Stella

Stella

15
September

Matter is anything that occupies space and has mass.

A solute-This is the solid which dissolves in a liquid.

A solvent-Thus is the liquid in which the solid dissolves in.

A solution-This is what is formed when solute and solvent are mixed completely.

Soluble solids:-This are solids that dissolves completely in liquids.

Insoluble solids:-These are solids that do not dissolve in liquids when they are mixed.

Miscible liquids:-This are liquids that mix to form a uniform solution eg water and milk,water and spirit, cooking oil and paraffin etc.

Immiscible liquids:-This are liquids that when put together and shaken still forms layers eg water and paraffin.

Methods of Separating Mixtures.

  1. Picking:-Involves use of hands to pick big solid particles from a mixture eg mixture of maize and beans, mixture of Stones from rice etc.
  2. Winnowing:- Used i separation of light solid particles from the heavy ones using the wind eg a mixture of rice and husk, a
    mixture of sorghum from the chaffs etc.
  3. Sieving:- Used in separating mixture of small and large solid particles where the small particles passes through the sieve
    leaving behind the big ones eg mixture of maize and millet.
  4. Use of magnet:- Used in separating magnetic materials from non magnetic materials eg Flour and iron fillings
  5. Decanting:-Used to separate an insoluble solid from a liquid by gently pouring out the liquids eg mixture water and cooked
    beans.
  6. Filtering:- This involves using a filter paper or a cloth to separate a mixture eg a mixture of soil and water
    NB:-The water obtained from filtering is not safe for drinking as it may contain traces of the mixtures and also germs its
    therefore advisable to boil it again

Evaporation:-This is a method that is used to separate a mixture of soluble solid from a liquid but only the solidis recovered.

Home made water filter

class 7 science home made water filter

Magnetic Materials

TINSCCA

  • Tin
  • Iron
  • Nickel
  • Steel
  • Chromium.
  • Cobalt
  • Alnico
15
September

This is a form of energy.

Sources of Electricity.

There are two forms of electricity. ie Static and current electricity.

Static electricity is produced by rubbing two surfaces against each other.

Current electricity is produced from:

  • Hydroelectric dams
  • Diesel generators Car batteries.
  • Geothermal wells.
  • Torch cells.
  • Solar batteries

Good and Bad Conductors of Electricity

Good Conductors - These are materials that allow electricity to pass through them.

Bad conductors -These are materials that do not allow electricity to pass through them.

Electrical Appliances

  •  An electric iron-used for pressing clothes.
  • An electric cooker- used for cooking.
  • An electric kettle-Used for boiling water or making tea.
  • Radio-Used to receive information transmitted from stations.

Safety when Dealing with Electricity

  • Don't work near mains.
  • Don't have cables running under a carpet.
  • Don't overload sockets by plugging in many electrical appliances.
  • Never throw objects at a wire carrying electricity.
  • Don't touch sockets and swiches with wet hands.
  • Don't try to repair electrical appliances unless you have the knowledge of what you are doing.

Lightning and Safety Measures.

Lightning is a strong form of static electricity that is caused by the charges brought about by clouds .

Lightning arrestors are always fitted on tall buildings so that it when lighting strikes,the charges reach the ground

Precautions against Lighting during Thunderstorm.

  • Use shoes with rubber soles while walking in the open on a rainy day.
  • Don't stand on a pool of water when its raining.
  • Avoiding leaning against the wall when its raining.
  • Avoid carrying metallic and sharp-pointed objects when it is raining.
  • When lightning strikes,it often hits tall objects before spreading to other objects in the area.
  • Avoiding walking in open fields.
15
September

Soil Fertility.

This is the ability of the soil to produce high yields for a long time.

Fertilizer: These are organic or inorganic substances that are added to soil that have lost their fertility.

They are grouped into natural fertilizers and artificial fertilizers.

Green Manure:They are made from green plants,these plants should be:

  • Leafy.
  • Able to grow fast.
  • Able to decay quickly
  • Contain a high amount of nitrogen.

