A sentence is a group of words that expresses a complete thought. A complete thought is clear. A sentence always begins with a capital letter. It ends with a full stop (.), a question mark (?) or an exclamation mark (!).


  • Ted sent me a letter.
  • Jane slept soundly.

Subjects and Objects

Subjects and Predicates

The two fundamental parts of every English sentence are the subject and the predicate. A subject can be described as the component that performs the action described by the predicate. It tells who or what does or did the action. It may also name the topic.

The predicate tells about the subject. It tells what the subject does or is.
Subject                                    Predicate
(Who or what)                         (What is said about the subject)
The antelope                           jumped over the high fence.
Pigs                                         eat anything is sight when hungry.

In a sentence, a few key words are more important than the rest. These key words make the basic framework of the sentence. The verb and its subject are the key words that form the basic framework of every sentence. The rest of the sentence is built around them.
Sentence                                                             Key words
The young kids jumped playfully.                         kids, jumped
Their faces shone brightly.                                   faces, shone

To find out the subject, ask who or what before the verb.

  • Who jumped playfully? – kids
  • What shone brightly? – faces

To find out the verb, ask what after the subject.

  • The young kids did what? – jumped
  • Their faces did what? – shone

The key word in the subject of a sentence is called the simple subject. For example, kids, faces. The complete subject is the simple subject plus any words that modify or describe it. For example, The young kids, Their faces.

The key word in the predicate is called the simple predicate. For example, jumped, shone. The complete predicate is the verb plus any words that modify or complete the verb’s meaning. For example, jumped playfully, shone brightly.

The simple subjects and predicates may sometimes be more than one word. For simple subjects, it may be the name of a person or a place.

  • Barrack Obama won the US presidential race.
  • South Africa is the home of many bats.

The simple predicate may also be more than one word. There may be a main verb and
a helping verb.

  • Tanya has acted in many TV shows.
  • She will be performing again tonight.


An object in a sentence is a word or words that complete the meaning of a sentence. It is involved in the action but does not carry it out. The object is the person or thing affected by the action described in the verb. It is always a noun or a pronoun and it always comes after the verb.

  • The man climbed a tree.

Some verbs complete the meaning of sentences without the help of other words. The action that they describe is complete.

  • It rained.
  • The temperature rose.

Some other verbs do not express a complete meaning by themselves. They need to combine with other words to complete the meaning of a sentence.

  • Christine saw the snake.
  • Rose wears goggles.
  • He opened the door.

In the above examples, the snake, goggles and the door are the objects as they are the things being affected by the verbs in the sentences.


Some sentences do not take objects or adverbs (or adverbial phrases) after the verbs. Instead, they take complements. A complement is the part of the sentence that gives more information about the subject (subject complement) or about the object (object complement) of the sentence.

Subject Complements

Subject complements normally follow certain verbs like be, seem, look, etc.

  • He is British. (British gives more information about he)
  • She became a nurse. (nurse gives more information about she)

Object Complements

Object complements follow the direct objects of the verb and give more information
about those direct objects.

  • They painted the house red. (red is a complement giving more information about the direct object house)
  • She called him an idiot. (an idiot is a complement giving more information about the direct
    object he).

The complement often consists of an adjective (e.g. red) or a noun phrase (e.g. an idiot) but can also be a participle phrase.
I saw her standing there. (standing there is a complement telling more about her).

Direct and Indirect Objects

Objects come in two types, direct and indirect:

Direct Objects

The direct object is the word that receives the action of a verb.

  • Christine saw a snake. ( a snake receives the action of saw)
  • Rose wears goggles. (goggles receives the action of wears)

Sometimes the direct object tells the result of an action.

  • Tecla won the race.
  • She received a trophy.

To find the direct object first find the verb. Then ask whom or what after the verb.

  • Christine saw a snake.
    Verb: saw
    Saw what? a snake
  • Rose ears goggles
    verb: wears
    wears what? goggles
  • Tecla won the race
    Verb: won
    Won what? the race
  • She received a trophy
    verb: received
    received what? a trophy

Remember, we said earlier that a verb that has a direct object is called a transitive verb and a verb that does not have an object is called an intransitive verb. We also said that a verb may be intransitive in one sentence and transitive in another. Other verbs are strictly intransitive like disagree.

Indirect Objects

The indirect object refers to a person or thing who receives the direct object. They tell us for whom or to whom something is done. Others tell to what or for what something is done.
I gave him the book.
He is the indirect object as he is the beneficiary of the book.

Direct object or adverb?

Direct objects are sometimes confused with adverbs. The direct object tells what or whom as we have seen earlier. Adverbs on the other hand tell how, where, when or to what extent. They modify the verbs.
Brian Swam slowly. (slowly is an adverb telling how)
Brian Swam a tough race. (race is a direct object telling what).

Verbs can also be followed by a phrase that tells how, when, or where. This kind of a phrase is never a direct object but an adverbial phrase.
Brian swam across the pool. (a cross the pool tells where Brian Swam).

Therefore, to decide whether a word or a phrase is a direct object or adverb, decide first what it tells about the verb. If it tells how, where, when or to what extent, it is an adverb. If it tells what or whom, it is a direct object

Preparatory It and There

The preparatory It is used to show opinion or condition (especially concerning time, distance, and weather). The preparatory It acts as a dummy subject and is usually followed by the verb be (or a modal + be). The logical subject in sentences beginning with It is often a to-infinitive phrase or a noun clause.

  • It is nice to meet you.
  • It would be fun to live on a sailboat.
  • It is important that we not litter in the park.
  • It is 3:30 p.m. right now.
  • It never snows in July around here.
  • It is believed that he will arrive next week.

The preparatory There often begins sentences that show location or existence, especially when the existence of something or someone is mentioned for the first time. It is usually followed by the verb be (or a modal + be).

  • Look! There’s a bear.
  • There’s a shooting star in the sky.
  • There will be a party on Saturday.
  • There is a mosquito in my bedroom.
  • There was a new girl at school today.

Phrases and Clauses

Phrases are groups of related words that can include either a subject or a tensed verb.

Prepositional phrases have a preposition and an object of the preposition.

  • There was a delicious smell coming from the kitchen.
  • The dog barked at the stranger.

Gerund phrases have a gerund and can function the same way as a noun. They often appear as the object of a preposition.

  • Thank you for coming to my house.
  • Walking alone late at night is dangerous.

Infinitive phrases have an infinitive and can function as a noun, adjective, or adverb.

  • Lisa is going to university to study economics.
  • To see the Eiffel Tower is a dream of mine.

Participial phrases have a participle and function as an adjective. They are set off from the rest of the sentence by commas.

  • Having seen the play three times, she didn’t want to see it again.
  • Janice, not used to ice skates, fell down and hurt her knee.

Clauses are groups of related words that include both a subject and a tensed verb

Independent clauses can stand alone as a sentence. Two independent clauses are often connected with a coordinating conjunction.

  • Maria is afraid of animals, so she doesn’t go near them.
  • We are going swimming, but they are going shopping.

Dependent clauses cannot stand alone as a sentence. They need an independent clause to form a complete sentence. When a dependent clause begins a sentence, a comma is used to separate it from the independent clause.

  • We are going swimming since it is so hot outside.
  • Since it is so hot outside, we are going swimming.

Sentence Types

Simple sentences have just one independent clause.

  • We celebrated Grandpa’s eightieth birthday yesterday.
  • Amy loves peanut butter and jelly sandwiches.

Compound sentences have more than one independent clause.

  • He finished all of his homework, but he forgot to bring it to school.
  • Sue was late for swimming practice, and she left her goggles at home.

Complex sentences have one independent and one dependent clause.

  • She didn’t eat because she wasn’t hungry.
  • Although he sprained his ankle, he finished the race.

Compound-complex sentences have more than one independent clause and at least one dependent clause.
Before the plane took off, Sarah called her dad to say good-bye, but he didn’t answer the phone.
I like this class; though early in the morning, it’s very interesting.

Direct and Indirect Speech

Direct Speech

Direct speech is used to give a speaker’s exact words. It is also referred to as direct quotation.
Direct speech is always enclosed within quotation marks.

  • Hemedi announced, “My aunt works in a biscuit factory ”
  • “Creating jobs will be my first priority” the governor said.

A comma always separates the quoted words from the speaker’s name, whether the name comes before or after the quotation

  • Jim asked “Who are you voting fir?”
  • “I don’t know yet” answered Carol.

A direct quotation always begins with a capital letter

  • Senator Karabba said, “You must believe in the new constitution”.

When a direct quotation is divided by speech tags, the second part of the quotation must  begin with a small letter.

  • “Register to vote,” said the senator, ‘before the end of the day”.

If the second part of the quotation is a complete sentence, the forst kword of this sentence is capitalized.

  • “I did register,” said Carol. “It took only a few minutes”

Commas and full stops are placed inside quotation marks

  • “Last night,” said Joyce,” I listened to a debate”

Quotation marks and exclamation marks are placed inside a quotation mark if they belong to the quotation. If they do not, they are placed outside the quotation.

  • Joyce asked, “Whom are you voting for?
  • Did Carol say, “I don’t know yet’?
  • I can’t believe that she said, “I don’t know yet’!

Speech tags may appear before, in the middle or at the direct speech.

  • He said, “You know quite well that you have to vote”
  • “You know quite well, he said, “that you have to vote”.
  • “You know quite well that you have to vote,” he said.

Indirect Speech

Indirect speech is used to refer to a person’s words without quoting him or her exactly. It is also referred to as indirect quotation or reported speech. The original spoken words are not repeated.

The exact meaning is given without repeating the speaker’s words.
Direct speech: The governor said, “Creating new jobs will be my first priority”
Indirect speech: The governor said that creating new jobs would be his first priority.

Several changes do occur when changing a sentence from direct to indirect speech

  1. Quotation marks
    Quotation marks are left out when writing a sentence in direct speech.
    Direct: Hemedi announced, “My aunt works in a biscuit factory”
    Indirect: Hemedi announced that his aunt worked in a biscuit factory.
  2. Tense - The tense of a verb in the direct sentence will change in indirect speech
    1. Simple present changes to past simple
      Direct: John said, “She goes to school early”
      Indirect: John said that she went to school early.
    2. Simple past changes to past perfect
      Direct: John said, “She went to school early”
      Indirect: John said that she had gone to school early.
    3. Present progressive changes to past progressive
      Direct: “The baby is eating a banana,” the nurse said.
      Indirect: The nurse said that the baby was eating a banana.
    4. Present perfect changes to past perfect
      Direct: “South Sudan has become a republic,” the new president declared.
      Indirect: The new president declared that South Sudan had become a republic
    5. Past progressive changes to past perfect progressive
      Direct: “ I was dreaming when the fire started,” the boy said.
      Indirect: The boy said the he had been dreaming when the fire started.
    6. Future simple changes to modal
      Direct: “I will visit you tomorrow,” my desk mate said.
      Indirect: My desk mate said the he would visit me the following day.
    7. May changes to might
      Direct: : I may also visit you too,” I replied.
      Indirect: I replied that I might also visit him too.

Sometimes the verb in indirect speech does not change tense. This occurs in sentences that are universal truths
Direct: Our Geography teacher said “The earth rotates round the sun”
Indirect: Our Geography teacher said that the earth rotates round the sun

Words referring to place also change
Direct: “I live here,” retorted the old man.
Indirect: The old man retorted that he lived there
Direct: “This place stinks,” noted the boy.
Indirect: The boy noted that that place stunk.

Words referring to time also change
Direct: “I will visit you tomorrow,” he shouted.
Indirect: He shouted that he would visit me the following/next day

Direct : “ He died last year,” the policeman reported.
Indirect: The policeman reported that he had dies the previous year/ the year before.

Demonstrative pronouns also change:
Direct: “This book is mine,” Jane claimed.
Indirect: Jane claimed that that book was hers.

Direct: “These are hard times,” observed the president.
Indirect: The president observed that those were hard times.

Pronouns also change when rewriting a sentence from direct to indirect speech.
Direct: “My car is better than yours,” the teacher bragged.
Indirect: The teacher bragged that his/her car was better that his/hers/theirs.


