How light travels

  • Light travels in a straight line away from the source.
  • Light travels to all directions from the source.

Transparent Materials

They are materials that allow all light to pass through them and one can see through them clearly.
Examples: Clear glass, Clear water, air

Uses of transparent materials

  • They are used in making:
  • Car windscreens
  • Spectacles
  • Window panes
  • Lamps
  • Glass walls

Translucent Materials

They are materials that allow only little light to pass through them.

  • Frosted glass
  • Tracing paper
  • Oiled or waxed paper

Uses of translucent materials

They are used in making:

  • Skylights
  • Toilet and bathroom window panes
  • Ambulance windows.

Opaque Materials

They are materials that do not allow any light to pass through them.
When light hits an opaque materials a shadow is formed.

  • Wood
  • Stone
  • Metals

Reflection of Light

Reflection is the bouncing back of light when Materials that reflect light are called reflectors.
Reflection happens when light hits a smooth shinny surface.

Types of Reflection

  • Regular reflection
  • Irregular (diffused)

Characteristics of the image in a plane mirror

  • The image is upright
  • The image is behind the mirror
  • The image is the same size as the object
  • The image is laterally inverted.

Refraction of Light

It is the process in which light bends or changes direction when it moves from one medium to another. (air to water)

Effects of Refraction                                       

  • Objects appear bent or broken
  • Objects appear bigger
  • Swimming pool appear shallower

Making a Rainbow

A rainbow is formed by the refraction of light. To be formed raindrops and sunshine is required.
The process of splitting light into seven different colours is known as dispersion.
A group of seven colours in the rainbow is known as spectrum


Food Preservation

It is the process of storing and handling food properly so as to stop or slow down its spoilage.

Reason for Preserving Food

  • To reduce food wastage
  • To prevent it from being spoilt
  • For easy transport
  • To make food available when out of season.

Methods of Food Preservation

Food preservation is classified into;

  • Traditional methods
  • Modern methods

Traditional Methods

They include;

  • Smoking- forms a coat
  • Drying- reduce moisture
  • Salting- reduce moisture
  • Use of honey- prevents oxygen
  • Use of ash- reduce moisture

Modern Methods

  • Canning-killing germs and preventing oxygen
  • Refrigeration- low temperature
  • Freezing- low temperature

Drying is both traditional modern method of preserving food. It is also the cheapest method of food preservation.


Soil Erosion

Soil erosion is the carrying away of the top soil from one place to another.

Agents of Soil Erosion

They are things that carry soil from one place to another. They include;

  • Water
  • wind

Factors that Influence Soil Erosion

  1. Slope of land
  2. Type of soil
  3. Vegetation cover
  4. Amount of rainfall
  5. Human activities

Types of Soil Erosion

  1. Splash erosion
  2. Sheet erosion
  3. Rill erosion
  4. Gulley erosion

Splash Erosion

It occurs when raindrops fall on bare loose soil.
It can be controlled by;

  • Planting cover crops
  • mulching

Sheet Erosion

It occurs when water or wind carries away thin uniform layers of the topsoil.
It is not easily noticed
It occurs on gentle slopes.
Best controlled by;

  • Planting cover crops
  • Planting trees
  • Landslides are caused by sheet erosion

Rill Erosion

It occurs when water flows down a slope and make small shallow channels. The channels are known as rills. it is common on gentle sloping areas.
It can be controlled by;

  • Terracing
  • Contour farming
  • Strip cropping

Gulley Erosion

It occurs when water make deep channels , they are known as gulleys.
Gulley erosion leads to the formation of V-shaped or U-shaped channels.
It is common on bare hill slopes.
It can be controlled by;

  • Gabions
  • Porous dams
  • Check dams

Waterborne Diseases

They are diseases that are spread through contaminated water. They include:

  1. Cholera
  2. Typhoid
  3. Bilharzia.


It is caused by bacteria. it can cause death within 24 hours if not treated. It causes death through dehydration.

Signs and Symptoms

  • Violent diarrhoea (rice water).
  • Vomiting.
  • Severe abdominal pains
  • Wrinkled skin due to dehydration.
  • Sunken eyeballs


It mainly affects the intestines. It is also known as typhoid fever.

Signs and Symptoms

  • Pain in the joints and muscles
  • High fever
  • Abdominal pains
  • Skin rash


It is caused by bilharzia worms or blood flukes. It is carried by water snails.

The disease mainly affect the bladder and intestines
Bilharzia worms enter the body through the skin.

Signs and Symptoms

  • Blood in urine and stool
  • Coughing may occur
  • Abdominal pain
  • Swimmers itch
  • Fever

Animal Feeds

They are classified into:

  • Pastures
  • Fodder
  • Conserved feeds
  • Commercial feeds


They are grasses and legumes that animals feed on directly.