Farmyard manure: They are made from animals wastes such as urine,dung, poultry droppings and animal bedding.
Compost manure: This is a mixture of decayed plants,animal waste,leaves and vegetable peelings

How to encourage fast decomposition of compost heap:

  • Keeping the heap moist.
  • Adding a layer of decayed materials rich in bacteria.
  • Adding a layer of topsoil to introduce decomposers.
  • Covering the heap duriing the wet season.
  • Turning the heap occasionally,at leastafter 3-4weeks to allow circulation of air.
    NB:Farmyard manure introduces bacteria.

Mulches: These are plant materials such as plant leaves and dry grass which are used as soil cover.

Types of Fertilizers (Inorganic manure)

They are classified into two:

  • Straight fertilizer
  • Compound fertilizer.

Straight Fertilizers:

They contain only one macronutrient.

Examples of nitrogenous fertilizer.

  • Calcium Ammonium Nitrate.
  • Ammonium Sulphate Nitrate.
  • Urea

Examples of Phosphatic fertilizers.

  • Single super phosphate.
  • Double super phosphate

Examples of potassic fertilizers.

  • Muriate of potash.
  • Sulphate of potash.

Compound Fertilizers:

They provide two or more of the macronutrients to a plant.

Examples of compound fertilizers.

  • Diammonium Phosphate(DAP)
  • Nitrogen, Phosphorus,Potassium(NPK)

Advantages of using Manures and fertilizers.

  • Results in high growth rate of crops.
  • Leads to high crop yields which are of high quality.
  • Leads to growth of crops that are deep green in colour.
  • Encourage the vegetative growth.
  • Leads to quick ripening of fruits.
  • Provides the necessary nutrients for growth and development of crops.
  • Increase the size of seeds,grain and fruits.
  • Strengths the plantstems that support the plant.
  • Improves soil fertility.

Disadvantages of Using Manures and Fertilizers.

  • Some are expensive to prepare eg Green manure.
  • Some pollutes the environment if not use by plants immediately eg Inorganic manure.
  • Some fertilizers are corrosive.
  • Some manures and fertilizers scorch the plant if applied in great quantities.

Activity 2: State other advantages and disadvantages of using manures.and fertilizers

15
September

Water Pollution

This involves making water impure or contaminating it.

Causes of Water Pollution

  • Floods
  • Human and animals waste
  • Oil spillage
  • Waste from industries.
  • Uncontrolled use of farm chemicals.
  • Acid rain

Effects of Water Pollution.

  • Blocking the root hair.
  • Acidic rain causes harm to plants since they cannot grow well in acidic rain.
  • Dissolved chemicals substances and fertilizer may cause harm to animals.
  • Oil spillage prevents entry of oxygen in water leading to suffocation and death.

Controlling Water Pollution.

  • Practising proper hygiene.
  • Practising farming methods.
  • Drawing water for animals instead of taking them to water sources.
  • Controlling the dumping of industrial waste into water sources.
  • Clearing accidental oil spills as soon as they happen.
  • Controlling the use of farm chemicals.

Conservation of Water

Conservation means proper care and use of water sources.

It ensures water isused sparingly and conserved for future use.

Ways of Conserving Water.

  • Harvesting rain water.
  • Recycling water.
  • Re-using water.
  • Using water sparingly.
  • Mulching and shading.
  • Construction of dams
15
September

Parasites.

  • This is an organism that fully depends on another organism for its survival.
  • They either live on the body of the animal(External parasites) or inside the bodies on the animals(Internal parasites).

Examples of External Parasites(Ecto-parasites).

  • Tick- Cattle, Sheep, Goats
  • Mites- Oigs, Goats, Sheep, Poulty, Camel, Horses, Cattle, Rabbits.
  • Flea- Pigs, Poulty, Rabbits.
  • Louse-Poulty, Pigs, Sheep, Cattle, Horses
  • Tsetse fly- All domestic animals

Examples of Internal Parasites(Endo-parasites).

  • Liverfluke- Attacks liver and lungs of cattle, sheep, goats and pigs.
  • Tapeworms- Attacks liver and small intestines of cattle, sheep, goats and pigs.
  • Roundworms- Attacks small intestines,liver and lungs of cattle, sheep, goat, poultry and fish.
  • Hookworms-Attacks the small intestine ofsheep and oats.
  • Lungworms- Attacks the lungs,brain and stomach of cattle, sheep, goats and pigs

Effects of Parasites on Animals.

