa watu

  • Msiba
  • Balaa
  • Zani
  • Baa
  • Maafa
  • Janga
  • Belua

Mifano ya mikasa

  • Moto
  • Wizi
  • Ajali barabarani
  • Ugaidi
  • Ubakaji
  • Utekaji nyara
  • Zilizala
  • Kuza maji
  • Maporomoko ya ardhi
  • Mlipuko wa bomu
  • Ukame
  • Kabobo

Jinsi yakujadili

  • Eleza mahali pa mkasa
  • Jinsi tukio lilivyotukia
  • Wakati
  • Msaada uliotoa
  • Maafa/hasara
  • Utafiti
  • Changamoto
  • Mkasa wa moto




  • Ndimi za moto
  • Jiko lililolipuka laweza kuwa gesi, umeme , mbomba la mafuta.tangi la mafuta
  • Mavundo ya moshi yalifuka
  • Mashungi ya moto
  • Cheche za moto
  • Moto ulitatarika an kurindima
  • Upepo ulivuma kwa ghamidha na ghadhabu
  • Matagaa na mapogoo mabichi
  • Kujitoma ndani ya nyumba kama mwehu
  • Nahodha hodari haogopi mawimbi
  • Moto ulifakamia majengo kama nzige wavamiavyo shamaba la mihogo
  • Wengine walichomeka kiwango cha kutotambulikavilio vilinywewa na kuwapwetea
  • Nilifadhaika kwa fadhaa na wahaka
  • Kichwa kilinizunguka kama tiara
  • Vilio vya ving’ora vya makarandinga na ambulensi vilitanda na kuhinikiza hewa
  • Uma uliuputa moto na kuwaokoa manusura
  • Tulitoa huduma za kwanza
  • Wengi walisali/kufanya dua zisizoeleweka

Msamiati mwingine

  • Nilibaki kinywa wazi
  • Machozi ya majonzi yalinilengalenga
  • Machozi yalinienda njia mbilimbili
  • Lia kwikwikwi
  • Nilifikiri macho yangu yalikuwa yakinchezea shere
  • Choka hoi bin tiki
  • Fafanua kinaga ubaga
  • Pigwa na butwaa
  • Nilibung’aa na kuduwaa waa
  • Ponea chupuchupu


  • Alipovunja ungo alianza kuwa na mienendo benibeni
  • Mambo yalimwendea upogo/tenge/msobemsobe
  • Alitokwa ma michirizi ya damu ______________ baada ya kupigwa kipopo/kitutu
  • Kijasho chembamba kilianza kumtoka
  • Aliondoka kichwa kifuani kama kondoo /shikwa na zabaiki ya uso, tayarini/haya/soni
  • Uzuri wake ulimteka bakunja akawa haoni hasikii
  • Akasahau penye urembo ndipo penye ulimbo
  • Aliyatemea mawaidha/nasaha mate
  • Alikuwa hayawani kwenye ngozi ya binadamu
  • Ama kweli _____________
  • Dekeza/engaenga kama yai
  • Alifunzwa na ulimwengu usiokuwa na huruma
  • Huruma zake ziligeuka kama umande
  • Alilia kilio cha kite na shaka bila kufahamu kuwa kilio si dawa
  • Alikuwa ndumakuwili kikulacho ki nguono mwako
  • Husuda/wivu zilimzidi hadi akakosa utulivu
  • Alivamiwa ghafla bin vuu


  • Maji hufuata mkondo
  • Bendera ikipepea sana huraruka
  • Mpiga ngumi ukuta huumia mwenyewe
  • Mpiga mbizi kwenye nchi kavuhuchunue usoni
  • Pwagu hupata pwaguzi
  • Mchimba kisima huingia mwenyewe
  • Vyote ving’aavyo si dhahabu
  • Vyote viowevu si maji
  • Njia ya mhini na mhiniwa ni moja


  • Haambiliki hasemezeki
  • Hana hanani
  • Hazidishi hapunguzi
  • Hapiki hapakui
  • Jando wala togo
  • Vihusishi
  • Lahaula!
  • Yarabi!
  • masalaale!
  • Lo!
  • Lakwata!
  • Usaindizi
  • Walitupiga njeki
  • Niliwatupia upondo
  • Niliwapa mkono
  • Tulisaidiana kama kiko na dagali, maiti na jeneza


  • Hakika, hakuna msiba usiokuwa na mwenziwe
  • Daima dawamu sitalisahau tukio hilo
  • Matukio hayo hayatafutika kutoka tafakirini mwangu
  • Ninapokumbuka kisa hicho, machozi hunitiririka njia mbilimbili

Hisia za Furaha

Furaha hutokana na

  • Sherehe – harusi
  • Mwakampya
  • Kuzaliwa kwa motto
  • Sikukuu ya krismasi
  • Sikukuu ya pasaka
  • Mahafali – sherehe za kufuzu
  • Siku ya tuzo/harambee
  • Kutembelewa na wageni
  • Sherehe za kitaifa
  • Sherehe za asili

Msamiati na mapambo

  • Maua ya kila ainati – si asmini, mawaridi
  • Ukumbi ulijaa na kuwatapika adinasi
  • Vipaza sauti vilihinikiza sauti
  • Vyakula vya kila aina/jamii vilitishia kuangusha meza
  • Msichana /kidosho/kipusa alitembea kwa madaha
  • Mkalimani na mfawidhi walishirikiana kama
  • Tulilakiwa kwa kupigwa pambaja
  • Waja walijaa si si si si
  • Waja waliwasili makundimakundi/mmoja mmoja/pacha pacha
  • Nikitembea aste aste hadi jukwaani
  • Kula/kushtaki njaa/fanyia mlo haki
  • Nilikumbuka nilivyojifunga kibwebwe/masombo
  • Kaka angeasi ukapera
  • Waja walisakata ruma/dansi
  • Msafara/mlolongo wa magari
  • Mrembo/spoti/sawa na hurulaini kutoka peponi
  • Wapambe walivalia sare za kupendeza
  • Kusakata rumba/dansi/kunengua viungo
  • Msafara/mlolongo wa magari
  • Mtibwiriko wa kukata na shoka
  • Sheheneza pongezi sufufu
  • Mkono wa tahania
  • Pofushwa na vimulimuli vya wapiga picha
  • Walijaa sisisi/pomoni
  • Hojiwa na sailiwa na wanahabari