A conjunction is a word that connects words or groups of words. Like prepositions, conjunctions show a relationship between the words they connect. But, unlike prepositions, conjunctions do not have objects.
There are 3 main categories of conjunctions;

  1. Coordinating conjunctions
  2. Subordinating conjunctions
  3. Correlative conjunctions

Coordinating Conjunctions

Coordinating conjunctions connect related words, groups of words, or sentences. There are three coordinating conjunctions: and, but and or. And is used to join words, groups of words, or sentences together. But shows contrast while or shows choice.

  • The bull and the cart are inseparable. (connects two subjects).
  • The cart carries the farmer and his tools. (connects two direct objects).
  • The food was hard and tasteless. (connects two predicate adjectives).
  • Each night, the dancers danced in a circle or in several other patterns. (connects two prepositional phrases).
  • Some people died in the fracas, but most managed to escape, alive. (connects two sentences).

Subordinating Conjunctions

Subordinating conjunctions connect two or more clauses to form complex sentences. Subordinating conjunctions introduce subordinate clauses. They include because, since, if, as, whether, and for.

  • If I go home, my dog will follow me.
    The subordinating conjunction if connects the subordinate clause I go home with the main clause my dog will follow me.
  • The stayed inside the church because it was raining.
  • He was always rude since he was a child.
  • The rain fell as they entered the building.
  • The pastor asked the congregation whether they were happy.
  • The man rejoiced for he had won a prize.

Correlative Conjunctions

Correlative conjunctions are conjunctions that are used in pairs to connect sentence parts. These include either ….. or, neither ….. nor, not only……. but also, whether ……. or and both …… and.

  • Both boys and girls attended the conference.
  • People brought not only food but also clothes for the victims of the floods.
  • The students ride either on bicycles or motorbikes.
  • The sailor had to decide whether to sail on or head back when the weather changed.
  • Neither John nor James was moved by the shocking news.

An adjective is a word that describes or modifies a noun or a pronoun. To describe or modify means to provide additional information about nouns or pronouns. To modify further means to change something slightly.

Writers and speakers modify an idea or image by choosing certain describing words, which are called adjectives. Hence, these adjectives are also called modifiers. Adjectives are like word cameras. They are words that describe colours, sizes and shapes. Adjectives help you capture how the world around you looks and feels.

Definite and Indefinite Adjectives

These are adjectives which tell how many or how much. They give the number or the quantity, either specific or approximate, of the noun in question. They are also referred to as numerals

  • Three elephants were killed by the game rangers.
  • He bought several houses in Kileleshwa.
  • Don’t put much sugar in the tea!

More examples of numerals

 Numbers   Amount   Approximate 

Adjectives that are in form of numbers are used with countable nouns:

  • Two calves were born yesterday.
  • Five chimpanzees performed funny tricks.
  • Many children like dinosaurs.

A definite or indefinite adjective may look like a pronoun, but it is used differently in a sentence. It is an adjective used to modify a noun.

Adjectives that are in farm of quantity are used with uncountable nouns.

  • Do you have any water in the house?
  • How much flour did you buy?

Comparative and Superlative Adjectives

To compare two people, places or things, we use the comparative form of an adjective. To compare more than two, we use the superlative form of the adjective.
ONE PERSON: Kimenju is tall.
TWO PERSONS: Kimenju is taller than James.
THREE OR MORE: Kimenju is the tallest of all.

The comparative

The comparative form of the adjective is used to compare one thing, person or place  with another one. It is formed in two ways.

  1. For short adjectives, add -er.
    great + er = greater
    sweet + er = sweeter
    big + er = bigger
    light + er = lighter.
  2. For longer adjectives, the comparative is formed by using the word more before them.
    More handsome
    more remarkable
    More attractive
    more hardworking

    Most adjectives ending in -ful and -ous also form the comparative using more.
    More successful
    more curious
    more ferocious
    More beautiful
    more generous
    more prosperous

The Superlative

The superlative form of the adjective is used to compare a person, a place or a thing with more than one other of its kind.

  • Elephants are the largest animals in the jungle.
  • However, they are the most emotional animals.
    The superlative form of an adjective is formed in two ways.
  1. By adding -est to the short adjective
    great + est = greatest
    sweet + est = sweetest
    big + est = biggest
    light + est = light
  2. For longer adjectives, use most before them.
    most mysterious
    most awkward
    most successful
    most attractive
    The ending -er in the comparative becomes -est in the superlative while more becomes most.
    Adjective           comparative                superlative
    strong                stronger                       strongest
    quick                  quicker                         quickest
    adventurous      more adventurous       most adventurous
    co-operative      more co-operative         most co-operative

Transitive and Intransitive Verbs

Transitive verbs require a direct object for their meaning to be complete.

 Subject   Transitive Verb   Direct object   Meaning 
 Jenny  erased.       incomplete 
 Jenny  earsed  the whiteboard.   complete 
 Gary  told.    incomplete 
 Gary  told   a secret.   complete


Intransitive verbs do NOT require a direct object for their meaning to be complete.

 Subject   Intransitive Verb   Direct object   Adverbial   Meaning 
Wendy  slept.       complete 
Peter   ran  the whiteboard.   to school.  complete 


Some verbs can be transitive or intransitive depending on the context in the sentence

 Subject      Verb   Direct object   Adverbial    Transitive/Intransitive  
 Doug    moved   the sofa.        transitive 
 Doug    moved     to Singapore.        intransitive 
 Kelly    left  her bag  at home.      transitive 
 Kelly    left    at three O'clock     intransitive  

Progressive and Non-progressive (Stative) Verbs

Progressive verbs describe an action occurring over a period of time. They are formed with the verb be + the present participle (-ing form)

 Subject   Be   Present Participle  
  I  am  reading   the newspaper. 
 Angela  was   washing  the dishes. 
 They  had been   running   a marathon. 


Non-progressive (Stative) verbs do not describe actions. Instead, they describe a state or condition. The state or condition can occur over a period of time. They are NOT formed with be + the present participle.

 Subject   Stative Verb   
  Diana  loves  Casey.
  Pizza  tastes   good. 
 They  understand  Spanish. 

Common non-progressive (stative) verbs: appreciate, believe, dislike, exist, fear, hate, know, like, love, need, prefer, realize, resemble, seem, sound, understand

Many verbs can be progressive or non-progressive (stative) depending on the context of the sentence.

 Subject    Verb    Progressive/ Stative 
  John  thinks  soccer is fun.   stative
  Kevin  is thinking   about soccer.  progressive
 Shelley  feels    sick.  stative 
 Lisa  is feeling  the rabbit's fur.   progressive

Common progressive and non-progressive verbs: appear, cost, feel, forget, have, hear, imagine, include, look, measure, remember, see, smell, taste, think, want, weigh

Phrasal Verbs

Phrasal verbs are verbs that combine with a preposition to create a meaning that is different from the two words taken separately. With some phrasal verbs, the object must be placed after the preposition.

   Verb   Preposition     Meaning 
 Sherri   came   across  someone's wallet on the street.   found by chance 
 Did Craig  drop   by     his friend's house?   visit
 We didn't   get   on  thye bus.  enter (a vehicle)

Other common non-separable phrasal verbs: check in, drop out (of), get along (with), get off, get in, grow up, look after, take after, run into.

With some phrasal verbs, the object can be placed between the verb and the preposition or after the preposition.

   Verb   Object   Preposition   Meaning 
 Barney   figured   the answer   out.  found/understood 
 Did she   pick  a candy  out?  choose 
 He didn't   turn  his ipod  off.  stop 

Other common separable phrasal verbs: call off, cheer up, drop off, find out, give up, hand in, look up, make up, put off, take over, turn on, turn down

Note that not every verb + preposition is a phrasal verb. Phrasal verbs are only those combinations that have a separate meaning.

   Verb   Preposition     Phrasal verb/Not 
 The ball   dropped       by   the big tree.    not 
 We  dropped      by  the store for some milk    phrasal verb
 She  looked     into   a trip to Hawaii.   phrasal verb
 Charlie   looked     into   the fridge to see if there was any milk.   not


Verb Moods

Indicative and Imperative

The indicative mood is the most common verb mood in English. It is used to express facts and opinions, or to ask questions about them. The indicative mood is used in all verb tenses.

 Indicative Conjugation (Simple Present)   I am going to visit Paris next week.
You looked happy yesterday.
My dog is barking at passing cars.
Does she have my book?
Do they study English on Tuesdays?      
              I  am
      He/ She/ It  is
    You/ We/ They  are


The imperative mood is used to make requests or give orders and warnings. It is used only in the simple present and future tenses.

The subject in the imperative mood is always you. In simple present tense, the you-subject is not usually stated.  Pass me the salt, please.
Don’t walk near my vegetable garden.
Look out for those bees!
In the simple future tense, the you-subject is usually stated. It is used to place stronger emphasis on a command. Finish your homework tonight. (command)
You will finish your homework tonight (strong command)


Present Subjunctive

The subjunctive mood is used to express uncertain actions or states.

The present subjunctive* is formed with the base form of a verb. It follows verbs, nouns, or adjectives that express suggestion, demand, or request.

 Words of suggestion used: determine, determination, propose, recommend, recommendation, suggest, suggestion, advise, advisable, critical, desirable, important, vital, urge The doctor suggested I sleep more.
My recommendation is that he sleep more.
The doctor’s recommendation is that they sleep more.
It is advisable that she sleep more.**
Words of demand used: demand, imperative, insist, necessary, order, require, required. My parents demand that I be quiet at night.
Your parents require that you be quiet at night. It is imperative that she not be noisy at night.
Words of request used: ask, beg, prefer, request, wish I ask that you have more patience with the other students.
The teacher requested that Nick have his project finished a day earlier


* The term “present” refers to the form of the subjunctive verb (base form) rather than the time in which the action happens. The following sentences all use the present subjunctive mood:

  • The patient asked that he be given more medicine.
  • The patient requests that he be given more medicine.
  • The patient is demanding that he be given more medicine.
  • The patient will insist that he be given more medicine.

** Often, that is not omitted from sentences.

Past Subjunctive

The subjunctive mood is also used to express uncertain actions or states.

The past subjunctive* is formed with the simple past form of a verb that describes a state, condition, or habit. With the verb be, the form were (not was) is always used. It refers to hypothetical or imaginary situations.

The past subjunctive is used after the verb wish to express an unfulfilled desire I wish Sally were here to help us.
He wishes he could run faster
 It is also used after the verbs suppose and imagine or with if (only) phrases to express unreal conditions. Such sentences are usually followed by would or could. Suppose you met the president. What would you say? Imagine you were rich. What would you do first?
If people drove smaller cars, we could all breathe cleaner air
The past subjunctive is also used when a comparison to an imaginary condition is made. In this case, as though or as if usually precedes it She acts as though she were very rich, but she’s not.
He drives as if he were in a Formula 1 race.


Verb Tenses

The time of an action or the state of being is expressed by different forms of the verb. These forms are called the tenses of the verb.
There are three main forms of a verb: the present, the past, or the future.

The Present Tense

A verb which is in present tense indicates what the subject of the sentence is doing right now.
The teacher sees the students.
The verb sees tells that the teacher is seeing the students now. To show the present tense, an -s or -es is added to most verbs if the subject is singular.

If the subject is plural, or I or You, the -s, or -es is not added.
The bird hatches in the nest.
The stream flows down the hill.
The boys rush for their breakfast.
We talk a lot.

Rules for forming the Present Tense with Singular Subjects

  1. Most verbs: add –s
    get – gets
    play – plays
    eat – eats
  2. Verbs ending in s, ch, sh, x, and z: add-es
    pass – passes
    mix – mixes
    buzz – buzzes
    push – pushes
  3. Verbs ending with a consonant and y:
    change the y to i and add -es
    try - tries
    empty – empties

The Past Tense

A verb which is in past tense shows what has already happened.
Tito liked his grandmother’s story.
The verb liked tells that the action in the sentence happened before now.