  1. Leads to poor health of the animal .
  2. Causes anemia as they sucks a lot of blood from the animal's body.
  3. Causes irritation on the body of thee animal.
  4. Leads to poor quality of the products.

Methods of Controlling Livestock Parasites.

  • Rotational grazing-Both
  • Dipping- External parasites.
  • Spraying-External parasites.
  • Deworming- Internal parasites;Involves drenching and dosing.
  • Hand picking - External parasite.

Methods of Controlling Human Intestinal Worms.

  • Proper sanitation.
  • Proper washing of food that are eaten raw.
  • Proper cooking.
  • Regular deworming.
15
September

Interdependence

This is the dependence of one person on another;or one living thing upon another.

Plants depends on animals in the following ways:

  • Carbon dioxide
  • Pollination
  • Animal waste
  • Nutrients

Animals depends on plants in the following ways:

  • Food
  • Shelter
  • Medicine
  • Oxygen

Plants depends on other plants for the following ways:

  • Support
  • Shade
  • Habitat

Animals depends on other animals in the following ways:

  • Transport
  • Food

Examples of Insectivorous plants

  • Venus flytrap
  • Cobra lily
  • Sundew
  • Bladderwort
  • Butterwort
  • Picher plant.

Food Chain.

A food chain is a relationship in which living things depends a feed on one another directly.

Examples of a food chain:

  1. Grass   ---->    Grasshopper     ---->      Chicken          ---->        Hawk
    (Producer). (Primary cosumer).       (Secondary consumer).    (Tertiary consumer)
  2. Algae---->Small fish----->Big fish---->King fish
    NB:Learners are always asked what happen if one group is exempted:
    Example:
    What will happen if all chicken died because of a disease kin the first example;
    • Grasshopper will increase since what feeds on them are dead
    • Grass will reduce since grasshoppers are more in number
    • Hawk will decrease since their food is not there

Crop Pest.

A pest is a troublesome or harmful thing,animal or insect.

They damage crops

Types of Pest

Pests are classified into two ie

  1. Field Pests
    • cutworms
    • Aphids
    • Stalk borer
    • Weaver birds
  2. Storage pests
    • Weevils
    • Termites
    • Rat
    • Mole

Crop Pest and their Effects on Plant

 Pest    Crop attacked  Type of damage caused
Stalk borer  maize,sorghum,sugar cane
  • bore holes on the stalk
  • makes large holes on leaves. 
Aphids cabbage,beans,oranges,maize
  • Suck plant sap
Cutworm cabbage,tomatoes,beans,irish potatoes
  • Cut the stems of young seedlings especially at the base of the plant.
Weevils maize,beans,cowpeas,bananas,cashew
nuts,sweetpotatoes,sisals
  • Bore holes on cereals.
  • Bore hole in the growing point eg banana.
  • Make holes on stem just below the bark eg cashew nuts
Termites cassava,sugarcane,maize,sunflower
  • They eat planmaterials afterplanting.
Birds e.g weaver bird maize,rice,millet,sorghum. 
  • Eat grains before grains mature and therefore they dry up.


Pest Control Measures

  • Scaring .
  • Trapping .
  • Hand picking.
  • Weeding.
  • Spraying.
  • Prunning.
15
September

Drug is any substances other than food that, alters the functioning of the body.

Drug misuse -This is the usage of any drug for any other purpose other than the recommended one.

Drug abuse -This is using of drug to a way that the body cannot work without it.

Commonly Abused Drugs

  • Tobacco
  • Miraa (khat)
  • Mandrax
  • Heroin/opium-from poppy plant
  • Coffee
  • Tea
  • Alcohol
  • Bhang/dope/marijuana/hashish.
  • Cocaine-from coca plant
  • Inhalants eg petrol and glue.

Ways of Taking Drugs.

  • Sniffing eg heroine,cocaine
  • Chewing eg miraa
  • Injection eg cocaine
  • Smoking eg cocaine,bhang,tobacco,heroin
  • Drinking eg alcohol.