Vipokezi vya methali

  • Yakini, ___________
  • Waama, _____________
  • Ama kweli ________________
  • Wahenga hawakukosea walipokili _______________


  • Chanda chema huvishwa pete
  • Baada ya dhiki faraja
  • Hauchi hauchi unakucha
  • Siku njema huonekana asubuhi
  • Mvumilivu hula mbivu
  • Safari ys kesho hupangwa leo
  • Msafiri ni aliye bandarini

Insha za Ndoto/Njozi/Ruya/Ruiya

Ni maono anayoyapata mtu akiwa usingiziniBarua/Waraka

Huketa hisia za furaha au huzuni

Mtu anaweza kupiga mayowe au kuweweseka kulinga na ndoto

Ndoto za huzuni zinaweza kuhusu

  • Kifo
  • Wizi
  • Moto
  • Mafuriko
  • Kutishwa na viumbe hatari

Wakati mwingine mhusika hutokwa na jasho, kutabawali au kujikuta mvunguni mwa kitanda

Ndoto ya furaha humfanya mhusika kujilaumu kuwa ilikuwa ni ndoto tu. Inaweza kuhusu

  • Mahafali
  • Kuwa tajiri
  • Kapasi mtihani
  • Kuzaliwa mahali kama ikulu

Mwandishi asianze kwa kusema kuwa alianza kuota


  • Baada ya kula chajio _____________
  • Nilikuwa nimechoka hoi bin tiki _______________
  • Niliubwaga mgogole wangu kwenye kitanda ____________
  • Nilijifunika gubigubi na kulala fo fo fo
    Hisia za furaha
  • Nilifurahi ghaya ya kufurahi
  • Furaha upeo wa furaha
  • Nilidamka wanguwangu na kushika hamsini zangu
  • Niliamka alfajiri ya Mungu/ya musa
  • Ukumbi ulijaa shangwe, nderemo na hoi hoi
  • Nilipaa na kuelea angani
  • Vicheko vilishika hatamu jari moja
    Hisia za huzunu – jinamizi
  • Maji yalikuwa yamenifika shingoni
  • Ulimi uliniganda kinywani
  • Moyo ulinipapa kama kwamba ulitaka ufunguliwe utoke
  • Nilishindwa kuongea ni kawa kama mja aluyepokonywa ulimi
  • Malaika alinisimamia tisti/wima/kititi
  • Mambo yaliniendea mpera mpera
  • Nilipiga usiahi/mayowe ambayo yangewafufua wafu
  • Zogo na zahama lilizuga
  • Nililia kwa kite na imani lakini hakuna aliyenihurumia
  • Niliduwaa na kubung’aa kama mzungu wa reli
  • Kilio cha kikweukweu kilihitimu kikawa cha mayowe


Kuna aina mbili

  1. Barua ya kirafiki
  2. Barua rasmi

Barua ya Kirafiki/Kidugu

Huandikwa ili kupeana mwaliko, kujuliana hali, kufahamisha au kuarifu kuhusu jambo

S.L.P 93,

Kwa sahibu yangu, fundi msanifu ,
Utangulizi _______________

Ni mimi wako,
Jina lamwandishi

Sehemu muhimu za barua hii ni anwani ya mwandishi

  • Huandikwa pembeni kabisa wa kulia sehemu ya juu
  • Hujumuisha jina la mwandishi au anakosomea au kufanya kazi
  • Huwa pia na mahali anakoishi na sanduku la posta


  • Hudhihirisha anayeandikiwa
  • Hubainisha uhusiano wake na mwandishi
  • Kwa mpendwa
  • Kwa laazizi
  • Rafiki yangu
  • Kwa mwanangu mpendwa


Haya ni maamkizi na kujuliana hali

  • Pokea salamu sufufu/furifuri
  • Mimi ni buheri w afya/mzima kama


  • Hubeba ujumbe au kusudio la barua
  • Lengo/nia/azma ya kukuandikia barua hii ni __________
  • Jina la
  • Ninaomba unitendee hisani/fadhila
  • Kwa kuwa wema hauozi
  • Ninakuhakikishia kuwa nitatia bidii
  • Ningependa kukujuvya kuwa
  • Tumia viunganishi ili kuunganisha mawazo
    • Isitoshe, zaidi ya hayo, aidha


  • Ningependa kutia nanga kwa kukueleza
  • Ningependa kukunja jamvi
  • Kwa kuwa muda umenip kisogo
  • Ni mimi wako mpenzi,
  • Ni wako mpendwa,
  • Jina la mwandishi

Barua Rasmi

  • Huandikwa ili kuwasilisha ujumbe maalum
  • Huandikwa ili kuomba msamaha
  • Kuomba nafasi kwa kazi
  • Kuwasilisha malalamishi
  • Kuagizia/kuthibitisha mapokezi ya kampuni, shirika , idara


Anwani ya mwandishi

  • Huandikwa pembeni kabisa upande wa kulia sehemu ya juu ya karatasi
  • Hujumuisha jina la mwandishi, sanduku la posta, mahali anakoishi na tarehe baada ya anwani vuka mstari mmoja

Anwani ya mwandikiwa

  • Hutaja cheo cha anayeandikiwa
  • Taja jina la kampuni/shirika/dara
  • Taja S.L.P


  • Huanzia chini ya anwani ya mwandikiwa
    • Bwana/BW
    • Bibi/BI
    • Mabibi
    • Mabwana


  • Huelezea lengo la barua
  • Hutangulizwa kwa MINT: (mintirafu), KUH: (kuhusu), OMBI: , kumb: (kumbuka)
  • Pigia mstari ujumbe wenyewe