Rules for forming the Past Tense

  1. Most verbs: Add -ed
    play – played
    talk – talked
    climb – climbed
  2. Verbs ending with e: Add -d
    praise – praised
    hope – hoped
    wipe – wiped
  3. Verbs ending with a consonant and -y: the y to i and add -ed
    bury – buried
    carry – carried
    study – studied
  4. Verbs ending with a single vowel and a consonant: Double the final consonant and add-ed
    stop – stopped
    man – manned
    trip – tripped

The Future Tense

A verb which is in future tense tells what is going to happen.
Evans will take his car to the garage.
She will probably come with us.

The verbs will take and will come tell us what is going to happen. Hence, they are in future tense.

To form the future tense of a verb, use the helping verb will or shall with the main verb.

The Simple Tenses

The most common tenses of the verb are the simple tenses. You use them most often in your speaking and writing.

  1. Present simple tense.
    Look at the following sentences.
    1. I know Kisumu
    2. He goes to school everyday.
    3. The sun rises from the east.
      All the above sentences contain a verb in the present simple tense. This tense is used for different purposes.
      1. To state a personal fact
        Example: I know Kisumu.
      2.  To point out a regular habit.
        Example: He goes to school everyday.
      3. To state known a scientific fact
        Example: The sun rises from the east.
  2. Past Simple Tense
    The past simple tense is used when an action has been completed .
    We cleaned our classrooms yesterday.
    He drove the car this morning.
    She planned the whole incident.
  3. Future Simple Tense
    The future simple tense places the action or condition in the future. It is formed by using the word shall or will before the present form of the main verb.
    We shall need help with her load.
    She will eat the bananas alone.
    The dancers will entertain them.

The Perfect Tenses

The perfect tenses are used to show that an action was completed or that a condition existed before a given time.
The perfect tenses are formed using has, have, or had before the past participles i.e.
verb forms ending in -ed.

  1. Present Perfect Tense:
    Ceasar has just finished his homework.
    Kamau and Njoroge have now agreed to meet.
  2. Present Perfect Continuous Tense
    Kibet has been working in his shamba for two hours.
    We have been swimming in this pool for ten minutes.
  3. Past Perfect Tense
    We had completed the work by the time the supervisor came.
    Nobody knew that she had already remarried.
  4. Past Perfect Continuous Tense
    I had been trying to contact him for two hours before he finally appeared.
    Mrs. Masumbuko had been feeling unwell the whole week before she decided to visit
    a doctor.
  5. Future Perfect Tense
    Agege will have sold his goats by two p.m.
    By next term, twenty students will have dropped from this school.
  6. Future Perfect Continuous
    The players will have been playing for twenty minutes by the time the President arrives.
    By the end of this term, she will have been living with her aunt for five years.

The Progressive Verb Forms

The progressive form of the verb shows continuing action.
I am singing
She was dancing.

The progressive form is formed using various forms of the verb be plus the present participle i.e. a verb form that ends in -ing.

  1. Present Progressive Tense
    I am reading a book about Red Indians.
    Her mother is preparing dinner.
  2. Present Perfect Progressive
    He has been cleaning his car since morning.
    They have been exercising for a week now.
  3. Past Progressive Tense
    She was cooking supper when I arrived.
    They were fighting fiercely when the police arrived.
  4. Past Perfect Progressive Tense
    Sonko had been wearing an earing for years before he removed it.
    Onyancha had been killing children before he was finally discovered.
  5. Future Progressive
    He will be tilling the land next week.
    Joyce and Joan will be washing clothes all morning.
  6. Future Perfect Progressive
    The children will have been sleeping for two hours by the time their parents arrive.
    John will have grown a beard by the time he is twelve.

A pronoun is a part of speech that takes the place of a noun. They include such words as I, we, he, she, thy, me and us.

Pronouns enable you to avoid repeating the same names (nouns), when writing or speaking, which would otherwise make you sound very awkward and wordy. By using pronouns effectively, you can make your writing and speaking flow smoothly.

Pronouns can be classified into 6 types. These are personal, indefinite, demonstrative, interrogative, reflexive and intensive pronouns.

Personal Pronouns

A personal pronoun is a word that is used in place of a noun or another pronoun. They are used to refer to nouns that name persons or things.

  • Awkward Kamau put on Kamau’s gum boots. Then Kamau went to the shamba.
  • Improved Kamau put on his gum boots. Then he went to the shamba.

In the above example, the personal pronoun his helps the writer avoid repeating the same noun. The pronoun he acts as a bridge to connect the two sentences.

Personal pronouns are further classified in terms of person and gender.


In terms of person, personal pronouns can be divided into three classes.

  1. First person – I, my, me, we, our and us.
    These ones refer to the person(s) speaking.
    Example: I always ride my bike to school.
  2. Second person – you, your, yours
    These refer to the person(s) spoken to.
    Example: I will call you tomorrow.
  3. Third person – he, his, him, she, hers, her, it, its, they, their, them.
    These ones refer to another person(s) or thing(s) that is being spoken of.

The personal pronoun it usually replaces a noun that stands for a thing or an animal. It is never used in place of a person.


Personal pronouns can also be classified by gender. Gender can either be masculine
(referring to male people), feminine (referring to female people) or neuter (referring to
animals or things).

  • Joseph cleaned his car. (His is the third person, masculine gender).
  • Isabel said the dress was hers (Hers is the third person, feminine gender).
  • The dog wagged its tail. (Its is the third person, neuter gender).

Forms of Personal Pronouns

In English, personal pronouns have three forms: the subject form, the object form and the possessive form.


  • She is a painter (subject form)
  • He praised her. (Object form)
  • It is her best painting. (Possessive form)

Subject Pronouns

A subject pronoun takes the place of a noun as the subject of a sentence. These pronouns are:

  1. Singular forms – I, you, he, she, it
  2. Plural forms – we, you, they
    Noun                                                                 Subject Pronoun
    The housegirl takes care of the baby               She takes care of the baby
    The dog guards the house                                It guards the house
    Mark and Francis love swimming                      They love swimming

Subject pronouns also appear after forms of the linking verbs be.

  • The watchman today is he.
  • The composers were they.

Object pronouns

Object pronouns can replace nouns used after action verbs. These pronouns are:

  1. Singular – me, you, him, her, it
  2. Plural – us, you them
    • The driver drove him. (direct object)
    • The parents thanked us. (direct object)
    • The reporters asked him many questions. (indirect object)

In the above examples, the personal pronouns are the direct or indirect objects of the verbs before them.

Object pronouns can also replace nouns after prepositions such as to, for, with, in, at or by. That is, they can be objects of prepositions.

  • Gladys waved to them. (object of a preposition)
  • The delivery is for me.
  • Ben went with them to the theatre.

Possessive Pronouns

A possessive pronoun shows ownership.

Example: My pen is black.

There are two kinds of possessive pronouns:

  1. Those used as adjectives to modify nouns. These possessive pronouns are:
    Singular: My, your, his, her, its
    Plural: Our, your, their
    • My shirt is yellow.
    • Your food is on the table.
    • His bag is green.
    • This is her dress.
    • Its fur is soft.
    • These are our parents.
    • Pay your bills.
    • They removed their bats.
      The above possessive pronouns always appear before nouns to modify them. Hence, they are called modifiers.
  2. Those that stand alone and replace nouns in sentences. These possessive nouns are:
    Singular: mine yours his, hers, its
    Plural: ours yours, their
    • The yellow shirt is mine.
    • The food on the table is yours.
    • The green bag is his.
    • This dress is hers.
    • Its is the soft fur.
    • These crops are ours.
    • These bills are yours.
    • Those hats are theirs.

Points To Note

  1. The pronoun I is used as a subject or after forms of the linking verb be.
    Subject: I travel by bus
    After the linking verb be: Yesterday, the prefects on duty were Victor and I
  2. The pronoun me is used object after action verbs or words (prepositions) such as to, for, with, in, or at.
    Object: Rose met me at the gate.
    After prepositions: Rose waited for me at the gate.
                                  You are coming with me.
  3. When using compound subjects and objects (i.e. subjects and objects comprising of a pronoun and a noun or another pronoun), always name yourself last.
    Diana and I visited our grandmother yesterday.
    Who appointed Chege and me?
    Rose waited for her and me at the gate. or at.

Demonstrative Pronouns

A demonstrative pronoun is used to single or point out one or more persons or things referred to in the sentence.
These pronouns are this, that, these, and those.
This and these point to persons or things that are near.

  • This is a gazelle.
  • These are the students of Kianjege West Secondary School.

That and those point to persons or things that are farther away.

  • That is the city square.
  • Those are the lodging rooms.

  • This and that are used with singular nouns.
  • These and those are used with plural nouns.

Indefinite Pronouns

An indefinite pronoun is a pronoun that does not refer to a specific person or thing.
In English, there are singular indefinite pronouns, plural indefinite and both singular and plural indefinite pronouns.

Singular Indefinite Pronouns

another     anything       everybody        neither               one
anybody      each           everyone         nobody           somebody
anymore     either         everything         no one            someone.

An indefinite pronoun must agree with its verbs and in number with its possessive
pronoun. The above indefinite pronouns are used with singular verbs. They are also used
with singular possessive pronouns.

Agreement with verbs
Correct: Everyone has heard of Lake Turkana.
Incorrect: Everyone have heard of Lake Turkana.
Correct: Nobody knows what happened to Samuel Wanjiru.
Incorrect: Nobody know what happened to Samuel Wanjiru.
Correct: Everything about the old man remains a mystery.
Incorrect: Everything about the old man remain a mystery.

Agreement in number with possessive pronouns
Correct: Neither believed his/her eyes.
Incorrect: Neither believed their eyes.
Correct: Each strained his/her neck to see.
Incorrect: Each strained their neck to see.

Plural indefinite pronouns

both          many           few              several
These indefinite pronouns use plural verbs and possessive pronouns.
Plural verbs
Correct: Few know about Lake Olbolsat.
Incorrect: Few knows about Lake Obolsat.
Correct: Both stand by what they believe.
Incorrect: Both stands by what they believe.

Plural possessive pronouns
Correct: Several reported their findings.
Incorrect: Several reported his/her findings.

Both singular and plural indefinite pronouns

all         some         any             none
These indefinite pronouns may be singular or plural, depending on their meaning in the
All of my story is true – singular
All of the guests are here – plural
None of the lake is foggy – singular
None of the photos are spoiled – plural.

Reflexive Pronouns

Reflexive and intensive pronouns end in -self or -selves. These are myself, yourself, herself, himself, itself, ourselves, and themselves.

A reflexive pronoun refers to an action performed by the subject of the sentence. The meaning of the sentence is incomplete without the reflexive pronoun.

  • Monicah bought herself a new dress. (The meaning of the sentence is incomplete without the reflexive pronoun because we do not know for whom Monicah bought the dress).

Interrogative Pronouns

An interrogative pronoun is used to ask a question. These pronouns are who, whose, whom, which and what.
Who is the mayor of this town?
Whose is the red car?
Which is her blouse?
What did she ask you?
Whom should I trust with my secret?

Using Who, Whom, and Whose

Who, whom, and whose are often used to ask questions. Hence, they are interrogative pronouns.

WHO is the subject form. It is used as the subject of a verb.
Who taught you how to play the guitar? (Who is the subject of the verb taught.)

WHOM is the object form. It is used as the direct object of a verb or as the object of a preposition.
Whom did you meet? (Whom is the object of the verb did meet).
For whom is this trophy? (whom is the object of the preposition for).

WHOSE is the possessive form. It can be used :

  1. To modify a noun
    Whose is umbrella is this? (whose modifies the noun umbrella)
  2. Alone as the subject or object of a verb
    Whose are those water melons? (whose is the subject of the verb are)
    Whose did you admire? (whose is the object of the verb did admire)


Nouns can be singular or plural.
SINGULAR: banana
PLURAL: bananas

  Spelling Rules for Plural Nouns  
 Noun Ending   Rule  Examples 
 a consonant or a vowel  (most regular nouns)   add -s  a bed→beds, 
a table→ tables 
 -s, -ss, -sh, -ch, -x   add -es  a bus →buses
a match →matches
a glass →glasses
a fox → foxes
a dish → dishes
 a consonant + y  change y to i and add -es  a dictionary → dictionaries
 -f or -fe  change -f/-fe to v and add -es  a leaf → leaves
a knife → knives

Vowels: a, e, i, o, u
Consonants: b, c, d, f, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, q, r, s, t, v, w, x, y, z

Categorization of Nouns

Nouns are words that represent people, places, things, or ideas.