Narcotic Drugs/illegal drugs

  • Cocaine
  • Bhang
  • Heroin
  • Mandrax

Effects of Drugs

  • Causes lung cancer eg tobacco
  • Causes liver cirrhosis eg alcohol
  • Causes breathimg difficulties eg heroin.
  • Causes mouth cancer eg miraa
 Health effects    Social effects 
  • Addiction
  • Fits
  • Headache
  • Confusion
  • General weakness  
  • Shivering
  • Violence
  • Stress
  • Irritability
  •  Truancy
  • Accident
  • Rape
  • Fighting
  • HIV/AIDS   

 

Myths and Misconceptions of HIV/AIDS

A myth is a false idea or a false story that many people believe is true.

A conception is a wrong or untrue idea which people believe because they do not have the facts or do not understand it at all.

Care and Support for People Infected with HIV and AIDS

  • Love and care
  • Adequate diet.
  • Hygiene.
  • Medical care
15
September

The Blood Circulatory System

Parts of the Circulatory System

  • The heart-The pumping organ
  • The blood-The transport fluid.
  • The blood vessel-They are pipes through which the blood flows

Blood Components and their Functions

  • Plasma-The liquid part of the blood which transport digested food materials, salts and other dissolved substances.
  • Red blood cells-They contain red colouring matter called haemoglobin, which gives blood the red colour, red blood cells
    helps in transporting oxygen.
  • White blood cells-They have a nucleurs, they help in fighting and killing disease-causing germs.
  • Platelets-They help in blood clotting ie further loss of blood through wound.

Types of Blood Vessels and their Functions.

Arteries:

  • They carry blood away from the heart
  • They have thick walls
  • They have a narrow lumen.
  • They have no valves since they carry blood at a high pressure  from the heart.
  • They carry oxgyeneted blood except pulmonary artery which carry deoxgeneted blood from the heart to the lungs.
  • Main artery is Aorta.

Veins:

  • They carry blood from other body parts to the heart.
  • They have thin walls.
  • They have a wide lumen.
  • They carry blood at a low pressure.
  • They carry deoxygenated blood except pulmonary vein which carry oxygenated blood from lungs to the heart.
  • Main vein is Venacava.

Capillaries:

  • They are small blood vessels that help to take blood to all parts of the body.
  • They are found all over the body.
  • They cover a wide surface of the body.

The Heart

  • It has four chambers, two chambers are on the upper parts(Auricles) and two chambers on the lower parts(Ventricles)
  • The heart is also divide into left and right side which is vertically lateral to how it faced(Your left hand side becomes the right when in paper and vice versa).
  • The parts include: Right auricle, Left auricle, Right ventricle and Left ventricle.
  • The heart also have valves ie semi lunar valve, tricuspid valve and bicuspid valve.

The Circulation of Blood.

  • Blood from all parts of the body flows into the right auricle of the heart through venacava, then its pumped through pulmonary artery to the lungs for oxidation.
  • In the lungs, oxygen is added to the blood and carbon dioxide is removed.
  • Oxygenated blood then flows to the left auricle of the heart through the pulmonary vein.
  • The muscular left ventricle then pumps the blood to all parts of the body through the aorta. This process repeats back and forth making another cycle.
    NB: When one inhales carbon monoxide the chamber of the heart that receives it first will be left auricle, but when one is bitten by a snake the poison will first reach the right auricle through venacava.

The Importance of Blood Circulation.

  • It transports food from the small intestine to all parts of the body.
  • Transports oxygen from the lungs to all cells of the body.
  • Transports carbondioxide from the body tissues to the lungs.
  • Wastes materials like urea to the kidney.
  • Transports heat to all parts of the body.

Activity: Draw a well labelled diagram of the heart.

15
September

Capitalization

Capitalization is the writing of a word with its first letter as an upper case and the remaining letters in lower case. The following are the cases when capitalization is used:

  1. Abbreviations
    Abbreviations begin with a capital letter.
    1. Title of persons
      Examples
      P
      rof George Saitoti
      Mr. Stephen Kiama
    2. Words used as addresses 
      Examples:
      St. (street)
      Ave. (Avenue)
      Note that all the above abbreviations end with a period. Miss is not an abbreviation, so it doesn’t end with a period.
    3. Words used as business
      Examples:
      Co. (Company) 
      Corp. (Corporation)
    4. Some abbreviations are written in all capital letters, with a letter standing for each important word.
      Examples:
      P.O. (Post Office)
      USA (United States of America)
    5. Initials of names of persons
      Examples:
      E.W.
      Gichimu
      D.M. Weyama
  2. Titles of books, newspapers, magazines, TV shows and movies.
    Examples:
    The Minister’s Daughter (book)
    Tahidi High (TV show)
    The Daily Nation( newspaper)
    Capitalize the first and last words only. Do not capitalize little words such as a, an, the, but, as, if, and, or, nor etc
  3. Titles of shorts stories, songs, articles, book chapters and most poems.
    Examples:
    Half a Day (short story)
    Kigeugeu (song)
  4. Religious names and terms
    Examples:
    God
    Allah
    Jesus
    the Bible
    Do not capitalize the words god and goddess when they refer to mythological deities.
  5. Major words in geographical names
    Examples:
    Continents – Africa, Asia, Europe, Australia
    Water bodies – the Indian Ocean,
  6. Names of organisations and institutions
    Examples:
    Kianjege West Secondary School, United Nations, University of Nairobi, Nairobi Women’s Hospital
    Note that here you capitalize only the important words. Do not capitalize such words such as a, in, and of. Do not capitalize such words as school, college, church and hospital when they are not used as parts of names.
    Example: There will be a beauty contest at school
  7. Months, days and holidays
    Examples:
    June
    Tuesday
    Labour Day
    Do not capitalize names of seasons: autumn, summer, winter, spring
  8. Languages, races, nationalities and religions
    Examples:
    Chinese
    Kikuyu
  9. The first word of every sentence
    Example:
    What an exciting day it was!
  10. The pronoun I
    Example
    What should I do next?
  11. Proper Nouns
    Examples:
    Lang’ata Cemetery
    Ann Pauline Nyaguthii Kangaita
    Women’s Group
    Muhigia Teachers Sacco
  12. Proper Adjectives
    Examples:
    We ate at an Italian restaurant
    She is a German
  13. The first word in greetings and the closing of a letter.
    Examples:
    Dear Mark,
    Yours sincerely,
  14. Quotations
    Examples:
    Jamlick exclaimed, “This book would make a great movie!”
    Where,” asked the stranger, “is the post office?”
    It’s late,” Billy said. “Let’s go home!”
  15. First word of each main topic and subtopic in an outline
    Examples:
    1. Parts of speech
      1. Nouns
        1. Proper nouns

Punctuation

Punctuation is the system of symbols that we use to separate sentences and parts of sentences, and to make their meaning clear. Each symbol is called a punctuation mark. For example (. , ! - : etc)
Punctuation marks can be grouped into:

  1. End marks
  2. The comma
  3. The semicolon and the colon
  4. The hyphen
  5. The apostrophe
  6. Quotation mark
  1. End Marks

    There are three kinds of end marks: the full stop (.), the question mark (?), and the exclamation mark (!). End marks show where sentences end
    1. The full stop (.)

      A full stop is used to end a complete sentence. We use a full stop to end:
      • a declarative sentence- a sentence that makes a state
        Example:
        The highest skyscraper in Nairobi is Times Tower.
      • an imperative sentence – a sentence that makes a request or tells someone to do something.
        Example:
        Please climb the stairs carefully.
        Note: An imperative sentence is followed by an exclamation mark when it expresses a
        strong emotion.
        Example:
        Be careful!
      • at the end of an indirect question – one that tells what someone asked, without using the person’s exact words.
        Other uses of the full stop
        Full stops are also used:
      • after initials and after most abbreviations
        Examples:
        L.L. Coo J.
        Mr. Sammy Njagi
        11:00 A.M.
        Note that some abbreviations do not require full stops:
        Examples:
        M (metres) FM (frequency modulation) Km kilometres)
      • after each number or letter that shows a division of an outline or precedes an item in a list.
        Examples:
        Outline                       List
        1.Parts of speech      1. Water – borne diseases
          A. Nouns                  2. Air-borne disease
      • between numerals representing dollars, cents, before a decimal and in percentages
        Examples:
        $ 25.65
        165.42
        25.3%
    2. The question mark (?)