Hubeba ujumbe wa barua

Maudhui hutegemea nia au lengo la barua

Lugha iwe rasmi


  • Nina furaha riboribo/kuu/firifuri
  • Nina bashasha belele
  • Ninasikitika ninapokuandika waraka huu ____________________
  • Ningependa kuchukua fursa/wasaa/nafasi
  • Kurejelea habari Fulani
  • Kwa mujibu w habari niliyoisoma/kutokana na taarifa/ kulingana na ______________
  • Shule.kampuni/shirika _____________ imesifika
  • Imetajwa na kutajika
  • Sifa zake zimeenea kote _______________ kamamoto nyikani kama wakati wa hari/kiangazi
  • Katika Nyanja za michezo ____________________ idara/shirika/shule yako
  • Wasifu/tawasifu _____________ mimi ni mwananchi kindakindaki/halisi
  • Nina nidhamu na taadhima ya hali ya ___________________
  • Nina talanta katika fani ya riadha uimbaji
  • Nina sauti ya ninga
  • Nitakuwa kielelzo dhabiti kwa
  • Nitatia bidii za mchwa ajengaye kichunguu
  • Nitavumilia/nitajikaza kisabuni ili kuafikia ndoto yangu
  • Vyeti vyangu vimeambatanishwa pamoja na waraka huu


Ni mwisho wa barua
Huandikwa pembeni upande wa kulia sehemu ya chini
Herufi ya kwanza iwe kubwa

Insha ya Methali

Methali ni usemi wa kisanii wa kimapokeo unaofikiliwa na jamii na hutumiwa kufumbia jambo fulani

Methali hutahiniwa kwa namna tatu

Ikiwa kama mada

Mwanafunzi anafaa aeleze maana ya juu na ya ndani yake na matumizi yake iwapo anaifahamu vyema

Methali za Majuto, Maonyo na Tahadhari

  • Hutumiwa kuonyesha athari au madhara yanayotokea baada ya mtu kugaidi maagizo, nasaha au maonyo
  • Methali hutahiniwa kwa njia tatu
    Ikiwa mada
    Mwanzo – mwanafunzi huhitajika kuendeleza bila kufafanua maana ya methali
    Kimalizio – lazima kisa kishahibiane na methali ile.

    Ikiwa methali itakuwa mada, mtahiniwa atahitajika kueleza maana ya nje, ya ndani na matumizi endapo anafahamu

  • Hutumiwa kutoa funzo kwa wenginekutokana na dhiki na majuto yaliyomfika mhusika
    • Asiyefunzwa na mamaya hufunzwa na ulimwengu
    • Asiyeskia la mkuu huvunjika guu
    • Mchelea mwana kulia hulia mwenyewe
    • Mbio za sakafuni huishia ukingoni
    • Mchuma janga hula na wa kwao
    • Ujanja wa nyani huishia jangwani
    • Majuto ni mjukuu huja kinyume
    • Mchimba kisima huingia mwenyewe
    • Msiba wa kujitakia hauna kilio
    • Kilio si dawa
    • Asiyeangalia huishi laiti ningalijua
    • Mkata pema pabaya panamwita
    • Sikio la kufa halisikii dawa
    • Haraka haraka haina baraka
  • Vipokezi vya methali
    Yawe yasiwe ____________
    Aisee! __________
    Labeka! _________________
    Lahaula! Lakwata ____________
    Chambilecho wenye ndimi walihenga ______________
    Hapo ndipo nilipoamini na kusadiki kuwa ______________
    Waledi wa lugha waligonga ndipo walipoganga kuwa _______________
    Wakale hawakupanda upepo wakavuna tufani _____________
  • Visa husika
    • Wizi
    • Utumizi wa dawa za kulevya
    • Kujiingiza katika anasa

Mapambo na msamiati

  • Kutofuata ushauri
    • Alikuwa hakanywi hakanyiki
    • Hasikii la mwadhini wala la mteka maji msikitini
    • Alikuwa haliki hatafunuki
    • Haambiliki hasenezeki
    • Alikuwa hajijui hajitambui
  • Kujuta
    • Aliishia na laiti kinywani
    • Alijiuma kidole/alilia chanda kili kinywani
    • Nilikabiliana ana kwa ana na ulimwengu usiokuwa na huruma
    • Niliyaona ya firauni
    • Nilikiona kilichomtoa kanga manyoya
  • Kupuuza
    • Alivalia miwani mashauri
    • Niliyatemea mate mawaidha
    • Alijitia hamnazo
    • Aliyatia kapuni yota aliyoambiwa
  • Mambo kuharibika
    • Mambo yalimwendea pete/tenge/mrisi/shoto/shambiro
    • Kutowezekana kwa
    • Ilikuwa sawa na kukama tetere
    • Kufunuka jua kwa ungo au chekeche
    • Kuchota maji kwa pakacha
  • Tashbihi
    • Pukutikwa na machozi kama ngamia
    • Tiririkwa na machozi kama maji mlimani
    • Mchafu kama kilihafu/fungo
    • Nuka kama mzoga/beberu/kindonda
  • Unafiki na kujitakia shida
    • Chui aliyevalia ngozi ya kondoo
    • Panya aliyeumia na kuvuvia
    • Kujipali makaa kama chachandu
    • Kuogelea katika bahari ya moto
    • Methali ni usemi wa kisanii wa kimapokeo unaofikiliwa na jamii kuwa wa kweli na unaotumia kufumbia
  • Ragba
    • Aliona cha mtema kuni
    • Kilichompata peku na lungo kilimpata
    • Mambo yalimwendea visivyo
    • Alitamani mauti yaje yamwokoe
    • Maji yalizidi ynga
    • Alitamani dunia ipasuke immeze mzima mzima
    • Kumwashia kipofu taa
    • Alitia masikio pamba
    • Machozi ya majonzi
    • Lia kilio cha kite na shaka
    • Machozi yalimtoka kapakapa
    • Pyorea mdomo
    • Huzunika ghaya ya kuhuzunika
    • Machozi yalinienda mbilimbili
    • Kuwa na kamusi ya matusi
  • Tashbihi
    • Pukutikwa na machozi ka,a ngamia
    • Tiririkwa na machozi kama maji mlimani
    • Bubunjikwa na machozi kama mfereji
    • Nuka kama mzoga
    • Mchafu kama fugo
  • Takriri
    • Hakiri hakubali
    • Hajali jando wala togo
    • Si wa uji si wa maji
    • Kutomjulia heri wala shari
    • Akiulizwa haungani

Methali za Kutohadaika na Uzuri wa Nje wa Kitu na Tamaa

Hutumiwa kuwaonya adinasi dhidi ya kudanganyika au kuhadaika na uzuri wa kitu bila kudadisi matokeo na athari zake.