  • Person
    John went to the new theater last week with his father.
    examples: brother, mailman, chef, assistant, friend, king
  • Place
    We met our neighbors at the arcade.
    examples: beach, zoo, home, Spain, woods, work, school
  • Thing
    I found the keys under the sofa.
    examples: eraser, chain, picture, door, pen, tractor, stick
  • Idea
    Happiness is very important.
    examples: sadness, freedom, fun, love, anger

Countable and Uncountable Nouns

Nouns can be either countable or uncountable.

Countable nouns represent things that can be counted as individuals. Use a, many, few, or numbers

  • I bought eleven CDs and a new book.
  • We saw many cars and a few vans. before countable nouns.

Countable nouns: apple, ant, bag, book, cat, chair, donut, friend, house, jacket, map, neighbor, page, question, raft, stove

Uncountable nouns represent things that cannot be counted as individuals. Use much, little, some or any* (for negatives and questions) before uncountable nouns.

  • I had some soup before dinner.
  • I didn’t have any coffee.
  • Did you have any fun at the zoo?
  • Yes, we had some fun at the zoo.

Uncountable nouns: bread, cheese, coffee, food, fruit, furniture, homework, mail, meat, milk, music,
paper, rice, soup, water

NB: Some and any can also be used with countable nouns. Any is used for questions and negatives. Some is used when the exact number is not known or is not important.
Example: Do you have any apples? Yes, we have some apples in the fridge


Articles are a, an, and the. Sometimes no article is used.

  • A baby cries.
  • An alligator swims.
  • The teenagers whisper.
  • Apples are delicious.

A is for singular nouns. It goes in front of consonant sounds.

  • A zebra has stripes.
  • Nick eats a sandwich.

An is for singular nouns. It goes in front of vowel sounds.

  • An iris is a flower.
  • John sees an airplane.

The is for singular or plural nouns. It goes in front of consonant or vowel sounds. 
The is used for things that are already known or introduced. The is also used when the noun it precedes is the only one of its kind

  • Nick eats a sandwich. The sandwich is delicious.
  • John sees an airplane. The airplane is in the sky.
  • The moon is in the sky. (There is only one moon and one sky.)
  • Some apples are in the fridge. (Most people only have one fridge in their homes.

Words beginning with u often have a y(ju) sound. In this case, a is used.
Y SOUND: A unicorn has a horn.
U SOUND: Amy has an umbrella.
H is often silent when it begins a word. In this case, an is used.
SILENT: An hour is a long time.
SPOKEN: Sarah has a hamster

Generic Statements

Generic statements are sentences that provide information that is true most or all of the time.
Generic statements often use the verb Be.

  • I am a student.
  • She is tall.
  • They are my parents

Some generic statements use the verb Have.

  • Insects have six legs.
  • He has blue eyes.

Other generic statements use verbs that describe a state or condition.

  • Candy tastes sweet.
  • Feathers feel soft.

Other state or condition verbs: look, smell, taste, sound, like, love, hate, think, believe

Subjective Pronouns and Possessive Adjectives

Subject Pronouns refer to nouns. They replace subjects. 

I, you, he, she, it, we, they

  • John plays basketball. He is athletic. (He = John)
  • Lisa and Tom play musical instruments. They take lessons. (They = Lisa and Tom)

Possessive Adjectives show ownership or relationship. They often go before nouns.

My, your, his, her, its*, our, their

  • My hair is brown.
  • Amy and her brother have a pet rabbit.
  • Their rabbit eats lettuce

NB:Its is a possessive adjective. It’s = It is


Possessives show who or what an object belongs to.

Usually, ‘s is added to the end of a noun to show ownership of the noun coming after it.

  • I like John‘s haircut.
  • My mother‘s car broke down.

For plural nouns that end in -s, only the apostrophe is added to show ownership.

  • The girls’ gym is over there.
  • The boys’ hockey team plays tomorrow

When showing ownership for more than one noun, only the last noun takes the ‘s or the apostrophe.

  • Sam, Dawn, and Kim’s teacher was absent from school yesterday.
  • The lions and tigers’ cages are always cleaned on Mondays.

For proper nouns (names) that end in -s, ‘s is added to show ownership.

  • James‘s bike is blue.
  • Julius‘s house is near the river

Of can also be used to show ownership. In this case the noun representing the owned thing comes first.*

  • The father of the student (= the student’s father)
  • The king of Spain (= Spain’s king)

NB:This form is usually used when the owner is a place or thing, not a person.

  • A hot potato
    Speak of an issue which many people are talking about and which is usually disputed
  • A penny for your thoughts
    A way of asking what someone is thinking
  • Actions speak louder than words
    People's intentions can be judged better by what they do than what they say.
  • Add insult to injury
    To further a loss with mockery or indignity; to worsen an unfavorable situation.
  • An arm and a leg
    Very expensive or costly. A large amount of money.
  • At the drop of a hat
    Meaning: without any hesitation; instantly.
  • Back to the drawing board
    When an attempt fails and it's time to start all over.
  • Ball is in your court
    It is up to you to make the next decision or step
  • Barking up the wrong tree
    Looking in the wrong place. Accusing the wrong person
  • Be glad to see the back of
    Be happy when a person leaves.
  • Beat around the bush
    Avoiding the main topic. Not speaking directly about the issue.
  • Best of both worlds
    Meaning: All the advantages.
  • Best thing since sliced bread
    A good invention or innovation. A good idea or plan.
  • Bite off more than you can chew
    To take on a task that is way to big.
  • Blessing in disguise
    Something good that isn't recognized at first.
  • Burn the midnight oil
    To work late into the night, alluding to the time before electric lighting.
  • Can't judge a book by its cover
    Cannot judge something primarily on appearance.
  • Caught between two stools
    When someone finds it difficult to choose between two alternatives.
  • Costs an arm and a leg
    This idiom is used when something is very expensive.
  • Cross that bridge when you come to it
    Deal with a problem if and when it becomes necessary, not before.
  • Cry over spilt milk
    When you complain about a loss from the past.
  • Curiosity killed the cat
    Being Inquisitive can lead you into an unpleasant situation.
  • Cut corners
    When something is done badly to save money.
  • Cut the mustard
    To succeed; to come up to expectations; adequate enough to compete or participate
  • Devil's Advocate
    To present a counter argument
  • Don't count your chickens before the eggs have hatched
    This idiom is used to express "Don't make plans for something that might not happen".
  • Don't give up the day job
    You are not very good at something. You could definitely not do it professionally.
  • Don't put all your eggs in one basket
    Do not put all your resources in one possibility.
  • Drastic times call for drastic measures
    When you are extremely desperate you need to take drastic actions.
  • Elvis has left the building
    The show has come to an end. It's all over.
  • Every cloud has a silver lining
    Be optimistic, even difficult times will lead to better days.
  • Far cry from
    Very different from.
  • Feel a bit under the weather
    Meaning: Feeling slightly ill.
  • Give the benefit of the doubt
    Believe someone's statement, without proof
  • Hear it on the grapevine
    This idiom means 'to hear rumors' about something or someone.
  • Hit the nail on the head
    Do or say something exactly right
  • Hit the sack / sheets / hay
    To go to bed.
  • In the heat of the moment
    Overwhelmed by what is happening in the moment.
  • It takes two to tango
    Actions or communications need more than one person
  • Jump on the bandwagon
    Join a popular trend or activity.
  • Keep something at bay
    Keep something away.
  • Kill two birds with one stone
    This idiom means, to accomplish two different things at the same time.
  • Last straw
    The final problem in a series of problems.
  • Let sleeping dogs lie
    Do not disturb a situation as it is - since it would result in trouble or complications.
  • Let the cat out of the bag
    To share information that was previously concealed
  • Make a long story short
    Come to the point - leave out details
  • Method to my madness
    An assertion that, despite one's approach seeming random, there actually is structure to it.
  • Miss the boat
    This idiom is used to say that someone missed his or her chance
  • Not a spark of decency
    Meaning: No manners
  • Not playing with a full deck
    Someone who lacks intelligence
  • Off one's rocker
    Crazy, demented, out of one's mind, in a confused or befuddled state of mind, senile.
  • On the ball
    When someone understands the situation well.
  • Once in a blue moon
    Meaning: Happens very rarely.
  • Picture paints a thousand words
    A visual presentation is far more descriptive than words.
  • Piece of cake
    A job, task or other activity that is easy or simple.
  • Put wool over other people's eyes
    This means to deceive someone into thinking well of them.
  • See eye to eye
    This idiom is used to say that two (or more people) agree on something.
  • Sit on the fence
    This is used when someone does not want to choose or make a decision.
  • Speak of the devil!
    This expression is used when the person you have just been talking about arrives.
  • Steal someone's thunder
    To take the credit for something someone else did.
  • Take with a grain of salt
    This means not to take what someone says too seriously.
  • Taste of your own medicine
    Means that something happens to you, or is done to you, that you have done to someone else
  • To hear something straight from the horse's mouth
    To hear something from the authoritative source.
  • Whole nine yards
    Everything. All of it.
  • Wouldn't be caught dead
    Would never like to do something
  • Your guess is as good as mine
    To have no idea, do not know the answer to a question

This is a list of well-known similes. There are more similes, of course, some common and
others less common because anyone can make a simile at any time--you too!

     simile                                                       meaning                                                        comment
 as alike as two peas in a pod              identical or nearly so
as bald as a coot                                   completely bald
as big as a bus                                          very big
as big as an elephant                                very big
as black as a sweep                                completely black                                        sweep = chimney sweep
as black as coal                                      completely black
as black as pitch                                     completely black
as blind as a bat                                     completely blind                                          may be exaggeration
as blind as a mole                                 completely blind may                                     be exaggeration
as bold as brass                                        very bold                                                   usually in a negative sense
as brave as a lion                                      very brave
as bright as a button                                 very bright
as bright as a new pin                               very bright and shiny
as busy as a beaver                                  very busy
as busy as a bee                                       very busy
as busy as a cat on a hot tin roof              very busy
as calm as a millpond                            very calm and still                                          usually said of water
as clear as a bell                                      very clear                                                                of a sound
as clean as a whistle                                very clean
as clear as crystal                                      very clear
as clear as mud                                     not at all clear                                                    irony or sarcasm
as cold as ice                                            very cold
as common as dirt                              very common, rude, vulgar                               usually said of a person
as cool as a cucumber                                  cool
as cunning as a fox                                 cunning
as dead as a doornail                               dead
as dead as the dodo                               dead, extinct                                                   the dodo is an extinct bird
as deaf as a post                                    completely deaf                                                  may be exaggeration
as different as chalk from cheese              very different
as drunk as a lord                                    completely drunk
as dry as a bone                                          very dry
as dry as dust                                              very dry
as dull as dishwater                                dull, boring                                                      usually said of a person
as easy as A.B.C.                                       very easy
as easy as apple-pie                                 very easy
as flat as a pancake                                completely flat
as free as a bird                                 very free to go anywhere
as fresh as a daisy                                      very fresh
as gentle as a lamb                                   very gentle                                                   usually said of a person
as good as gold                                 very good and obedient                                       usually said of a person
as happy as a lark                                     very happy                                                   usually said of a person
as hard as nails                                   very tough in character                                             of a person
as hot as hell                                              very hot
as hungry as a bear                                 very hungry
as hungry as a wolf                                  very hungry
as innocent as a lamb                          innocent, not worldly-wise                                  usually said of a person
as large as life                                          conspicuously present
as light as a feather                                         very light
as light as air                                                    very light
as mad as a hatter                                     completely crazy
as mad as a hornet                                      very angry
as nutty as a fruitcake                             completely crazy
as obstinate as a mule                      very obstinate, stubborn
as old as the hills                                       very, very old
as pale as death                                very pale or white in the face of a person
as plain as day                                             very clear
as poor as a church mouse                            poverty-stricken
as poor as dirt                                                 poverty-stricken
as proud as a peacock                                  very proud
as pure as snow                                        pure and innocent
as pure as the driven snow                        pure and innocent
as quick as a wink                                         very quick(ly)
as quick as lightning                                      very quick(ly)
as quick as silver                                           very quick
as quiet as a church mouse                          very quiet
as safe as houses                                    very safe, secure
as scarce as hen's teeth                              very, very scarce                                            irony (hens have no teeth)
as sharp as a razor                                        very sharp
as sick as a dog                                              very sick
as sick as a parrot                                           very sick
as silent as the dead                                   completely silent
as silent as the grave                                  completely silent
as slippery as an eel                                   slippery, evasive                                                      of a person
as slow as a snail                                             very slow
as slow as a tortoise                                         very slow
as smooth as silk                                             very smooth
as snug as a bug in a rug                          in a very comfortable position                                    humorous
as sober as a judge                                          sober
as solid as a rock                                               solid
as solid as the ground we stand on                   solid
as sound as a bell                                            very clear                                                            of a sound
as sour as vinegar                                            very sour
as steady as a rock                                         very steady
as stiff as a board                                         completely stiff
as straight as an arrow                                     straight                                                       an arrow flies straight
as strong as an ox                                            very strong
as stubborn as a mule                                  very stubborn, obstinate
as sturdy as an oak                                       very strong and solid
as sure as death and taxes                         absolutely certain to happen
as tall as a giraffe                                              very tall
as thin as a rake                                                very thin
as timid as a rabbit                                            very timid
as tough as leather                                            very tough
as tough as nails                                                very tough                                                     often said of a person
as tough as old boots                                         very tough                                                      often said of a person
as welcome as a skunk at a lawn party             not welcome at all                                     irony or sarcasm (skunks stink)
as white as a ghost                                         very pale or white in the face                             of a person
as white as a sheet                                              pure white
as white as snow                                                 pure white
as wise as Solomon                                             very wise                                                        King Solomon
as wise as an owl                                                 very wise