      The question mark is used at the end of an interrogative sentence (a sentence that asks a question).
      Examples:
      When was the Times Tower built?
      Who built it?
    3. The Exclamation mark (!)

      The exclamation mark is used at the end of the exclamatory sentence and after an interjection. (An exclamatory sentence expresses strong feeling, emotion or emphasis. An interjection is a word or group of words that expresses strong feelings).
      Examples:
      Exclamatory sentence: Oh, what a tall building it is!
      Interjections: Superb! Fantastic! Impressive!
      An exclamation mark can also be used at the end of an imperative sentence that expresses strong feeling.
      Example:
      Sit! And stay in that chair if you know what’s good for you!
  2. The Comma

    There are a number of uses of the comma in English. A comma generally tells the reader where to pause. They are used:
    • to separate words in a series except the last
      The three or four items in a series can be nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs, phrases, independent clauses, or other parts of sentences.
      Examples:
      Nouns: John, Jim, Jack walk to school everyday.
      Verbs: He located, patched, and sealed the leak in the tyre.
      Adverbs: She walked quickly, steadily, and calmly.
      Prepositional phrases: He walked through the park, over the bridge, and onto the streets.
      Independent clauses: The match was over, the crowd cheered, and Barcelona received the first- place trophy.
      Adjectives: The fresh, ripe fruit was placed in a bowl.
      Note in the above examples that a comma must be used just before the conjunction.
    • Before the conjunction in a compound sentence
      Some students were taking their lunch, but others were studying.
      Marto photographed the accident scene, and he sold the pictures to the newspaper.
      Example:
      Would she be a lawyer, or would she be a doctor?
      Note: A comma is not required in very short compound sentence in which the parts
      are joined by and. However, always use a comma before the conjunctions but and or.
      Examples:
      Marto photographed the accident scene and Toni reported it.
      Marto photographed the accident scene, but Toni reported it.
      Note also: A comma is not required before the conjunction that joins the parts of a compound verb unless there are more than two parts.
      Examples:
      Mary entered and won the beauty contest.
      That camera focuses, flashes, and rewinds automatically.
    • after introductory words phrases or clauses
      Special elements add specific information to a sentence, but they are not essential. A comma is used to separate a special element from the rest of the sentence.
      Examples:
      Word: Cautiously, he entered the building
      Phrase: After his failure, he disappeared from the public scene.
      Clause: Because he had practised daily, he presented his new song perfectly.
      Note: If the pause after a short introductory element is very brief, you may omit the comma.
      Examples:
      At first he was unsure of his singing ability.
      Finally it was his turn.
      Commas are also used after introductory words such as yes, no, oh and well when they begin a sentence.
      Examples:
      Well, it’s just too cold out there.
      No, it isn’t seven yet.
      Oh, you have spilled the milk.
    • with interrupters
      Interrupters are words that break, or interrupt the flow of thought in a sentence. The commas are used before and after the interrupter to indicate pauses.
      Examples:
      I didn’t expect, however, to lose the job.
      So many people, assumed, sing as well as he does.
      He was chosen, nevertheless, as the new band leader.
    • to set off nouns of direct address
      Examples:
      Yes, Kamau, you can borrow my book.
      Serah, do you know where I kept my phone?
      How is your leg, grandpa?
    • to set off the spoken words in a direct sentence or quotation from the speech tag
      Examples:
      Jackson said, “After my injury I had to learn to walk again.”
      “The therapists urged me to keep trying,” he continued.
      If the speech tag interrupts the spoken words commas are used after the last word of the first part of the spoken words and after the last word in the speech tag.
      Example:
      “After a while,” he added, “I was walking without a cane”.
      Note: When a sentence is indirect or reported, no commas are used.
      Example:
      He added that after a while he was walking without a cane.
    • when writing dates
      Place a comma after the day of the month.
      Examples:
      July 3, 1965 December 12, 2010
    • when referring to geographical location.
      Place a comma between the name of the town or city and the name of the state, district, or country.
      Examples:
      Kibingoti, Kirinyaga County   
      Mombasa, Kenya
    • after the closing of a friendly or business letter.
      Examples:
      Dear Rose,
      Yours sincerely,
  3. The Semicolon (;) and the Colon(:)

