How light travels
They are materials that allow all light to pass through them and one can see through them clearly.
Examples: Clear glass, Clear water, air
They are materials that allow only little light to pass through them.
They are used in making:
They are materials that do not allow any light to pass through them.
When light hits an opaque materials a shadow is formed.
Reflection is the bouncing back of light when Materials that reflect light are called reflectors.
Reflection happens when light hits a smooth shinny surface.
It is the process in which light bends or changes direction when it moves from one medium to another. (air to water)
A rainbow is formed by the refraction of light. To be formed raindrops and sunshine is required.
The process of splitting light into seven different colours is known as dispersion.
A group of seven colours in the rainbow is known as spectrum
It is the process of storing and handling food properly so as to stop or slow down its spoilage.
Food preservation is classified into;
Drying is both traditional modern method of preserving food. It is also the cheapest method of food preservation.
Soil erosion is the carrying away of the top soil from one place to another.
They are things that carry soil from one place to another. They include;
It occurs when raindrops fall on bare loose soil.
It can be controlled by;
It occurs when water or wind carries away thin uniform layers of the topsoil.
It is not easily noticed
It occurs on gentle slopes.
Best controlled by;
It occurs when water flows down a slope and make small shallow channels. The channels are known as rills. it is common on gentle sloping areas.
It can be controlled by;
It occurs when water make deep channels , they are known as gulleys.
Gulley erosion leads to the formation of V-shaped or U-shaped channels.
It is common on bare hill slopes.
It can be controlled by;
They are diseases that are spread through contaminated water. They include:
It is caused by bacteria. it can cause death within 24 hours if not treated. It causes death through dehydration.
It mainly affects the intestines. It is also known as typhoid fever.
It is caused by bilharzia worms or blood flukes. It is carried by water snails.
The disease mainly affect the bladder and intestines
Bilharzia worms enter the body through the skin.
They are classified into:
They are grasses and legumes that animals feed on directly.
They are classified into;
Pure stand ; only consist of either grass or legumes only
Mixed stand ; consists of both grass and legumes
Examples of grass include;
There are 4 main legumes used as pasture, they include;
They are crops that are hervestered or cut then given to the animals. examples;
They are animal feeds that are preserved in a special way to be used in future.
They are divided into two;
The animal is tied to a peg or post using a rope
The rope allows the animal to graze within a restricted area.
It is practised were few animals are kept
The land is divided into small areas known as paddocks using a permanent fence
A watering point is usually provided in each paddock.
The animals are enclosed in a small portion of the pasture using a temporary fence.
An electric fence is usually used.
It is also known as stall feeding
The animals are confined in a permanent structure (shed)
The shed should have feeding area, watering area, sleeping area and milking area.
It is a type of grazing where animals are allowed to graze
freely on large areas of land.
Venus is the brightest and the hottest
Mercury takes the shortest time to go round the sun
Mars is known as the red planet
Jupiter is the largest planet
Saturn has visible rings around it.
Asteroids are found in between mars and Jupiter
Planets ;smallest to largest
it is the process in which the Earth spins on its own axis
The Earth rotates on its own axis
The earth takes 24 hours to make a complete rotation.
The rotation cause day and night
It is the process in which the Earth moves around the sun.
The path that is followed by the Earth as it goes around the
sun is called orbit
The Earth takes 365 ¼ days to make one complete revolution.
Main parts of a plant are;
The main reproductive part of a plant is a flower.
Parts of a flower include;
Functions of Different Parts;
It is the transfer of pollen grains from the anthers to the
stigma of the same kind
Agents of pollination include;
There are two types;
Characteristics of insect pollinated flowers
Characteristics of wind pollinated flowers
It is the change of the seed into a seedling
Conditions necessary for germination
Epigeal germination; the seed comes out of the soil during germination e.g. Beans
Hypogeal germination; the seed remains in the soil during germination e.g. maize
They are diseases that a child is immunised against before
they are 5 years.
Most of the diseases are dangerous if they infect a young child.
They are diseases that one can be immunised against;
Reasons of getting tested
Pre-test counselling; it is the testing one receives in the VCT centre before being tested.
Post-test counselling; it is the testing one receives in the VCT after being tested
Parts of the male reproductive system include
Parts of the female reproductive include
They mainly affect the feelings, they include;
1 Corinthians 13:9-13
The origin of death
Christians view of death