Kuelezea maana ya vihisishi
Hutumiwa kuonyesha hisi au hisia ya msemaji kidhihirisha

  • Furaha
  • Mshangao
  • Mshtuko
  • Hasira
  • Uchungu
  • Maumivu
  • Uchovu
  • Huruma
  • Dharau
  • Wito
  • Laana

Kutunga sentensi akitumia vihisishi alivyopatiwa


Vivumishi ni maneno yanayotumiwa kuelezea zaidi kuhusu nomino

Aina za Vivumishi

  • A -Unganifu
  • Sifa
  • Pekee
  • Viulizi
  • Idadi
  • Vimilikishi
  • Viashiria


Neno linalotumiwa kuunganisha neno na neno, sentensi na sentensi, wazo na wazo
Kutoa mifano tofauti ya viunganishi

  • Kasoro-lakini, bali
  • Kusalia kitu kimoja-ila, isipokuwa
  • Kinyume na matarajio-ingawa, ijapo, ilhali
  • Kulinganisha kuonyesha tofauti
  • Kuongezea-aidha, mbali na, licha ya
  • Kuwaongoza kutunga sentensi

A - Unganifu

Kijineno kinachotokana na kuambatanisha A na herufi tofauti kwa kutegemea ngeli

Ngeli                              A-unganifu
A – WA                          wa - wa
KI – VI                           cha - vya
LI – YA                           la - ya
U – I                              wa - ya
U – ZI                            wa- za
I – I                                ya - ya
U – U                             wa - wa
U – YA                           wa - ya
YA – YA                         ya - ya
I – ZI                             ya - zi
KU                                kwa - kwa
PAKUMU                      pa – pa , kwa – kwa, mwa - mwa

Mkato wa Maneno

Huhusu nomino pamoja na vimilikishi vyote vitatu
Baba + yake = babake
Dada + yake =n dadake
Nyanya + yenu = nyanyenu
Shangazi + yake = shangaziye
Kaka + yako = kakako
Mjomba + yake = mjombake


Maneno yanayotumiwa kuuliza maswali

  • Nani: hutumika katika ngeli ya A – WA kujua cheo, jina , ukoo wa watu
  • Nini: kujua ni kitu cha aina gani
    Hutumika katika ngeli zote isipokuwa ya A - WA
  • Gani:kujua aina , jamii, hali au tabia
  • Lini: kiulizi cha siku au wakati
    Hutumiwa kutaka kujua kipindi, siku au wakati wa tukio
  • Wapi:ni kiulizi cha mahali
  • Vipi:kiulizi cha namna gani
    Je ni neno la kuanzisha swali
  • Ngapi:kuuliza idadi kamili ya vitu , vyombo katika jumla
  • Pi: kubainisha kati ya nyingi ili kupata kihusika au mhusika Fulani mahususi


Neno linaloeleza jinsi kitendo kilivyotendeka au kufafanua zaidi kuhusu kitendo
Aina za vielezi

  • Wakati
  • Namna
  • Jinsi
  • Mahali
  • Idadi
  • Vuhusishi
  • Tanakali
  • Takriri
  • Tashbihi
    Hutumika kwa
  • Lini- wakati
  • Wapi – mahali
  • Vipi – jinsi au namna
  • Kiasi gani- idadi

Wakati               mahali                          namna
Leo                   nyumbani                       taratibu
Kesho               darasani                       harakaharaka
Juma ijayo          Nairobi                         ghafla
Mtondogoo        machoni                        kivivu

Vielezi vya Mkazo

Takriri au shadda ni maneno yanayotumiwa kutilia mkazo au kusisitiza jambo
mifano ya takriri

  • salama salimini
  • bure bilashi
  • raha na buraha
  • kufa kupona
  • liwalo liwe
  • haambiliki hasemezeki
  • fanya juu chini
  • si wa uji si wa maji
  • daima dawamu
  • buheri wa afya
  • hakubali hakatai
  • hawashi hazimi

Ngeli pamoja Na Kirejeshi Amba

amba ni kitenzi kisaidizi kinachorejelea mtendwa au mtendaji kwa kutambulisha ama kueleza zaidi ya jambo fulani
kirejeshi –o hutumika badala ya AMBA
o-rejeshi na AMBA havitumiki pamoja
Kuku ambaye alitaga ni mkubwa

 Nomino     Ngeli    Amba-   o-rejeshi 



-yo Yo
-yo Ko



Kirejeshi –amba

Kirejeshi –o cha awali na kirejessho o- cha tamati
Kufafanua jinsi ya kuambisha o rejeshi tamati na awali
o-rejeshi awali hutokea kabla ya mzizi wa kitenzi –o- rejeshi tamati hutokea mwishoni mwa sentensi

 Kitenzi    o-rejeshi awali    o- rejeshi tamati 

Matumizi ya –ndi

Kiainishi –ndi ni kishirikishi cha kukubali kwa msisitizo
Huambatanishwa na viwakilishi nafsi au virejeshi ili kutilia mkazo
Hutumia o-rejeshi kwenye vitenzi

Ndi + mimi = ndimi
Ndi + wewe = ndiwe
Ndi + yeye = ndiye
Ndi + si  = ndisi
Ndi + nyinyi  = ndinyi
Ndi + wao = ndio
o- rejeshi
ndi + ye = ndiye
ndi + o = ndio

Matumizi ya –si

Ni kiainishi cha kutilia mkazo

Huambatanishwa na viwakilishi nafsi au virejeshi ili kuleta msisitizo wa kukanusha
Si + mimi = simi
Si + wewe = siwe
Si + yeye  = siye
Si + sisi =  sisie
Si + wao = sio
o- Rejeshi
A –WA  si + yeye = siye     si + o = sio
KI – VI  si + cho = sicho     si+ vyo = sivyo

Matumizi ‘na’

Kiunganishi NA huambatanishwa na kiwakilishi nafsi kuonyesha PIA NA PAMOJA NA
Hutumiwa pamoja na 0-rejeshi
Ngeli               Na + o- rejeshi
A – WA            na+ye = naye nao
KI –VI              na + cho = nacho navyo
LI –YA              na + lo = nalo nayo
U – I                na + o = nao nayo
U – ZI              na + o = nao nazo
I – I                  na+ yo = nayo nayo
U – U               na + o = nao nao
U – YA             na + o= nao nayo
YA – YA            na +yo = nayo nayo
I – ZI                na + yo = nayo nazo
KU                   na + ko = nako 
PAKUMU         na+po  na+ko  na+mo

Matumizi ya ‘katika’, ‘ni’ , ‘kwenye’

Hivi ni vihusishi vya mahali
Hutumiwa kuonyesha kuwapo kwa kitu kilichotajwa mahali Fulani
Ngeli hubadilika hadi PA KU MU
Kuhimiza kuwa ni kosa kutumia hivi vihusishi pamoja
Kuambatanisha nomino na vivumishi

 Vivumishi   Darasa   darasani 
Hili, hilo, lile 
Langu, lako,lake 
Zuri, jema, baya
Eupe, eusi

Hapa, hapo, pale 
Pangu, pako, pake 
Pote, kote, mote
Popote, kokote, momote
Penyewe, kwenyewe, mwenyewe 
Penye, kwenye, mwenye
Pengine, kwingine, mwingine
Pazuri, kuzuri, mzuri
Peusi, kweusi, mweusi
Hapana, hakuna, hamna


Usemi Halisi na Taarifa

Usemi halisi ni maneno yalivyotarajiwa na msemaji mwenyewe
Usemi taarifa ni ripoti au maelezo yakitolewa na mtu mwengine kutoka kwa msemaji halisi
Kueleza jinsi ya kubadilisha usemi
Usemi halisi                   usemi taarifa
leo                                   siku hiyo
Jana                                siku iliyopita/tangulia
Kesho                              siku ijayo
Viashiria hapa                 hapo au pale
Vimilikishi vya karibu       ake
Mbali kidogo                    ako
Nafsi ya kwanza              ni nafsi ya tatu
Wakati ta, ki                     nge

Mnyambuliko wa vitenzi

Kunyambua ni kurefusha mwisho wa vitenzi katika hali tofauti

  • Tendeka
  • Tendesha
  • Tendeshwa

Katika kauli ya kutendeka vitenzi humalizika kwa ‘ka’

Kitenzi                           kauli ya kutendeka
Vuka                              vukika
Sahau                            sahaulika
Maliza                            malizika
Bomoa                           bomoka
Kula                               kulika
Lala                                lalika
Lima                               limika
Pika                                pikika
Soma                             someka
Fagia                             fagilika

Kitenzi                         tendesha                    kauli ya kutendeshwa
Lala                                laza                           lazwa
Pika                                pikisha                      pikishwa
Kimbia                            kimbiza                     kimbizwa
Rudi                               rudisha                      rudishwa
Toa                                  toza                           tozwa
Ota                                 otesha                        oteshwa
Oa                                   oza                             ozwa
Soma                             somesha                    someshwa

Ukubwa na Udogo

Maneno katika hali ya ukubwa huwa ni kukipa kitu ukubwa usio wa kawaida na pia maneno katika hali ya udogo ni kukidunisha kitu kuliko hali ya kawaida
Ngeli pia hubadilika katika hali ya ukubwa na kuwa LI- YA ,na katika hali ya udogo huwa KI – VI
Njia tofauti za kubadili maneno katika ukubwa na udogo 
Kudodosha – mw, ny na kutia j

  • ng’ombe – gombe
  • Mkono – kono
  • Ndama – dama

Kudodosha herufi moja na kutia ji

  • Mji – jiji

Kudodosha ki na kutia ji

  • Kisu – jisu

Kuongeza ji bila kudodoa chochote

  • Jicho – jijicho

Kutia j kwa nomino zinazoanza kwa irabu

  • uso – juso
  • Uta – juta

Insha za Methali

Hutahiniwa kwa namna tatu
Mwanzo, mada na tamati au kijalizio
Iwapo ni mada,jadili au fafanua ikiwa una uwezo
Iwapo ni tamati, jalizia kwa maneno uliyopewa
Iwapo ni mwanzo, endeleza kisa moja kwa moja
Simulia kisa kinachooana na maudhui