    1. The semicolon (;)
      The semicolon is used:
      • to separate the parts of a compound sentence when no conjunction is used.
        Example:
        Mountain climbing is exciting; it can also be dangerous.
        Note that the semicolon replaces the comma and the coordinating conjunction. Conjunctions that are commonly replaced by semicolons are and, but, or, for, and nor.
      • before a conjunctive adverb that joins the clauses of a compound sentence (conjunctive adverbs are words like therefore, however, hence, so, then, moreover, nevertheless, yet, consequently, and besides).
        Example:
        The competition takes place in July; however, I prefer August.
      • to separate the parts of a series when commas occurs within the parts.
        Example:
        Last year I flew to Johannesburg, South Africa; Cairo, Egypt; and Kingston, Jamaica.
  4. The Colon (:)

    The colon is used:
    • to introduce a list of items
      Example:
      My school bag contains the following items: exercise books, text books, pencils, pens, a geometrical set, and a packet of crayons.
    • after the greeting of a business letter
      Example:
      Dear Mr. Mututho:
    • between numerals that represent hours and minutes and between chapter and verse in a biblical reference
      Examples:
      9:00 A.M.
      6:00 P.M.
      Exodus 2:1-3
  5. The Hyphen (-)

    The hyphen is used:
    • to divide a word at the end of a line of writing.
      Note that only words with two or more syllables may be divided at the end of a line and words should be divided only between syllables.
      Example:
      When walking along the streets of Naivasha Town, he met his friend, Wainaina.
      Never divide a word of one syllable and do not divide words to leave a single letter at the end or beginning of a line.
      Incorrect: a-ttraction
      Correct: attra-ction.
    • in compound adjectives that come before the nouns they modify and in certain compound nouns.
      Examples:
      Samuel Wanjiru was a world-famous athlete.
      She is my sister-in-law.
    • in compound numbers from twenty-one through ninety-nine and in fractions.
      Examples:
      seventy-three relatives one-quarter full
  6. The Apostrophe (’)

    The apostrophe is used:
    • to form the possessive of a singular noun
      Add an apostrophe and an s.
      Examples:
      the baby’s cot
      James’s car
    • to form the possessive of a plural noun that does not end in s
      Add an apostrophe and an s.
      Examples:
      children’s
      men’s 
    • to form the possessive of a plural noun that ends in s – Add only the apostrophe.
      Examples:
      tricksters’
      tenants’
    • to form the possessive of an indefinite pronoun
      Use an apostrophe and an s.
      Examples:
      everybody’s
      somebody’s
      nobody’s
      Note: Never use an apostrophe with a possessive pronoun like our, yours, hers, theirs.
    • in names of organisations and business,
      Show possession in the last word only
      Example:
      the United Nations’ brochure
    • in hyphenated terms
      Show possession in the last word only.
      Example:
      My mother-in-law’s photograph album
    • in cases of joint ownership
      Show possession in the last word only.
      Example:
      Peter and Patrick’s Limousine
    • in forming contractions
      In contractions, apostrophes replace omitted letters.
      Examples:
      she’s = she is
      aren’t = are not
      I’m = I am
    • To show that part of a date has been omitted
      Examples:
      The tribal clashes of ’08 (the tribal clashes of 2008)
      The’82 coup attempt (the 1982 coup attempt)
  7. Quotation Marks (“ “)