Methali ikiwa kama kichwa huhitajika kuelezea maana ya nje, ya ndani na matumizi
Mfano wa visa

  • Kumkaribisha mtu nyumbani
  • Kupatiwa lifti
  • Biashara gushi
  • Urembo
  • Fisadi


  • Uzuri wa mkakasi ndani kipande cha mti
  • Hakuna kizuri kisichokuwa na dosari
  • Penye urembo ndipo penye ulimbo
  • Uzuri wa mkakasi, ukipata maji basi
  • Vyote ving’aavyo sio dhahabu
  • Tama ilimwua fisi
  • Uzuri si hoja hoja ni tabia
  • Mpanda farasi wawili hupasuka msamba
  • Mtaka yote hukosa yote
  • Mbio za sakafuni huishia ukingoni
  • Mla kwa wawili hana mwisho mwema
  • Penye uhondo pana uvundo
  • Uzuri wa biyu ndani mabuu
  • Usiache mbachao kwa msala upitao

Vipokezi vya methali

  • Kwa yakini ______________
  • Taib ___________
  • Ama kweli ______________
  • Kuntu _____________
  • Ni jahara kama pengo kuwa _____________
  • Ni wazi kama ju ala mtikati kuwa _____________
  • Chambilecho wahenga au wazee wenye tabasuri tepetepe _______________


  • Maji kuzidi unga
  • Kitumbua kiliingia mchanga
  • Valia miwani
  • Meza mrututu
  • Meza mate machungu
  • Tulia huku ukitolea kule
  • Vimba kichwa
  • Kuwa na mkono mrefu
  • Bwaga zani


  • Dhahiri shahiri
  • Haambiliki hasemezeki
  • Hakanywi hakanyiki
  • Kuwa kiguu na njia
  • Hana harusi hana matanga


  • Walimdekeza mwana wao
  • Alikuwa ndumakuwili aliyeuma ndani yakini kikulacho ki nguoni
  • Alijaribu bahati kwani asiyekuwa na bahati habahatishi
  • Pigwa kipopo
  • Temea mate
  • Kumwonea gere
  • Mambo yalimwendea sambejambe
  • Alilia kilio cha kite


  • Huzunika kama mfiwa
  • Kuwa na wasiwasi kama mwasi
  • Aminika kama njiwa
  • Jambo wazi kama mchana
  • Kuwa mzembe kama kupe

Insha ya Maelezo

Huitwa wasifu

Hutoa ufafanuzi kuhusu jambo, mtu, mahali au kitu fulani

Maelezo haya huwa ni sifa au hoja maalum

Insha hizi hutahadharisha, huelezea, huarifu na huburudisha

Mtahiniwa atangulize kwa ufafanuzi wa mada yake

Ahitimishe kwa kutoa changamotokwa waliohusika

Mtahiniwa asijadili chini ya hoja sita. Atoe hoja za ukweli


  • Athari za ukimwi
  • Athari za dawa za kulevya
  • Faida na Athari za teknolojia
  • Mchezo niupendao
  • Haki za watoto
  • Faida ya elimu, miti na wanyamapori
  • Ukosefu wa usalama
  • Dawa za Kulevya

Haki na Ajira za Watoto

  • Haki ni mstahiki au ni jambo ambalo ni halali ya mtu
  • Mstahiki pia ni mtu mwenye haki ya kupata kitu
  • Ajira ni kazi zinazofanywa katika mashamba, viwanda, nyumbani na migodini
  • Watoto wanapopewa ajira ni kinyume cha sheria
  • Baadhi ya haki hizi ni
    • Lishe bora
      • Watoto wanafaa wapewe mlo ulio na viinilishe muhimu kwa protini, kabohaidrati, madini na maji safi.
      • Wasipolishwa huenda wakaathiriwa na magonjwa kama kwashakoo, utapiamlo.
    • Mavazi
      • Humkinga dhidi ya mabadiliko ya hali ya anga
      • Huzuia maradhi kama mafua, nimonia na pumu
        Kinga ni bora kuliko tiba
    • Makao salama
      • Humsitiri dhidi ya wanyama hatari, maadui na mabadiliko katika hali ya anga
    • Kupata elimu
      • Asibaguliwe kwa misingi ya jinsia, kidini, kikabila au rangi ya ngozi
      • Wasichana wasiozwe mapema
      • Wasijiingize katika vitendo vya ukosefu na maadili kama ukahaba
      • Wafundishwe maadili na nidhamu
        Elimu haitekeki
        Elimu ni bahari
        Elimu haina mwisho
    • Afya njema
      • Watoto wanafaa kukulia katika mazingira safi
      • Wapewe matibabu wanapougua
      • Wapewe lishe bora
        Afya ni bora kuliko mali
        Kinga ni bora kuliko tiba
    • Wakingwe dhidi ya dhuluma
      • Hii ni kama kuchomwa na kukatakatwa mwilini
      • Waadhibiwe kwa kadiri na wastani
      • Wakuzwe vyema kwa maadili na mapenzi
        Mtoto umleavyo ndivyo akuavyo
        Masukuzi ya leo ndio msitu wa kesho
    • Wasiajiriwe
      • Hii ni kinyume na sheria katika katiba ya nchi
      • Waajiri huwatesa na kuwanyanyasa watoto
      • Wengine huwarapua kwa mijeledi
      • Wengine huajiri kama vijakazi, watwana


Ni jambo lifanywalo kwa ajili ya kujifurahisha kujichangamsha au kupoteza wakati

Baadhi ya michezo

  • Jugwe
  • Gugwi
  • Bembea
  • Kibe
  • Msabaka
  • Kandanda
  • Riadha
  • Sarakasi
  • Netiboli
  • Naga
  • Voliboli
  • Gololi
  • Hoki
  • Langalanga
  • Kriketi
  • Mpira wa wavu


Pia huitwa kambumbu, soka , gozi au mpira wa miguu

Hushirikisha timu mbili pinzani
Wachezaji huvalia

  • jezi
  • Daluga
  • Soksi
  • Bukta

Katikati  ya uwanja huitwa kitovu/senta
Otea – kujificha kwa makusudi ya kushambulia kwa ghafla
Penalty – adhabu kwa mlindalango
Mlindalango, mdakaji, golikipa
Mshika bendera/kibendera
Ngware – cheza visivyo
Kipindi cha lala salama ni kipindi cha nwishi
Kadi nyekundu huonyesha kutimuliwa kwa mchezaji
Kadi ya jano – onyo