Methali za wema, Usaidizi wa Rafiki na Udugu

  • Akufaaye kwa dhiki ndiye rafiki
  • Heri jirani wa karibu kuliko ndugu wa mbali
  • Kwendako mema hurudi mema
  • Wema hauozi
  • Jaza ya ihsani ni ihsani
  • Kumpoa mwenzio sio kutupa
  • Wawili si mmoja
  • Damu ni mzito kuliko maji
  • Damu ni damu si kitarasa
  • Zimwi likujualo halikuli likakwisha

MsamiatI na Mapambo

  • Saidia na kama
  • Maiti na jeneza
  • Kiko na digali
  • Sahani na kawa
  • Kinu na mchi
  • Alinitilia upendo/alinipiga jeki
  • Hali mbaya ya mtu
  • Mchafu kama kilihafu/fungo/kisafu
  • Dovuo mdomoni/mashavuni
  • Ngecha menoni/matongo machoni
  • Hali ya umaskini/unyonge/ugonjwa
  • Si lolote si chochote
  • Masikini hohehahe
  • Si wa koleo si wa mani
  • Kwake hakufuki moshi
  • Si hayati si mamati/si hai si mahututi
  • Hawana be wala te
  • Nikawa gofu la mtu/kifefe/fremu ya mtu
  • Anachungulia kaburi

Miundo ya maumbo

  • Ilikuwa dhahiri shahiri kuwa angeenda jongomeo
  • Nilipiga moyo konde nikampiga jeki Kwa hali na mali
  • Alinitilia upendo kwani akufaaye Kwa dhiki ndiye rafiki
  • Nilikumbuka alivyonipakatana kuniasa
  • Nilikuwa sina be wala te baada ya wazazi kwenda jongomeo
  • Matumaini yangu yalifufuka pindi nilipokutana na _______________
  • Machozi yalimlengalenga na kumbubujika kama maji mferejini

Kupokea methali

  • Waambao waliamba _____________
  • Wahenga hawakutupa ulimi wa kulazia walipoanga ______________
  • Chambilecho wahenga ______________
  • Wahenga hawakutoa ngebe walipokuli ________________
  • Yakini, wema ____________________


  • Ndipo iliponiwia bayana kuwa ______________
  • Ndipo walipofutika mtimani kwangu ukweli wa methali _______________
  • Sitalifuta tukio hilo katika kumbukumbu zangu
  • Tanbihi-mwalimu ana uhuru wa kuongeza mengine

Methali za Kutohadaika

Chanzo cha matatizo
Alipovunja ungo/baleghe
Alipovuka kizingiti cha lango la shule, chuo kikuu ___________ maisha yake yaliingia ufa
Alopowachagua marafiki vichwa maji/nyamafu _______________
Alianza kujipalia makaa kama chachandu pweza
Mambo yalianza kumwendea tenge/shote/shoro/mvange/msobe msobe/upogoupogo
Kufilisika – hana be wala te , hana kazi wala bazi/hana hanani, fukara fukarike
Kushikwa – kuhaha na kugwaya, kutweta na kuhema, pumzi juu juu
Alitamani dunia ipasuke na kummeza mzima mzima
Kamasi ilimtonatona puani kama matone ya mvua
Alinaswa/tiwa vituku/pingu/lishwa kalenda
Aibu – shikwa na haya/soni
Iva uso
Vunja uso
Kichwa kifuani kama kondoo
Teseka – alikula mumbi/mavi/kwata
Alifunzwa na ulimwengu usiokuwa na huruma
Kitumbua kiliingia mchanga
Alitekwa bakunja/pubazwa na

Vipokezi vya methali
Yakini ________________
Taibu __________________
Ama kweli __________________
Chambilecho wahenga ________________________
Wahenga na wahenguzi ______________________
Nakubaliana na wazee wa kale _______________________

Utekaji nyara

Uzuri wa siku/mtu – siku ilikucha vizuri/upepo mwanana
Umande ulimeremeta metumetu kama nyota angani
Ndege walikorokocha na kughani lahani nzuri
Nwele zake za nyufa., kiuno cha nyigu, meno ya mchele, pangika kama lulu
Sauti nyororo kama ya ninga/mwewe/kinanda/hurulaini wa peponi
Mwendo wa dalji/twiga wa savanna
Kutosikia nasaha
Juhudi zangu za kumwonya/kumnasihi ______________________
Ziligonga mwaba/paramia mwamba/ambulia pang’anda/tupwa kapuni
Udekezaji – alimwengaenga/alimlea kwa tunu na tamasha
Kumwasa motto kulikuwa jambo tukizi/nadra/dimu
Akawa haskii la mwadhini wala la mteka maji msikitini
Akatia maskio komango/nta/pamba
Kuwa sikio la kufa lisilosikia dawa/cha kuvunja ambacho hakina rubani

Methali Zinazoonya Kuhusu Tamaa na Uzuri wa Nje

Hamu kubwa ya kupata kitu, jambo, au hali Fulani
Visawe – uchu, ashiki, shauku, hamu, ari, nia, hanjamu, nyege, ukware, ghaidhi,

Methali za tamaa
Tamaa mbele mauti nyuma
Mkamia maji hayanywi, akiyanywa humsakama koo
Mwenye pupa hadiriki kula tamu
Mpanda farasi wawili hupasuka msaba/mwaranda
njia mbili zilimshinda fisi
Mwangata mbili moja humponyoka
Mchovya asli hachovyi mara moja
Mtaka yote huksa yote
Usiache mbachao kwa msala upitiapo

Methali za uzuri wa nje
Uzuri wa mkakasi ndanikipande cha mti
Sihadaike na rangi tamu ya chai ni sukari
Nyumba nzuri si mlango, ingia ndani
Kikulacho ki nguoni mwako
Ibilisi wa mtu ni mtu
Uzuri wa kuya ndani mabuu
Vyote viowevu si maji

Marafiki hadaa – ndumakuwili/mzandiki
Kutoaminiana katika ndoa
Ahadi za uongo – mchezo wa karata
Urembo ambao ni handaa

Insha ya Mjadala

Mjadala ni mazungumzo baina ya watu kuhusu mada au hoja kuu upande mmoja hupinga huku mwingine ukiunga mkono
Huhusu mazungumzo juu ya mada Fulani

  • Maisha ya mashambani ni bora kuliko y mjini
  • Teknolojia ina madhara mengi kuliko faida

Huhitaji mtahiniwa kuunga mkono hoja moja na kasha kuipinga katika aya inayofuata au kuunga mkono na baadaye kuzipinga hoja zake.
Kuna sehemu nne kuu

  • mada
  • utangulizi
  • mwili
  • tamati-kutoa kauli na ushauri

Mada huandikwa kwa herufi kubwa kulingana na swali
Utangulizi huhusu kufafanua mada na kutolea mifano
Mwili huhitaji kufafanuliwa kwa hoja
Kila hoja iwe katika aya yake
Hitimisho mtahiniwa huhitajikakutoa changamoto au ushauri

Kuna namna tatu za kuandika insha hii

  • kuunga na kupinga katika aya moja
  • kuunga mada mkono na baadaye kuipinga
  • kuipinga mada na baadaye kuiunga mkono

Usiandike chini ya hoja sita
Toa msimamo wako kwa mwandishi
Insha hizi hutumia viunganishi vya kuongezea

  • Licha ya
  • Aidha
  • Fauka ya
  • Zaidi ya
  • Pia

Ni maarifa ya kisayansi yaliyowekwa katika matumizi ya vifaa, vyombo, mitambo na zana mbalimbali.
Teknolojia inaweza kutumika kwa njia ainati

  • Mawasiliano
  • Utafiti wa kisayansi
  • Usafi na afya ya mwili
  • Usafiri
  • Kilimo na ufugaji
  • Michezo na mashindano
  • Elimu
  • Biashara
  • Kutalii anga za juu


Vyombo vya mawasiliano kama tarakilishi, magazeti, simu

  • Hutupasha habari
  • Hutuepusha na maafa
  • Kuelimisha na kutumbuiza Kiingiacho mjini si haramu Kipya kinyemi kingawa kidonda


Wataalamu wamevumbua/wamegundua dawa za dwele
Mashine/mitambona vyombo vya kurahisisha kazi
Mitambo ya kuchunguza hali ya anga
Dawa za kuzuia mimba
Ukiona vyaelea vimeundwa


Vyombo na vifaa vingi hutumiwa shuleni
Mitambo na vifaa vya utafiti
Matumizi ya mitandao
Kanda za video
Elimu ni bahari
Elimu haitekeki


Zana za vita hutumiwa hutulinda dhidi ya maadui
Donge nono hupatikana baada ya kuuza vifaa
Nyua za umeme na ving’ora
Tahadhari kabla ya hatari

Kilimo na ufugaji

Pembejeo-mbegu, mbolea, dawa
Mashine za kulimia, kunyunyuzia maji
Mashine za kukama ng’ombe
Ukiona vyaelea vimeundwa
Tembe na tembe huwa mkate


Vyombo vya usafiri vya majini, angani na nchi kavu
Huenda kwa kasi ya umeme
Huokoa wakati
Ngoja ngoja huumiza matumbo

Madhara ya teknolojia

  • Huwafanya watu kuwa wazembe Chanzo cha mmomonyoko wa maadili
  • Hufundisha ulevi, ulanguzi wa dawa za kulevya
  • Hulemaza akili na fikira
  • Huchangia kutupilia mbali kwa tamaduni na desturi


  • Ningependa kuwajuza kuwa ______________________
  • Ningeomba sote tupinge kwa jino na ukucha _______________________
  • Tusiwe kama chachandu kwa kujipalia makaa kwa ___________________________

Insha ya Masimulizi


Michezo ni jumla ya shughuli za kujifurahisha, kujichangamsha,kujiburudisha au kupoteza wakati
Kuna michezo ainati kama vile

  • Kandanda
  • Mpira wa vikapu
  • Voliboli
  • Naga
  • Magongo
  • Riadha
  • Sarakasi/viroja


Ni jumla ya michezo ya viungo vya mwili kama kukimbia, kuruka
Kuna mbio za masafa

  • Mafupi-mita 100, 200, 400
  • Kadiri-mita 800, 1500, 3000
  • Marefu-5000, 10,000, na mbio za nyika
  • Kuruka viunzi na maji
  • Kutupa tufe/kijisahani
  • Kubururana kwa kamba


  • Tufe
  • Mzingo
  • Nusu mzingo
  • Vijiti
  • Safu za kukimbilia
  • Wapasua hewa

Kandanda/kambumbu/soka /gozi/mpira wa miguu

  • Hushirikisha timu mbili
  • Mavazi ya wachezaji-jezi, kaptura, soksi
  • Viatu vya wachezaji-ndaruga, njumu
  • Uwanja wa michezo unaitwa uga/uchanjaa
  • Golikipa-mlinda lango/ mdakaji/mnyakati
  • Wachezaji wa ngome-walinzi/defense
  • Wachezaji wa kiungo
  • Kipindi cha lala salama/cha pili
  • Kadi ya manjano/nyekundu
  • Mshindi/mshinde
  • Mchuano/kinyang’anyiro/kindumbwendumbwe

Mapambo na maumbo

  • Uwanja/uga/uchanjaa ulijaa/ulifurika
  • Jiwe lisingeanguka ardhini
  • Shangwe, vifijo, vigelegele na nderemo vilihinikiza hewani
  • Ngome yao ilikuwa dhabiti mithili ya ukuta uliojengwa kwa zege
  • Wapasua hewa walihema na kutweta
  • Mithili ya mbwa aliyenusurika kumezwa na chatu
  • Kikorombwe cha mwisho kilipopulizwa
  • Alipiga zinga kimo
  • Cha mbuzi hadi ______________
  • Nilimvisha kanzu/kupiga tobwe
  • Mpira ulianza kwa kasi ya umeme
  • Mpira uludanadana wavuni


  • Hayawi hayawi huwa
  • Hauchi hauchi unakucha
  • Kutangulia si kufika
  • Subira huvuta heri




Mikasa ni matukio au mambo ya kutisha yanayotokea kwa ghafal pasi ya kutarajiwa
Matukio haya yanaweza kuleta maafa, masaibu na majonzi
Mikasa hii inaweza kuwa ya moto, milipuko ya bomu, zilizala, mafuriko, ajali barabarani, mlipuko wa volkano na maporomoko ya ardhi
Yanayopaswa kuzingatiwa kwa masimulizi ni