    The quotation marks are used:
    • to enclose the spoken words in a direct sentence. Indirect sentences need no quotation marks.
      Example:
      Direct speech: The presidential candidate promised, “Creating new jobs for the youths will be my first priority.”
      Indirect speech: The presidential candidate promised that creating new jobs would be his first priority.
      Note:
      1. Always begin a direct quotation with a capital letter.
        Example:
        The minister said, “You must conserve our environment.”
      2. When the spoken words are divided by the speech tag, begin the second part of the quotation with a small letter.
        Example:
        “Bring me the money,” said the moneylender, “before the end of the day.”
        If the second part of the quotation is a complete sentence, the first word of this sentence is capitalized.
        Example:
        “I am scared,” said the borrower. “That money lender is a brute.”
      3. Place commas and fullstops inside quotation marks
        Place semicolons and colons outside quotation marks.
        Examples:
        “Last month,” the borrower explained, “I borrowed some money from the moneylender.”
        Carol said to the borrower, “And you refused to repay back on time”; however, the borrower did not agree.
      4. Place question marks and exclamation marks inside quotation marks if they belong to the quotation. Place them outside if they do not belong to the quotation.
        Examples:
        Carol asked, “How much money did you borrow?”
        Did the borrower say, “I can’t remember”?
        “You are a fool!” exclaimed Carol.
      5. Use single quotation marks to enclose a title or quotation within a quotation.
        Example:
        “Carol heard the borrower say, ‘I can’t remember’ before she lost her temper.”
        If the tile or quotation within the quotation ends the sentence, use both the single and the double quotation marks after the last word of a sentence.
        Example:
        “Carol heard the borrower say, ‘I can’t remember.’”
      6. In a quotation of more than one paragraph, use quotation marks at the beginning of each paragraph and the end of the final paragraph.

Question Tags

A question tag or a tag question is a phrase that is added at the end of a statement to turn into a question. When a speaker uses a question tag at the end of a statement, he/she is seeking for approval, confirmation or correction.

Examples:
APPROVAL: I look smart today, don’t I? Yes you do.
CORFIRMATION: These are the new students, aren’t they? Yes they are.
CORRECTION: I paid your money yesterday, didn’t I ? No you didn’t

Many learners face a problem of supplying the correct question tags to sentences. This is because they fail to observe the following rules of question tags:

  1. A comma must be put to separate the statement with the question tag. A question mark must be placed at the end of the question tag.
    Examples:
    Rufftone has released a new album, hasn’t he?
    He is pushing for a decision by tomorrow, isn’t he?
  2. The auxiliary verb in the statement must be repeated in the question tag
    Examples:
    Neson Mandela was in prison for 27 years, wasn’t he?
    The people of South Africa have lost a great hero, haven’t they?
  3. When there is no auxiliary verb in the statement, the appropriate form of the auxiliary verb Do must be used in the question tag
    Examples:
    Mark Francis wakes up very early, doesn’t he?
    Peter Bryan bought an I-pad phone, didn’t he ?
  4. The subject in the statement must be repeated in the question tag. If it is a noun in the statement, it changes to the appropriate pronoun. If it is a pronoun in the statement, it remains a pronoun in the question tag.
    Examples:
    Fatou Bensouda is prosecutor in ICC, isn’t she?
    She does her work meticulously, doesn’t she?
  5. When the statement is positive ( i.e. It does not have the word not in it), the question tag must be negative ( i.e. must use the negative word not) and visa versa.
    Examples:
    David Rudisha has broken another record, hasn’t he?
    Cathrerine Ndereba hasn’t been very active, has she?
    Douglas Wakiihuri does not run any more, does he?
    Ezekiel Kemboi entertains the audience after winning, doesn’t he?
    You will note form the above examples that the auxiliary verb is usually contrated (joined) with the negative indicator not when using question tags.
    However, this does not apply when using primary auxiliary verb am and the modal auxiliary verbs will and shall. Am does not allow contraction with not, will and shall usually change their forms to allow contraction.
    Examples:
    WRONG : am the next speaker, amn’t I?
    CORRECT: I am the nest speaker, am I not?
    WRONG: They will be late for church, willn’t they?
    CORRECT: They will be late for church, won’t they?
    WRONG: We shall attend the Memorial service, willn’t we?
    CORRECT: we shall attend the memorial service, shan’t we?
  6. Whereas there is no inversion in the statement, inversion must occur in the question tag i.e. the auxiliary verb comes before the subject
    Examples:
    President Uhuru Kenyatta has won the case, hasn’t he?
    Subject verb                             verb                 verb subject
    He can now relax and attend to his duties, can’t he?
    Subject verb                                                 verb subject
  7. For sentences that are inform of requests and commands, the question tags will commonly take the auxiliary verb will or shall followed by the appropriate pronoun.
    Examples:
    Please help me with your pen, will you?
    Let us go for a swim, shall we?
    Bring me that chair, will you?
    Stop that noise, will you?
    Kneel down right away, will you?

Those are the rules that govern question tags and if followed well, the learners will not have any problems with question tags.