They are classified into;
Pure stand ; only consist of either grass or legumes only
Mixed stand ; consists of both grass and legumes


Examples of grass include;

  • Kikuyu grass
  • Star grass
  • Giant sataria
  • Rhodes grass


There are 4 main legumes used as pasture, they include;

  • Clover
  • Lucerne
  • Glycine
  • Desmodium.


They are crops that are hervestered or cut then given to the animals. examples;

  • Napier grass
  • Guatemala grass
  • Potato vines
  • Maize stalks
  • Kales
  • Sugar beet

Conserved Feeds

They are animal feeds that are preserved in a special way to be used in future.
They are divided into two;

  1. Hay
  2. sillage


  • It is cut and preserved by drying
  • It is stored in bales


  • It is harvested when it is about to flower. It is preserved by fermentation.
  • It is stored when still green or in the succulent state.
  • It is stored in silos
  • The molasses is added to speed up fermentation.

Methods of Grazing

  • Rotational grazing
  • Zero grazing
  • Herding

Rotational Grazing

They include:

  • Tethering
  • Paddocking
  • Strip grazing


The animal is tied to a peg or post using a rope
The rope allows the animal to graze within a restricted area.
It is practised were few animals are kept


The land is divided into small areas known as paddocks using a permanent fence
A watering point is usually provided in each paddock.

Strip grazing

The animals are enclosed in a small portion of the pasture using a temporary fence.
An electric fence is usually used.

Zero Grazing

It is also known as stall feeding
The animals are confined in a permanent structure (shed)
The shed should have feeding area, watering area, sleeping area and milking area.


It is a type of grazing where animals are allowed to graze
freely on large areas of land.


Venus is the brightest and the hottest
Mercury takes the shortest time to go round the sun
Mars is known as the red planet
Jupiter is the largest planet
Saturn has visible rings around it.
Asteroids are found in between mars and Jupiter
Planets ;smallest to largest


it is the process in which the Earth spins on its own axis
The Earth rotates on its own axis
The earth takes 24 hours to make a complete rotation.
The rotation cause day and night



It is the process in which the Earth moves around the sun.
The path that is followed by the Earth as it goes around the
sun is called orbit
The Earth takes 365 ¼ days to make one complete revolution.



Parts of a Plant

Main parts of a plant are;

  • Roots
  • Stem
  • Leaves


The main reproductive part of a plant is a flower.

Parts of a flower include;

  • Male part
  • Female part

Functions of Different Parts;

Male Parts

  • Anthers; produce pollen grain(male cells)
  • Filament; it supports the anthers

Female Parts

  • Stigma; receives the pollen grains
  • Style; holds the stigma
    Allow the development of pollen tube
  • Ovary; holds the ovules
    Develops in a fruit
  • Ovule; female cell
    Develops into seeds


It is the transfer of pollen grains from the anthers to the
stigma of the same kind

Agents of pollination include;

  • Wind
  • Insects
  • water

Types of Pollination

There are two types;

  • Self pollination-it is the transfer of pollen grains from the anthers to the stigma of the same plant.
  • Cross pollination-it is the transfer of pollen grains from the anthers to the stigma in different plants of the same type.

Characteristics of insect pollinated flowers

  • They have nectar
  • Brightly coloured
  • Have big petals
  • Sticky stigma
  • Small amount of pollen grains

Characteristics of wind pollinated flowers

  • Small in size
  • Dull in colour
  • Powderly pollen grains
  • Produce large amount of pollen grains
  • Loosely attached filaments


It is the change of the seed into a seedling

Conditions necessary for germination

  • Air (oxygen)
  • Moisture(water)
  • Warmth(temperature)

Types of Germination

Epigeal germination; the seed comes out of the soil during germination e.g. Beans
Hypogeal germination; the seed remains in the soil during germination e.g. maize

Parts of a Seed

  • Testa
  • Helum
  • Micropyle
  • Cotyledon
  • Radical
  • Plumule.

Immunisation Schedule

They are diseases that a child is immunised against before
they are 5 years.
Most of the diseases are dangerous if they infect a young child.

Immunizable Diseases

They are diseases that one can be immunised against;

  • Typhoid
  • Yellow fever
  • Meningitis
  • Tuberculosis
  • Measles
  • Tetanus

Hiv and Aids Testing

Reasons of getting tested

  • To overcome fear
  • To stop the spread of HIV
  • To plan your future
  • To start medication early
  • To decide on marriage partner
  • To plan for your family

Pre-test counselling; it is the testing one receives in the VCT centre before being tested.
Post-test counselling; it is the testing one receives in the VCT after being tested

Effects of HIV/AIDS to the Country

  • Reduced agricultural production
  • Poor economy
  • Death of skilled people
  • A lot of money is spent on treatment
  • Congestion in the hospitals

Effects to the Family

  • Sadness in the family
  • Family income is spent on treatment
  • Children may become orphans
  • Children may drop out of school to take care of the sick parents
  • The family may feel discriminated.