  • Wakati wa mkasa
  • Mahali pa tukio
  • Jinsi tukio lilivyotokea
  • Kushiriki kwa msimulizi
  • Shughuli za uokozi

Msamiati na mapambo

Kelele-mayowe, kamsa, usiahi
Mlipuko-mfyatuko, mwatuko, mshindo, ngurumo
Vilio-shake, kusinana, kikweukweu, kwikwikwi, mayowr
Mochari-makafani, ufuoni,
Ving’ora vya ambulensi na makarandinga
Vifusi na majivu katika majengo
Manusura na majeruhi
Huduma ya dharura
Vukuto la moto
Helikopta za kijeshi na shirika la msalaba mwekundu
Mabehewa(mabogi) yalitapakaa
Gari liliyumba yumba/lilipiga danadana
Taharuki na hekaheka
Kuuputa moto kwa matagaa
Cheche za moto zilitanda kama fataki
Paparazi walizuka/walitokea ghafla bin vu kama mizuka
Upepo ulivuma kwa ghamidha na ghadhabu
Waja walipiga mbizi ili kujinusuru
Gari liligeuzwa likawa ganda tu
Ngeu ilitapakaa na kuzagaa kote
Mizigo ilfyatuka na kuwalenga wapiti njia
Ving’ora vilihinikiza/vilitanda/vilishamiri kote
Mavundevunde ya moshi yalitanda kote
Joto lilisambaa na kuzagaa
Vilikuwa vilio si vilio, majonzi si majonzi, zogo si zogo


  • Chelewa chelewa utampata mwana si wako
  • Akufaaye kwa dhiki ndiye rafiki
  • Ngoja ngoja huumiza matumbo
  • Mbiu ya mgambo ikilia kuna jambo
  • Umoja ni nguvu utengano ni udhaifu
  • Juhudi si pato

Vihisishi vya majuto na mshangao

La haula la kwata !
Yarabi maskini!
Ole wangu!


Walitupiga jeki
Niliwatilia upendo
Niliwapa mkono
Tulisaidiana kama kiko na digali
Maiti na jeneza
Kinu na mchi

Hakika, hakuna msiba usiokuwa na mwenziwe
Daima dawamu sitalisahautukio hilo
Matukio hayo hayatafutika kutoka tafakulini mwangu
Ninapokumbuka kisa hicho, machozi hunitiririka njia mbilimbili


Insha humhitaji kuelezea kisa kinachoonyesha huzuni na woga

Insha nyingi huhusu mikasa au masaibu kwa watu
Visawe vya mikasa ni balaa, janga , balaa, baa, visanga
Mikasa yote hutokea kama ajali

  • Zilizala
  • Ajali barabarani au angani
  • Mlipuko wa bomu
  • Ukame
  • Maporomoko ya ardhi
  • Moto Ugaidi

Yanayozingatiwa mahali pa mkasa

  • Jinsi tukio lilivyotukia
  • Kushiriki kwako
  • Uchunguzi na matokeo

Tanbihi : mahali pa tukio – hotelini , mwituni, ofisini, kituo cha mafuta, kiwandani,
shuleni, dukakuu, barabarani, ufuoni mwa bahari, chumba cha maabara

Mlipuko – mfyatuko, mwatuko, mngurumo,
Ulikuwa mlipuko wa kuatua moyo/mtima, kushtua, kuogofya, kutisha
Ulikuwa mlipuko wa jiko la gesi/umeme/gari/bomba la mafuta
Kelele: usiahi, unyonge, kamsa, ukwezi, mayowe, ukwenje
Vilio vya –kusinasina, cha shake, kikweukweu kwikwikwi
Iwapo ni bomu, moto, ajali ya ndege
Moto ulirindima na kutatarisha majengo
Mabiwi/mashungi ya moto
Mavunde/mawingu ya moshi yalitanda kote
Vukuto la moto liliongezeka badala ya upepo kuvuma kwa hasira/ghamidha/hamaki/ghadhabu
Nilijitoma ndani ya nyumba kuwanusuru
Nahodha hodari haogopi moto
Kwa muda wa bana banua sehemu ile ikawa kama tanuri/joko/jehanamu
Jingo hilo liligeuzwa na kuwa majivu
Moto/nari ilifakamia majengo kama nzige wavamiavyo shamba la mihigo
Muda si muda, muda kiduchu, kutia na kutoa, fumbo fumbua,bana banua, kuku
Punje paka kunawia mate, punda kunawia mavumbi,
Wengine walichomeka kiasi cha kutotambulika
Vilio vilinywea na sauti kuwapwelea
Tulipirikana na kupitana katika juhudi/hekaheka/pilikapilika za kuuputa moto
kuwaokoa wahasiriwa

Mikasa kwa jumla
Milio ya ving’ora vya makaradinga ya polisi, ambulensi, magari ya zima moto _____ tanda/tamalaki/tawala anga
Manusura/mahututi/majeruhi walipelekwa hospitalini/zahanatini
Walipewa hudum ya kwanza/ya dharura
Wafu walipelekwa mochari/ufuoni/makafari
Paparazi walizuka kama mizuka na kupeperusha picha sawia na matukio
Wanahabari walitangaza matukio ya mkasa redioni/runingani/magazetini
Wengine walisali/walipiga dua zisizoeleweka
Kwa nyota ya jaha/bahati ya mtende/kwa sudi wasamaria wema msalaba mwekundu wanajeshi zimamoto wakasaidia kuokoa
Basi lilipiga danadana na kuanguka bondeni ziwani/baharini
Tulifanya wanguwangu/himahima/chapu chapu/yosa yosa/ hala hala/mwendo wa arubili
Bila shaka tukio hilo halitafutika moyoni/sitalisahau daima dawamu
Niltamani ardi inimeze mzima mzima
Nilitamani kulia nikacheka nikalia
Machozi yaligoma

Ngoja ngoja huumiza matumbo
Chelewa chelewa utampata mwana si wako
Fimbo ya mbali haiui nyoka
Heri jirani wa karibu kuliko ndugu wa mbali
Akufaaye kwa dhiki ndiye rafiki
Mbiu ya mgambo ikilia kuna jambo
Mja hakatai wito hukataa aitiwalo
Ajali haina kinga wala kafara
Tahadhari kabla ya hatari
Nahodha hodari haogopi moto


Furaha inaweza kutokana na matukio mbalimbali kama vile

  • Sherehe –harusi
  • Siku ya kuzaliwa
  • Mahafali
  • Siku kuu ya krismasi
  • Kwenda ughaibuni
  • Matokeo mazuri ya mtihani

Siku ya siku
Akidi ya kufana
Sherehe ya kukata na shoka
Siku ya ndovu kumla mwanawe
Shamrashamra za
Msamiati na mapambo
Maua ya kila nui/ainati – asmini ,mawaridi afu, nangisi
Ukumbi wa mahema , jumba kubwa ,uwanja
Vipasa sauti/mikrofoni –vilihinikiza /sheheni
Muziki wa kuongoa ongoa ulitamalaki katika anga
Vyakula – mapochopocho/maakuli yaliyotishia kuangusha meza
Vinywaji vya kila jamii yalipenyeza kisirisiri
Mkalimani/mtarijumani alitafsiri haya yote
Kiume – mtanashati
Kike – mlibwede, spoti , mrembo kama mbega
Binti alikuwa mrembo mithili ya hurulaini aliyeasi/toka peponi
Alitembea kwa mwendo wa dalji/mwendo wa twiga wa savanna
Mwanaume mrefu njorinjori /mrefu kama unju/weusi kama kaniki
Udohoudoho , chipsi, bisi, kripsi
Waja walisakata rumba/dansi/tibwirika kwa miondoko
Msafara /mlolongo wa mashangingi
Walikula kiapo/yamini/vishana pete huku shangwe
Walipigana pambaja
Pofushwa na vimulimuli vya wapiga picha
Waja walijaa furifuri
Ilikuwa dhahiri shahiri kuwa ningefua dafu
Nilidamka wanguwangu kwa kuubwaga mgolole wangu na kuanza hamsini zangu
Kuche kusiche hatimaye kulikucha
Amka bukrata kichea
Niliamka asubuhi ya Mungu
Waja walisalimiana kwa furaha na farahani
Furaha sufufu ilinitinga si kidogo
Vyakula vya kunoga na kuhomolewa viliandaliwa na wapishi wajuzi
Vicheko vilipamba moto jari moja
Watu walichangamka na kukaramka kwa bashasha
Nilivalia meli zangu mpya zilizometameta kama mbalamwezi
Utamu wa malaji ungemfanya mtu kuramba viwiko vya mkono

Hauchi hauchi huwa
Hayawi hayawi huwa
Siku njema huonekana asubuhi
Baada ya dhiki, faraja
Mtu ni watu
Mgaagaa na upwa hali wali mkavu

Shirikiana kama kinu na mchi, kiko na digali, soksi na kiatu
Lazima kama ibada
Kawaida kama sharia
Bidii kama mchwa ajengaye kichuguu/kishirazi/kidurusi
Bidii za msumeno ukerezao mbao
Bidii ni duduvule agatoye gogo la mti


Kumbukumbu ni taarifa au rekodi zilizoandikwa na kuhifadhiwa
Anayeandika ni katibu au karani
Kiongozi wa mkutano huwa mwenyekiti au naibu wa mwenyekiti
Kumbukumbu ni maoni ya wote;hivyo basi katibu hafai kutoa hisia zake mwenyewe
Sehemu muhimu za kumbukumbu ni

  • Mada/kichwa
  • Mahudhurio
  • Ajenda za mikutano
  • Thibitisho


  • Huwa na jina rasmi linalotambulisha shirika, kundi, kampuni
  • Huwa na tarehe, mahali na wakati(saa)
  • Kichwa kindikwe kwa herufi kubwa na kupigiwa mstari


  • Huonyesha majina ya waliohudhuria, waliokosa kuhudhuria na waliotuma udhuru(sababu) ya kutohudhuria
  • Huonyesha walioalikwa
  • Majina ya wanajopo/wanakamati/wanachama yafuate vyeo
  • Baadhi ya vyeo ni kama vile
    • Mwenyekiti au naibu mwenye kiti
    • Karani au naibu/katibu
    • Katibu mwandamizi/mratibu
    • Mhazini-anayetunza mali ya shirika au kampuni


  • Hizi ni hoja muhimu zinazojadiliwa k.v kufunguliwa kwa mkutano
  • Kusomwa kwa kumbukumbu za mkutano uliotangulia
  • Hoja nyinginezo zitategemea nia ya mkutano au shirika
  • Kufungwa kwa mkutano-taja anayeomba na wakati


  • Mkutano ulifahamishwa kwamba _______________
  • Ripoti ilitolewa kuwa ___________________
  • Mwenyekiti aliwaarifu/aliwajuza kuwa _____________________
  • Mkutano uliamua kwamba ___________________
  • Walipatana kwamba __________________
  • Kikao kilielezwa kuwa ____________________

Sehemu hii huwa na sahihi na tarehe

Baada ya kumbukumbu kusomwa na kuthibitishwa katika mkutano unaofuata mwenyekiti na katibu hutia sahihi

Umbo la kumbukumbu

Mada:herufi kubwa

Waliotuma udhuru

Wasiotuma udhuru



KUMB CCM1 1/02:

KUMB CCM 2 1/02:

Mwenyekiti ________________________ (sahihi)
Tarehe ___________________________
Katibu ____________________________(sahihi)
Tarehe ___________________________

Insha ya Mazungumzo

Mazungumzo ni maongezi mahojiano au malumbano baina ya mtu na mwingine au kundi moja na jingine

Mazungumzo haya yanaweza kuwa
Poroja/soga/domo-ni mazungumzo ya kupitisha wakati
Kutafuta ujumbe maalum-hufanyika kwa njia ya mahojiano
Kumdadisi au kumwelekeza mtu-baina ya mtu aliye na tajriba na Yule anayetaka msaada

  • Kila mmoja hupewa nafasi ya kuzungumza
  • Mhusika mmoja asichukue nafasi kubwa
  • Tumia alama za uakifishaji ainati
  • Sharti pawe na hali ya kuchachawiza
  • Vitendo viweze kuandikwa katika alama za mabano
  • Fani za lugha zitumuke ili kuleta uhondo katika mazungumzo
  • Lazima pawe na maagano au maelewano
  • Tangaza msimamo iwapo ni mahojiano
  • Hatua

Huandikwa kwa herufi kubwa na kupigiwa ,mstari

Maudhui-hili ni lengo au kusudi la mazungumzo
Msamiati utategemea lengo la mazungumzo
Vitendo na ishara-haya yataandikwa katika mabano mfano: (akiketi, akilia, wakibisha, akicheka)
Alama za uakifishaji
Koloni( : )huandikwa baada ya jina au cheo cha mtu
Alama za dukuduku ( -------------)kwamba mazungumzo yanaendelea
Parandesi au mabano ()
Kubana maneno ambayo hayatasemwa
Alama ya hisi ( ! ) hutumiwa pamoja na viingizi kuonyesha hisia
Mfano: yarabi maskini!