Huwa na wachezaji kumi na mmoja katika kila upande

  • Walinzi au difensi
  • Wachezaji wa kati
  • Safu ya mashambulizi
  • Wachezaji wa akiba
  • Piga mkwanju
  • Kocha/mkufunzi


  • Uwanja ulijaa hadi pomoni
  • Wachezaji walishonona
  • Mdakaji aliudaka mpira ungedhani ni tumbili aliyedadia tawi la mti
  • Pasi fupifupi na za uhakika ungedhani walikuwa na mashine miguuni
  • Mpira haukulenga goli _______ kweli kulenga si kufuma
  • Kuutia mpira vifuani kana kwamba una spaki za kuunasa
  • Walinda ngome walikuwa imara kama chuma cha pua
  • Kwenda kubwaga moyo baada ya kipindi cha kwanza
  • Safu ya ilinzi ulikuwa imara kama ukuta uliotengenezwa kwa zege
  • Enda nyatunyatu na kufyatua zinga la kombora
  • Visha kanzu
  • Nyota ya jaha
  • Bao la kuta machozi
  • Piga kombora kimo cha mbuzi , kuku au ngamia
  • Mashabikiwalijawa na bashasha
  • Kipindi cha pili tukihisi kuwa na nishati mpya
  • Bao la bua liliweza kuzitubua nyoyo za wapinzani wetu
  • Mrisi bin kappa

Dawa za Kulevya


Kufafanua maana

Ni kitu chochote kinachoathiri fahamu au mwili wa binadamu
Dawa hizi ni kama vile

  • Bangi
  • Sigara
  • Heroini
  • Miraa/mirungi
  • Pombe haramu

Anayeuza dawa hizi huitwa mlaguzi
Njia ya kutumia dawa hizi ni

  • Hunuswa
  • Hunywewa
  • Hudungwa
  • Hulambwa
  • Hutafunwa

Madhara ya dawa za kulevya

  • Kuvurugika kwa akili
  • Mja hugeuka kuwa zuzu, mkia wa mbuzi
  • Hupata ujasiri bandia
  • Hujiingiza katika visanga
  • Hudhuru afya
  • Hukonda na kukondeana kama ng’onda
  • Sura huambuliwa na kusawijika kama sokwe
  • Utovu wa nidhamu
  • Husheheni cheche za matusi
  • Kutabawali kadamnasi
  • Vaa mavazi vichungi na vioo
  • Kuzorota kwa uchumi
  • Kukosa elimu
  • Jamaa hukosa mavazi, makao na mlo
  • Humtilisha mtumiaja
  • Husababisha uraibu
  • Hushinda kutwa kucha wakitumia dawa hizo
  • Huwa kupe
  • Huwa maajenti wa mawakala
  • Chanzo cha maafa
  • Madereva hukosa kuwa waangalifu
  • Huleta shinikizo la damu mwilini
  • Ajali barasteni
  • Wizi wa mabavu
  • Kufanya mapenzi bila kinga


  • Changamoto/nasaha
  • Wasiwe pweza kujipalia makaa
  • Kizazi cha baadaye kitaangamia
  • Kushirikiana kama kiko na digali kuangamiza janga hili
  • Wito kwa serikali – kuwasaka
  • Kufungua mashtaka




  • Kujipalia makaa
  • Bwaga zani
  • Meza mrututu
  • Tumbulia macho
  • Gofu la mtu


  • Kufa kupona
  • Kwa hali na mali
  • Liwalo liwe
  • Balaa belua
  • Methali
  • Tahadhari kabla ya hatari
  • Mwiba wa kujidunga hauambiwi pole
  • Ajali haina kinga
  • Mchezea mavi humnukia
  • Nzi kufia juu ya kindonda si haramu
  • Masukuzi ya leo ndiyo msitu wa kesho
  • Wazee hukumbuka vijana hukumbushwa


  • Konda kama ng’onda
  • Nyong’onyea kama muwele wa malaria
  • Dhaifu kama mkufu
  • Epuka ambao kama mgonjwa wa ukoma/ebola

Umuhimu wa Maji

Mwongozo ambao ni mwanzo wa insha kisha aendeleze
“maji yana manufaa anuwai ___________ ”

  • Atoe hoja zisizopungua sita
  • Iwe na mtiririko mmoja
  • Sehemu ya hitimisho;atoe change moto kwa jamii au serikali




Maana ya maji
Maji ni kiowevu kisicho na rangi kinapatikana mtoni, ziwani, baharini na hata kutokana
na mvua
Maji ni uhai

Umuhimu wa maji

  • Kukonga roho au kukata kiu
    Adinasi hukonga roho
    Huweza kuishi bila shabuka au shida yoyote
    Husaidia usagaji wa chakula
    Mapishi ya vyakula
    Chakula hulainika na kuwa na ladha
    Huimarisha siha/udole wa binadamu
    Humweupusha mlimwengu na magonjwa
  • Usafi na unadhifu
    Kutakata mili ili kuepukana na magonjwa
    Kupiga deki
    Kusafisha mashine viwandani
    Kuwa mchafu kama fungo
    Kusafiri jongomeo baada ya kugua maradhi
  • Usafiri baharini, maziwani na mitoni
    Kusafirisha shehena za mizigo
    Mizigo mizito kama nanga
    Vyombo hivi vya usafiri ni meli, motaboti, ngalawa, merikebu, mashua, manahodha na maserahangi
  • Kuzungusha mitambo au mashine
    Hupata nguvu za umeme au nishati
    Nishati hizi huweza kutengeneza bidhaa za madini, vyakula na mavazi
  • Makao ya wanyama
    Kama samaki, kiboko, mamba, kamba na kasa
    Samaki ni chakula murua kwa mja na humzuia mja kuoata ndwele
  • Burudani na michezo
    Hamamu na mandibwi ya maji hutumika na wanamichezo kwa mashindano ya kuogelea
  • Huwa sehemu ya ajira
  • Huletea nchi pesa za kigeni
  • Kuondoa uchafu baada ya kazi
  • Maji ni asili ya uhai
  • Kuuzima moto
  • Kivutio cha watalii
  • Kunyunyizia mimea maji


  • Mbali na _____________
  • Fauka ya ______________
  • Isitoshe _______________
  • Zaidi ya ______________
  • Hali kadhalika _______________