Effects of HIV to the Individual

  • Poor health
  • Poor performance
  • Spending of a lot of money
  • Feeling stigmatized

Male Reproductive System

Parts of the male reproductive system include

  • Penis
  • Testis
  • Urethra
  • Sperm duct
  • Glands

Female Reproductive System

Parts of the female reproductive include

  • Ovary
  • Oviduct
  • Uterus
  • Cervix
  • Vagina


  • Ovary-produce the ova after every 28 days
  • Oviduct-where fertilisation takes place
  • Uterus-where the foetus develop till maturity
  • Cervix-a ring of muscle that holds the foetus to maturity
  • Testis-they produce sperms
  • Urethra-allow passage of sperm and urine in men

Physical Changes

In both boys and girls

  • Increase in height and weight
  • Hair appear in the armpit and the pubic area
  • Pimples may appear on the face

In boys only

  • The voice breaks
  • They experience wet dreams
  • The chest broadens

Girls only

  • The breasts enlarge
  • Voice become smooth
  • They experience menstrual flow
  • Hips broaden

Emotional Changes

They mainly affect the feelings, they include;

  • Feeling shy
  • Embarrassment of,
  • Their height
  • Enlarged breasts
  • Wet dreams
  • Menstrual flow
  • Get moody very fast

Our Hope After Primary School

  • Hope is a strong desire or expectation that something will happen or true.
  • People have hopes about different things at different times.
  • Hope gives meaning to life
  • Examples of things one can hope for:-
    1. Getting a good job
    2. Getting married.
    3. Getting children
    4. Joining university.
    5. Start a business and travel across the world.
  • Hopes that are realized in future are called distant hopes.
    • Rights and Privileges of an Adult in Kenya
    • Biblical Approach

Biblical Approach {Romans 8:23-25,28}

  • Paul tells us that the whole of God’s creation expects His salvation. We should
    patiently hope for good things in life.


  1. _________________ should accompany hope in order to have salvation.
  2. A person without hope is called?
  3. The book of Romans was written by?
  4. List FOUR things one can hope for in life.
  5. Which are the two main types of hopes?

Our Hopes for Future Adult Life

  • An adult is a grown up person who in most cases is independent.
  • An adult has to be over 18 years of age according to Kenyan Law.

Rights and Privileges of an Adult in Kenya

  • Acquire a national identification card[ID}
  • Seek employment.
  • Getting married.
  • Running business
  • Joining church ministry
  • ___________________
  • ___________________

Biblical Approach

Psalms 138:7-8

  • God keeps his promises and his love is everlasting.

Jeremiah 29:10-14

  • God knows the pans he has for us.

1 Corinthians 13:9-13

  • God wants us to proper in all ways.
  • Spiritual growth enables us to understand the plans of God.


  1. Having good feelings about good things that will happen to us is called?
  2. Who will receive eternal life?
  3. The greatest hope that a committed Christian should have is?
  4. Who is an adult according to the Kenyan law?
  5. Write the authors of the following books
    1. Psalms __________________
    2. Jeremiah __________________
    3. Corinthians___________________
  6. Name the prophet who prophesied about the new covenant.

How we Overcome Disappointments {1 Corinthians 13:9-13}

  • Disappointment- a feeling of sadness because something has not happened as you
    hoped for.
  • Disappointment happens as a result of broken hopes

Ways of Overcoming Disappointments

  1. Setting achievable goals
  2. Being focused on strengths
  3. Developing a positive attitude towards everything we do.
  4. Being prayerful.
  5. Trusting in God in all our undertakings.
  6. Being hardworking.
  7. Accept situation we cannot change.

Results of Disappointments

  • Feeling unhappy
  • Feeling discouraged
  • Feeling frustrated.
  • Lack of sleep.
  • Loss of appetite.


  1. Disappointment is the _______________________
  2. The leper who said ‘thank you’ was a _____________________
  3. List three things we can do to avoid disappointment
  4. List two results of disappointment to a human being

What the Church Hopes for

  • Church – it refers to a congregation of believers/worshippers.
  •  A person who believes and follows Jesus Christ is called a Christian.
  • Christians hope for:-
    1. The second coming of Jesus
    2. Peace and unity in the world.
    3. Salvation of yet non-believers by Christ.
    4. Good deeds.
    5. Eternal life with Christ.
  • New life in Christ is characterized by
    1. A holy life
    2. Preaching
    3. Teaching the good news.
    4. Singing.
  • Christians can achieve their hopes through:-
    1. Praying to God
    2. Reading the bible
    3. Going to church and worshipping.
    4. Confession that Jesus is our savior.