Insha ya Maelezo au Wasifu

Hii ni insha inayotoa maelezokuhusu jambo, mahali au kitu Fulani

  • Insha hii hueleza, huarifu, huburudisha au hutahadharisha
  • Mwandishi asiandike chini ya hoja sita
  • Tumia viunganishi unapounganisha mawazo katika aya au unapoaanza aya nyingine
  • Tiririsha mawazo ili pawena mtiririko na mshikamano
  • Katika tamati toa ushauri kwa makundi mbalimbali
  • Mwandishi anaweza kutoa msimamo wake kuhusu hoja Fulani


  • Elimu ni taaluma au mfuo wa mafunzo yanayofundishwa katika jamii zetu
  • Elimu inazo faida anuwai
  • Elimu huondoa ujinga akilini
  • Mja hupata maarifa, ujuzi na hekima
  • Mwanafunzi hutambua mambo tofauti
  • Humakinika katika mambo ayafanyayo
  • Elimu ni bahari na pia habari
  • Aliyeelimika huweza kuishi na wengine
  • Mtu hujiheshimu na kuheshimu wengine
  • Husaidia kudumisha amani, umoja na upendo baina ya watu
  • Kichango kuchangizana
  • Umoja ni nguvu utengano ni udhaifu
  • Ni daraja la kutuvusha katika umaskini
  • Waja hutia bidii za mchwa ili kufaulu maishani
  • Humwezesha mtu kuhitimu katika taaluma Fulani
  • Uhawinde hutokomea kama umande nyasini wakati wa jua la asubuhi
  • Hurahisisha mawasiliano Baina ya mtu mmoja na mwingine au baina ya mataifa
  • Hujifunza mengi kwani kuishi kwingi kuona mengi
  • Aliyesoma hutalii nchi nyingi
  • Kuhifadhi siri
    Elimu humwezesha mja kusoma uumbe kutoka katika barua au arafa akiwa pekee
  • Huchangia kuwepo kwa maendeleo
  • Serikali hujenga shule,vyuo na miundo msingi mingineyo ya elimu
  • Taasisi mbalimbali huboresha mitaala ya ufundishaji
  • Hufanikisha utafiti, utumiaji wa teknolpjia mpya na mitambo mbalimbali

Elimu ni irithi

Elimu ni mali ambayo haiteki
Ni almasi inayostahili kuchibwa na mtoto yeyote mwandilifu
Zamani watu waliridhi mashamba na mifugo
Elimu ni silaha na nguzo muhimu na madhubuti


Elimu ni bahari
Elimu ni taa, gizani huzagaa
Elimu ni ali ambayo adui hawezi kuiteka
Elimu maisha si vitabu

Viunganishi na mapambo

Isitoshe, elimu ni ,ali ambayo adui hawezi _____________________
Zaidi ya hayo, humwezesha mja kuhitimu _____________________
Hata hivyo, kuna wale wanaoitumia __________________________
Aidha, limu hurahisisha mawasilia ___________________________


Tujifunge masombo/nira/kibwebwe ili ________________________
Tujikaze kisabuni _________________________
Tusiwe pweza wa kujipalia makaa kwa kutoelimika _________________________
Tujifunge masombo mithili ya _____________________ duduvule atoboaye gogo/mchwa ajengaye kichuguu

Ningependa kukunja jamvi kwa ____________________________
Ninapofikia tamati
Jua linapoaga mikalatusi
Ninatia kitone nikitoa lulu kuwa

Barua Rasmi

Pia huitwa barua ya kiofisi
Huandikwa kuhusu jambo rasmi
Huandikwa ili

  • Kuomba nafasi ya kazi
  • Kuomba nafasi za masomo shuleni au chuoni
  • Maombi ya msaada kutoka kwa serikali
  • Kuomba msamaha au radhi
  • Malalamishi kuhusu jambo Fulani

Barua rasmi ina sehemu zufuatazo

  • Anwani
  • Anwani mbili – ya mwandishi na ya mwandikiwa
  • Anwani ya mwandishi huandikwa tarehe
  • Kianzio
    Sehemu hii huandikwa bwana (BW) au bibi (BI), Mkurugenzi mkuuu, mwalimu mkuu
    Ni kichwa cha barua ambacho huashiria lengo au madhumuni kwa ufupi
    Kumbukumbu – KUMB
    Mintarafu – MINT
    Kusudi – KUS
    Kuhusu – KUH
    Yahusu – YAH
    Kichwa cha barua rasmi hupigiwa mstari
  • Mwili
    Huelezea zaidi kuhusu kusudi ya barua na lengo hasa kuandika barua
    Mtahiniwa huhitajika kuelezea kuhusu Elimu yake
    Wasifukwani haambatanishi stakabadhi zozote zile
    Insha yoyote ile lazima itimize ukurasa na nusu
  • Tamati/mwisho
    Humalizwa kwa
    Wako mwaminifu

Mtindo wa barua rasmi

S.L.P 93,
NOVEMBA 18, 2015.

S.L.P 2003,
Kwa Bwana/Bi – kianzo



hitimisho –
wako mwaminifu


Nina furaha kukuandikia __________________
Ninasikitika ninapokuandikia waraka _________________
Ningependa kuchukua fursa hii _____________
Kwa mujibu wa ilani ______________________ katika gazeti, runinga, mabango
Shule yako imetajwa na kutajika katika _________________ michezo, elimu, bidhaa bora
Shirika/kampuni imeipa kipaombela swala la _____________________
Nina nidhamu na taadhima ya hali ya juu
Vyeti vyangu pamoja na wasifu vimeambatanishwa na waraka
Nitakuwa kielelezo dhabiti kwa wenzangu
Nina talanta katika fani ya riadha _____________________
Ni matumaini yangu kuwa utaupokea waraka huu ________________________________

Barua Ya Kirafiki ama Kindugu

Huhusu kupatiana mwaliko, kujuliana hali, kufahamisha au kuarifu kuhusu jambo
Sehemu muhimu za barua hii ni

  • Anwani ya mwandishi
    Huandikwa pembeni kabisa upande wa kulia sehemu ya juu
    Huwa na jina la mwandishi , mahali anakoishi, sanduku laposta na tarehe
    Hudhihirisha Yule anayeandikiwa
    Hubainisha uhusiano wake na mwandishi
    • Kwa mpendwa
    • Kwa mwanangu mpendwa
    • Kwa mpenzi wangu
    • Kwa sahibu/muhibu
  • Utangulizi
    Haya ni maamkizi kwa yule anayeandikiwa
    • Pokea salamu – sufufu, furifuri, tolatola nyingi kama nyota angani, mchanga
    • Mimi ni bugeri wa afya
    • Mzima kama chuma cha pua / ngarange za mvule
    • Nina buraha na furaha/furaha na bashasha
    • Nina imana kuwa Mola/Mkawini/Jalali
    • Nina matumaini kama tai kuwa u buheri wa afya/siha/zihi.rai
  • Methali
    • Ama kweli/yakini/waama
    • Waraka ni nusu ya kuonana
    • Afya ni bora kuliko mali
  • Mwili
    Sehemu – hii hubeba ujumbe wa mwandishi
    Wema – ninaomba unitendee fadhila/jamala
    Ninashukuru kwa wema ulionitendea
    Utiifu – ninakuhakikishia kwamba nitakuwa na utiifu, nidhamu na bidii
    Lengo au azma ya kukuandikia waraka huu ni
    Waraka huu ni kukujulisha kuwa
    Ningependa kukujuza kuwa
  • Tamati
    Ningependa kutia nanga kwa kukuelezea kuwa _______________
    Kwa kuwa wasaa umenitia kumbu/muda 
    Umenipa kisogo, ningependa kutia kitone
    Ninakunja jamvi kwa msemo usemao _______________________
    Kalamu yangu inalilia wino ____________________
    Ndimi mzazi wako ____________________
    Wako wa moyoni _____________________________
    ni wako mpendwa ______________________
    Ndimi mwana wako mpendwa

S.L.P 93,


Kwa sahibu yangu, fundi msanifu ,
Utangulizi ______________________________
Ni mimi wako,
Jina la mwandishi

Insha ya Hotuba

Hotuba ni maelezo yanayotolewa ili kupitisha ujumbe Fulani
Anayetoa hotuba huitwa katibu
Umati unaosikiliza huitwa hadhira
Huanza kwa mlahaka/salamu kwa kutambua vyeo kuanzia wa juu mpaka wa chini ,
sababu ya mkutano
Alama za kunukuu hutumiwa
Hotuba inaweza kuwa ya

  • Mwanafunzi akihutubia shuleni
  • Mwalimu
  • Mwalimu mkuu wa wazazi shuleni
  • Daktari au afisa wa afya
  • Rais wakati wa maadhimisho ya mashujaa
  • Waziri wa usala, afya na ugatuzi

Mfano wa utangulizi
“mgeni wa heshima, mkuu wa elimu gatuzini, mkaguzi wa elimu, mwenyekiti na
maafisa wa elimu na wanafunzi, hamjambo?
‘Mwalimu mkuu, naibu wa mwalimu mkuu, walimu wenzangu, viranja na wanafunzi,

ninazo bashasha/furaha/buraha
Nimesimama kidete/tisti/imara kama chuma
Cha pua/ngarange za mvule/kiini cha mpingo
Nitawandondolea hoja zangukuanzia utando hadi ukoko,shinani hadi kileleni
Rejelea hadhira mara kwa mara – nanyi, enyi wazazi, nasi wanafunzi

Ningependa kutia kitone/nanga/kukunja jamvi kwa msemo usemao
Ninawamiminia shukrani tolatola/fokofoko
Kwa kutulia kama maji mtungini/maziwa kitomani
Kwa kuwa lililo na mwanzo halina budi kuwa na mwisho
Ninawatakia Baraka njema za Mualana/ninawatakia mbawazi za mkawini mbingu

Dawa za Kulevya

Ni kitu chochote kinachoathiri fahamu za mwili na afya ya mja

  • Kokeini
  • Mandraksi
  • Bangi
  • Ganja
  • Miraa au mirungi
  • Tumbako

Athari za dawa za kulevya

  • Kuvuruga akili
  • Mtumiaji hugeuka na kuwa mkia wa mbuzi/juha/kalulu
  • Kupata ujasira bandia
  • Mja huwa katili
  • Hujiingiza katika visanga kama wizi
  • Hudhuru afya
  • Mhasiriwa kama ng’onda/kimbaumbau mwiko wa pilau
  • Sura huumbuka na kusawijika
  • Husababisha saratani
  • Kuenea kwa magonjwa ya zinaa

Kinga ni bora kuliko tiba
Tahadhari kabla ya hatari

utovu wa nidhamu
watumiaji husheheni matusi
hutabawali kadamnasi
kuvalia mavazi mafupi

mwacha mila ni mtumwa
usiache mbachao kwa msala upitao
kuzorota kwa uchumi
mtu binafsi hutumia njenje zote
watoto hawatimiziwi mahitaji
filisha mja- akabaki hana mbele wala nyuma
uchumi wa nchi huzorotabaada ya kutumia pesa kuwatibu wahasiriwa
husababisha uraibu
huleta wizi
husababisha uzembe
madereva kusababisha ajali
kupata magonjwa