  • Nikilikunja jamvi ninawashauri ________________
  • Hatuna la msalie mtume wala nabii ili kuyatumia maji ipasavyo __________________
  • Ama kweli maji ni kito cha dhamani ambacho kinafaa kulindwa kwa hali na mali


  • Maji yakimwagika hayazoleki
  • Maji ya kifuu ni bahari ya uchungu
  • Maji mapwa hayaogwi
  • Maji ni uhai
  • Maji hufuata mkondo
  • Maji ukiyavulie nguo yaoge


Hotuba ni maneno au malezo maalum yanayotokana na mtu mmoja mbele ya hadhira

Anayetoa hotuba huitwa hatibu

Hadhira ni watu wanaohutubiwa

Hotuba inaweza kuwa ya

  • Mwalimu mkuu juu ya wazazi
  • Mwanasiasa nyakati za kampeni
  • Maafisa wa serikali katika sherehe tofauti
  • Rais akihutubia taifa

Mambo ya kuzingatia

  • Kufuata itifaki
  • Kutambua waliohidhuria kufuata cheo/mamlaka na umri
    Mfano “mwalimu mkuu, naibu wa mwalimu mkuu, viranja na wanafunzi wenzangu hamjambo? ______
  • Wakati uliopo hutumika yaani usemi halisi
  • Nafsi ya kwanza na ya pili hutumika
    Nimesimama kadamnasi nikiwa mzima kama kigongo ________
  • Hutumia alama za kunukuuu ikiwa unahutubia kwa niaba ya mtu mwengine
    rais, naibu wa rais ______
  • Kila hoja husimuliwa katika aya yake
  • Hitimisho huhusu kuwashukuru wasikilizaji na pia kuwapa funzo au changa moto au nasaha

Umuhimu wa Elimu

Elimu ni mafunzo yanayopatikana shuleni na maishani
Hupevusha fikira
Mja hujielewa, huelewa wengine na ulimwengu
Huweza kutumia raslimali vilivyo
Elimu huondoa ujinga/ujuha
Mwanafunzi humakinika katika maisha ya baadaye

  • Leo si jana, jana si leo
  • Enda na ucheo, siende na uchwao

Elimu ya vitabu humsaidia mtu kuhifadhi siri ujumbe na kumbukumbu za kutumia na kizazi cha baadaye


  • Elimu huboresha maisha
  • Kujenga makao mazuri
  • Kuwasaidia jamaa na jamii
  • Elimu ni daraja la kuvusha mtu kwenye gange/kazi yenyefulusi nono
  • Mtu hupata hela za kujimudu pasi kuwategemea wengine
  • Mtegemea cha nduguye hufa maskini
  • Mtegemea nundu haachi kunona
  • Mja hupewa heshima
  • Nimesimama imara kama chuma cha pua
  • Tisti kama ngarange za mvule
  • Kidete kama kitawi cha mkarakala
    Pongezi za dhati
  • Ninawapa mkono wa tahania kwa kufanya bidii za mchwa na duduvule
  • Nawamiminia shukrani sufufu
  • Ninawashukuru kwa kujitolea mhanga na kujifunga kibwebwe/masombo/kujikaza kisabuni


  • Elimu ni bahari
  • Elimu maisha si vitabu
  • Elimu ni taa gizani hung’aa
  • Elimu ni mali ambayo adui hawezi kuteka
  • Elimu bila mali ni kama nta bila asali


  • Bidii za mchwa /duduvule
  • Ng’aa kama mbalamwezi
  • Pesa kama njugu
  • Julikana kama pesa


  • Kujitolea mhanga
  • Shika usukani
  • Kuna kichwa
  • Ambua kitu
  • Tia pamba/nta


Insha sampuli hii huwa na sehemu mbili: Kuunga na kupinga
Mwanafunzi ana uhuru wa kuunga ama kupinga

Katika sehemu ya hitimisho mtahiniwa anatarajiwa kutoa mawazo yake

Ningependa kuwajuza kuwa ______________
Ningeomba sote tupinge kwa jino na ukucha _____________
tusiwe kama chachandu wa kujipalia makaa kwa ______________


Ni maarifa ya sayansi na matumizi yake katika mitambo, vyombo na zana katika viwanda, kilimo, ufundi na njia za mawasiliano

  • Kilimo 
  • Zana za vita   
  • Mawasiliano
    Simu – tamba/rununu/mkono
    Barua meme
  • Mitambo

Faida za Teknolojia

  • Mawasiliano – kupasha habari
  • Elimisha na kutumbuiza
    Kipya kinyemi ngawa kindonda
  • Utafiti
    Kuvumbua dawa za ndwele/mitambo kurahihisha kazi
    Mitambo ya kuchunguza hali ya anga
  • Elimu
    Matumizi ya mitambo
    Kanda za video
    Elimu ni bahari
    Elimu haitekeki
    Mali bila daftari hupotea bila habari
    Elimu bila mali ni kama sega bila asali
  • Usalama
    Zana za vita
    Donge nono hupatikana baada yakuuza vifaa
    Tahadhari kabla ya hatari
    Kilimo na ufugaji
    Pembenjeo – mbegu, mbolea, dawa
    Ghala la kuhifadhi mazao
    Mashine za kukama ng’ombe
    Tembe na tembe huwa mkate
  • Usafiri
    Vyombo vya majini, nchi kavu au barabara
    Kuokoa wakati na maisha
    Ngoja ngoja huumiza matumbo
  • Mavazi
    Rahisisha kazi
    Kuimarisha uchumi wa nchi


  • Mmomonyoko wa maadili
  • Huleta maradhi kama saratani
  • Huleta maafa
  • Punguza nafasi za kazi
  • Kuiga tabia za kigeni
  • Vita
  • Kuwafanya waja kulaza damu
  • Mambo mengine muhimu

Viunganishi vya insha ya maelezo

  • Licha ya
  • Fauka ya
  • Aidha
  • Zaidi ya
  • Pia isitishe
  • Mbali na
  • Hali kadhalika

Insha ya Mazungumzo

Mazungumzo ni maongezi, mahojiano ama malimbano baina ya mtu na mwengine au kundi moja na jengine
Yanaweza kuwa Porojo/soga/domo
Ni mazungumzo ya kupitisha wakati
Kutafuta ujumbe maalum
Hufanywa kwa njia ya mahojiano
Kudadisi au kumwelekeza mtu
Baina ya mtu na tajriba na Yule anayetakamsaada