  1. Name two beliefs for Christians
  2. Disciples of Jesus were first referred to as ‘Christians’ in a town called?
  3. Jesus ascended to heaven from the town of?
  4. Name the helper that Jesus promised His disciples.
  5. Name four things that the church hopes for.

The Wisemen Hope for the King

  • Jesus was born in Bethlehem of Judea
  • Prophet Micah prophesied that the messiah would be born in Bethlehem
  • Wisemen studied a unique star.
  • The star first led them to Herod’s palace- the then king of Judea.
  • Jesus was the hope of the whole world, so God protected him from being killed by King Herod.
  • The wisemen brought the following to the baby Jesus:-
    1. Gold
    2. Frankincence
    3. Myrrh
  • Jesus was brought up {grew} in Nazareth.


  1. Name three gifts that the Wisemen brought to baby Jesus.
  2. The name Jesus means?
  3. Which King was the ancestor of Jesus?
  4. ______________________ is known to be the city of David.
  5. The Wisemen came from the?
  6. Prophet __________________ foretold the birth of Jesus.
  7. Prophet __________________ prophesied about the killing of babies by Herod soldiers.

A Sure Hope for Human Kind {Mathew 1:18-22, Romans 5:12, John 17:25-26}

  • Mary was a virgin Jewish lady and had an engagement with Joseph- a descendant of David.
  • Mary conceived through the power of the Holy Spirit.
  • The message was taken to Mary by Angel Gabriel.
  • Prophet Isaiah refers to the baby as Emmanuel- meaning God with us
  • The gentiles were to put their hopes in him.
  • When Jesus was presented to the temple, a man called Simeon was moved by the Holy Spirit and spoke good about the baby Jesus.


  1. Who was the earthly father of Jesus?
  2. Give four titles used by prophet Isaiah to describe Emmanuel
  3. Who wanted to kill baby Jesus?
  4. The wisemen were guided by a?
  5. Jesus was a revelation and salvation for the __________________ who were not Israelites.
  6. Name 3 occasions Jesus encountered with the gentiles.

Our Ambitions in Life {Micah 6:6-8}

  • An ambition is a determination to be successful in a certain area.
  • Some of the ambitions include
    1. Being a doctor
    2. Being a pilot
    3. Being a teacher
  • Prophet Micah teaches that we should worship God in a just way.
    Just- being fair in the way we treat others
  • God expects us to be:-
    1. Just
    2. Loving and caring to everybody
    3. Humble
    4. Prayerful.


  1. What did Simeon, a man full of the Holy Spirit, foretell about what Jesus would do to the gentiles?
  2. Name three purposes God has for your life

Jesus Christ Hope of Eternal Life

  • Eternal life- life with a beginning but has no end.
  • Eternal life is also called everlasting life
  • Eternal life starts on earth when one repents his/her sins and gets baptized.

The origin of death

  • Adam and eve disobeyed God.
  • The sin of disobedience separated people from God and God pronounced death as one of the punishment on man.

Christians view of death

  • Death does not mark the end of life of a Christian believer.
  • John 3:16 says God sent His son Jesus Christ so that however believes in him shall not perish but have everlasting life.


  1. Eternal life is also called?
  2. When does eternal Life begin?
  3. Initiation in Christianity is equivalent to _________________ in African Traditional Religion
  4. The tree that man ate from is known as the tree of?
  5. Apart from death, state other punishments God gave to
    1. Snake
    2. Eve
    3. Adam

How Eternal Life is Received

  • Death came by means of a man called Adam and resurrection will come through Jesus Christ.
  • When the body is buried it is immortal or perishable but when raised it is immortal or imperishable.
  • Jesus died and was buried.
  • He rose from the dead after 3 days with a spiritual body.
  • On the last day, the living will receive the spiritual bodies that will join Jesus in the clouds.


  1. State 3 women who were first to see the resurrected Jesus
  2. Jesus resurrected on _________________
  3. _________________ offered a tomb to bury the body of Jesus.
  4. Name the seven deacons

Life After Death {John 14:1-30}

  • In the ATR{ African traditional religion} people believe in life after death, so does Christians.
  • In ATR children are named after the dead as a show of honor
  • The dead are involved in rituals such as circumcision
  • Christians bury the dead and wait for the day of resurrection
  • We should not be afraid of death but respect God and love so as to inherit the kingdom of God.


  1. State the common belief among the ATS and Christians. Both believe in ___________________
  2. What is the significance of bloodshed during circumcision?
  3. Naming children is very important in ATS. Name four ways of naming the children in ATS
  4. “Go wash your face in the pool of Siloam”. Siloam means? ________________ {Luke 9:1-12}
  5. Give the meaning of the following names:
    1. Emmanuel
    2. Isaac
    3. Jacob
    4. Jesus
    5. Rabbi