  • Mhusika mmoja asichukue nafasi kubwa
  • Tumia alama za uakifishaji kama vile koloni, kitone na kipumuo
  • Sharti pawe na mahali pa kumchachawiza
  • Vitendo viweze kuandikwa katika alama za mabano
  • Fani za lugha zitumike ili kuleta uhondo
  • Pawe na maagano


  • Mada/kichwa
    Huandikwa kwa herufi kubwa kupigiwa mstari
  • Maudhui
    Ni lengo au kusudi la mazungumzo
    Msamiati kutegemea lengo la mazungumzo
  • Vitendo na ishara
    Haya yataandikwa katika mabano (akitari, akilia, akicheka)
  • Alama za uakifishaji
    • Koloni( : ) Huandikwa baada ya jina au cheo cha watu
    • Alama za dukuduku ( _ _ _ ) Mazungumzo yanaendelea
    • Parandesi au mabano ( ) Kubana maneno ambayo hayatasemwa
    • Alama ya hisi ( ! ) Hutumiwa pamoja na viigizi kuonyesha hisia

Insha za Hadithi

Hadithi hutambiwa kwa njia ya kusimuliwa
Hurejelea matukio au visa vyenye nasaha kwa jamii
Visa hivi hutumiwa

  • Kuelimisha
  • Kushauri
  • Kuonya
  • Bidii
  • Kuonyesha umoja

Enzi za kale watoto walisimuliwa visa hivi na babu au nyanya wakati wa jiono

  • Abunuwasi
  • Shamba la wanyama
  • Sungura mwenye pembe
  • Shujaa fumo liyongo

Ikiwa kisa kilisimuliwa na mwingine mwanafunzi atahitajika kunukuu kazi yake
“ babu alizoea kutuambia ngano.alianza hivi ____________”

Baada ya kuhitimisha kisa mtahiniwa anahitajika kufunga
Ahitimishe kwa ushauri au nasaha

Insha hii yaweza kuchukua mikondo tofauti

  • Furaha
  • Majuto
  • Huzuni
  • Bidii

Sanasana wahusika huwa wanyama ambao huwa na hisia za binadamu

Jinsi ya kuanzisha

  • Paukwa?pakawa!
  • Aliondokea chanjagaa kujenga nyumba kaka mwanangu mwana siti kijino kama chikichi cha kujengea vikuta na vilango vya kupitia
  • Hapo zama za zama _____________
  • Hapo kale ___________
  • Hapo jado aliondokea _____________
  • Enzi za konga mawe ______________
  • Miaka na dahari iliyopita ___________________
  • Katika karne za mababu na bibi zetu _____________________
  • Miaka na mikaka iliyopita _____________
  • Hadithi!hadithi! hapo zama za kale katika kaya/kijiji ______________

Fani za lugha


  • Miaka na mikaka
  • Dhahiri shahiri
  • Hana hanani
  • Maskini hohehahe
  • Daima dawamu
  • Afriti kijiti


  • Salimu amri
  • Shika sikio
  • Temea nasaha mate
  • Valia miwani
  • Tia kapuni
  • Mambo kuenda shoro
  • Kutojulia heri wala shari
  • Kuwa fremu ya mtu


  • Roho ngumu kama paka
  • Zurura kama mbwa msokwao/mbwakoko
  • Tabia kunuka kama kindonda/beberu
  • Macho mekundu kama ngeu/damu
  • Kuchukua wekundu wa moto


  • Bendera hufuata upepo
  • Sikio la kufa halisikii dawa
  • Kutosikia la mwadhini wala la mteka maji msikitini
  • Nzi kufia juu ya kindonda si haramu
  • Maji hufuata mkondo
  • Aambiwaye akakataa hujionea


  • Kabla ya mwadhini kuadhana adhna zake
  • Maji kwa pakacha
  • Julikana kwa ufedhuli
  • Kuwa sawa na kutumbutia maji
  • Andamana na makundi yenye mienendo benibeni
  • Heshima likawa neno geni kwake
  • Lala kitandani hoi akiwangoja pumzi yake ya mwisho
  • Lia kilio cha mbwa


  • Nyanya/babu alitueleza bayana umuhumu wa
  • Hapo ndipo niliposandiki kuwa
  • Ulumbi wa ulidhihirika waziwazi kuwa

Mnyambuliko wa Vitenzi

Huku ni kuvibadili vitenzi kwa kurefusha viambishi tamati ili kuleta kauli mbalimbali Kauli hizi ni.

  • Tendana: uma - umana
  • Tendesha: lala – laza
  • Tendeka: Lima – limika

Huu ni upachikaji wa viambishi kwenye mzizi wa kitenzi ili kuunda vitenzi vipya

Kauli ya Kutendeshwa/Fanyisha

Huonyesha kuwa kitendo kimesababishwa na kitu Fulani

Vitenzi hivi hutambulishwa na vitenzi vya, za, sha, fya, na ,sa

Kauli ya Kutendata

Kauli hii huonyesha dhana ya kurudia rudia tendo
Kata – katakata
Imba – imbaimba
Tia – tiatia
Ruka – rukaruka

Sifa Kutokana na Vitenzi

Ni kuunda maneno yenye kivumishi au kusifu nomino kutoka kwenye viarafa

Sifa hizi huwa ni herufi kama f, v, mw
Amini – mwaminifu
Sikia- sikivu
Tii – tiifu
Dhulumu – dhalimu

Tanakali za Sauti

Ni maneno yanayoonyesha au kuiga milio ya sauti, hali Fulani, sura au vitendo mbalimbali. Hutumia kusisitiza namna vitendo vilivyo, vinavyotendeka au kitakavyotendeka


  • Funika gubigubi!
  • Papatika papatupapatu!
  • Kula fyu!
  • Kuregea regerege!

Matumizi ya Vihusishi ‘katika’ na Kiambishi Tamati –ni’

Katika na –ni ni vihusishi vinavyotumiwa kumaanisha ndani ya au kwenye

Vihusishi hivi havitumiwi pamoja katika sentensi


  • Ingia katika darasani ni kosa
  • Ingia darasani au ingia katika darasa ni sahihi

-ni huambishwa kwenye nomino za kawaida kisha nomino hiyo huorodheshwa katika ngeli ya PAKUMU
Pia hutumika kuonyesha ndani ya au mahali ndani
Vijiko vimo jikoni
Walimu wamo majilisini


  1. hutumiwa kuleta maana ya Miongoni mwa
    mtu mmoja katika wale ni mgonjwa
  2. Wakati
    Tutakuwa na likizo katika mwezi wa Aprili
  3. Ujumla wa vitu
    Wote walishiriki katika michezo hiyo

Alama za Uakifishaji

Ni alama zinazotumiwa ili kuwasilisha nia halisi na maana kamili ya kwenye maandishi

Alama hizi pia hufanya kusomeka kwa sentensi kuwa rahisi

Nusukoloni /Semikoloni/Nukta kipumuo(;)

Hutumiwa kuunganisha mawazo mawili
Ninataka kuondoka mapemasipendi kuchelewa

Koloni/Nuktambili/Nukta pacha (:)

Hutumiwa kuonyesha orodha ndefu
Nenda ununue vutu vifuatavyo:maziwa, mkate, sukari, mafuta na chumvi

Ukubwa, Udogo na Wastani wa Nomino

Ukubwa ni hali ya kukuza nomino na udogo ni hali ya kudunisha nomino
Wastani ni hali ya kawaida ya nomino

Nomino katika ukubwa huwekwa katika ngeli ya LI – YA na nomino katika hali ya udogo huwekwa
katika ngeli ya KI – VI

Zipo kanuni ambazo hutumiwa

  • Nomino zenye silabi mbili- dodosha moja
    Mtu- jitu
  • Nomino zinazoanza kwa ki dondosha ki pachika ji


Kukanusha Amri

Wakati wa amri hukanushwa kwa kutumia si
Aende – asiende
Nimpe – nisimpe
Ule – usile

Swali lije baadaye
Wewe kunywa dawa
Wewe usikunywe dawa

Wingi na Kukanusha

Wakati wa sasa hukanushwa kwa ha

unasoma – mnasoma – hamsomi
unakula – mnakula – hamli


Vivumishi vya Pekee Ingine na -O-ote

Vivumishi hivi ni ote, o-ote, enye, enyewe na ingine


Ni maneno yaliyo na maana zaidi ya moja

  • Vua-toa samaki majini
            Toa nguo mwilini
  • Ala-aina ya mfuko ambamo kisu hufichwa
          Tamko la kushangaa
          Aina yoyote ya chombo cha kufanyia kazi 


Ni neno linalosimama badala ya nomino kama yeye, sisi, wewe

Ngeli na Viambishi Ngeli

Mifano ya ngeli:

  • A – WA
  • U – YA
  • I – ZI
  • U – U
  • YA – YA
  • I – I

Ngeli ya A- WA

Ngeli hii inahusisha majina yenye sifa na hali ya wanyama, nyuni, malaika, samaki na wanadamu

Kutoa mifano katika umoja na wingi
Mnyoo – minyoo
Kiwete – viwete
Nzi – nzi
Mkunga – mikunga

Ngeli ya U – I

Nomino za ngeli hii huchukua upatanisho wa U katika umoja na I katika wingi
Mkono – mikono
Muundi – miundi
Mzigo – mizigo
Mtaa – mitaa
Muhula – mihula
Mwaka – miaka
Mlingoti – milingoti

Ngeli ya KI – VI

Nomino za ngeli hii ni vitu vya kawaida

Majina huanza kwa ‘ki’ katika umoja na ‘vi’ katika wingi

Mengine huanza kwa ‘ch’ kwa umoja na ‘vy kwa wingi
Kiazi – viazi
Kiatu – viatu
Kioo – vioo
Kina – vina
Kikuba – vikuba
Cheti – vyeti
Chakula – vyakula
Chanda – vyanda
Chungu – vyungu

Wastani            udogo
Mlango             kilango
Mguu                 kiguu

Ngeli ya LI – YA

Maneno katika ngeli hii huanza na ma, me

Maneno yote katika hali ya ukubwa huingizwa katika ngeli hii
Dirisha – madirisha
Embe – maembe
Zulia – mazulia


Guu – maguu
Jibwa – majibwa

Ngeli ya U – YA

Maneno katika ngeli hii huanza kwa U katika umoja na Ya katika wingi
Ugonjwa – magonjwa
Uuaji – mauaji
Ujazi - majazi
Upana - mapana

Ngeli ya YA – YA

Nomino zote huanzia kwa ma
Masihara - masihara
Matatu-  matatu
Makazi - makazi
Mahakama - mahakama
Maakuli - maakuli
Mawasiliano - mawasiliano

Ngeli ya I – ZI

Nomino hazibadiliki katika umoja na wingi
Mashine - mashine
Sinia - sinia
Sahani - sahani
Ngozi - ngozi
Taa - taa
Pete - pete
Sakafu - sakafu
Shingo - shingo

Ngeli ya U – ZI

Maneno katika ngeli hii huwa na upatanisho wa U na ZI katka wingi
Ubeti – beti
Uchane – chane
Uchega – chega
Ubavu – mbavu
Ubao – mbao
Ulimi – ndimi
Udevu – ndevu
Ujari – njari
Ujiti – njiti
Ugoe – ngoe
Uzi – nyuzi
Ufa – nyufa
Waadhi – nyaadhi
Walio – nyalio
Waraka – nyaraka

Ngeli ya U – U

Huchukua U katika umoja na U katika wingi
Kuelezea maneno hayabadiliki katika umoja na wingi
Moto - moto
Ugali - ugali
Wema - wema
Ufisadi - ufisadi
Wizi - wizi
Ubaya - ubaya
Uzembe - uzembe

Ngeli ya KU

Maneno katika ngeli hii huchukua upatanisho wa kisarufi KU

Ngeli ya I – I

Majina ya nomino hii huchukua upatanisho wa sarufi kuwa I katika umoja na I katika wingi

Ngeli ya PA KU MU

Ni ngeli ya mahali

Huelezea hali tatu

  • Hapa/hapo/pale- mahali dhahiri
  • Huku/huko/kule – kusiko dhahiri
  • Humo/humu/humo – mahali ndani

Kuelezea viambishi tofauti