Inclined Planes.

These are tools that make work easier by increasing the effort distance.
class 8 science revision notes

Examples of inclined planes.

  • Screw
  • Screw driver.
  • A road winding up a hill.
  • Ladder.
  • Staircase, escalators, ramps.
  • Wedge

Single Fixed Pulley.

These are simple tools that make work easier by changing the direction of the force.
They are used to lift or raise load on higher surfaces.
class 8 notes science a

A rope or string is put along the groove. The groove prevents the rope from slipping off.

Properties of a single fixed pulley.

  • Makes work easier by changing the direction of the force.
  • The effort distance and the load distance are equal.
  • The effort force and load force move in opposite direction.
  • The effort force and load force are equal

Uses of pulleys

  1. Hoisting the flag.
  2. To load or offload cargo at the ports.
  3. Used in cranes

Energy Transformation.

The law of energy conservation statesthat, energy cannot be created or destroyed but can be changed to other forms of energy.

Forms of energy   Sources
Potential energy (stored) Possessed by objects at rest.
Found in fuels, dammed, water, elastic rubber.
Kinetic energy (motion) Possessed by moving objects.
Found in running water, wind, moving stone, moving car etc.
Chemical energy Found in chemicals, fuels, food, car battery, dry cells, candlewax and all fuels
Heat energy Main source is sun.
Other sources include; friction, burning fuels, electricity and food.
Light energy Main source is sun.
Other sources include; stars, electricity, lamps et
Magnet energy Found in magnets, loadstones and electromagnet
Sound Energy Produced when objects vibrates.
Sources include; pianos, guitas, drums etc
Mechanical energy Produced as a result of potential energy and kinetic energy.
Examples include; rotating turbines, hammer stricking a gong, between a bicycle and road
Elastic potential Found in streched rubber band or compressed spring.


Energy Conservation.

Energy conservation means protecting, preserving, restoring and managing energy resources.

Ways of Conserving of Energy.

  1. Using energy sparingly by:
    1. Switching bulbs off when not needed.
    2. Using public transport instead of private vehicle.
    3. Using bicycles or walking for short distance.
    4. Using vehicles with low fuel consumption.
    5. Using thermosflask and hot pots to keep food hot.
    6. Using energy saving bulbs.
  2. Using energy efficient devices.
    1. Modern jiko/improvised jiko
    2. Clay cookers.
  3. Using renewable forms of energy.
    Renewable forms of energy refers to forms that are inexhaustible like wind, water, sunlight, food, biogas and forests.
    Non-renewable sources of energy are those that can get exhausted when use like petrol, diesel, kerosene, natural gas

Advantages of Renewable Energy.

  • Are cheap.
  • Do not pollute the environment.
  • Help to conserve non renewable forms of energy.
  • Readily available and in abundance.

Nutritional Requirements For Special Groups

Nutritional Needs For A Pregnant Or Expectant Mother

  • Should be rich in proteins for proper growth of baby.
  • Should have carbohydratesfor properfunctioning of baby's organs and providing the mother with enough energy.
  • Should be rich in vitamin D and calcium for strong bones and teeth of the baby and formation of blood cells.
  • Should be rich in irons for healthy blood of the mother and foetus
  • Should have fibres to improve the mother's digeston and prevention of constipation
  • Should have plenty of fluids for good production of milk and maintenance of properlevel of amniotic fluid.

Nutritional Needs of Lactating Or Breastfeeding Mother.

  • Should be rich in irons to replace the blood lost during birth.
  • Should be rich in calcium, magnesium and phosphorus for recovery and strengthening of teeth and bones.
  • Should have vitamins to protect the mother against infection.

Nutritional Needs of Infants

Infants are children below 2years.

The best food for them is breast milk as it is wholesome ie it contains all the nutrients required by the body.

Advantages of breast milk

  • It is wholesome.
  • It has colostrum that gives natural immunity.
  • It is readily available in the right form and right temperature.
  • It is free from diseases.
  • It does not cause allergies.
  • It is easy to digest.
  • It strengthens mother-child bond.

Advantages of bottle feeding.

  • Convenient when the mother has little or no milk.
  • Someone else can feed the baby when the motheris away.
  • Children born to HIV/AIDS mother cannot be infected through bottled milk.

Disadvantages of bottle feeding.

  • Might lack some nutrients.
  • Lacks colostrum.
  • Not readily available.
  • Children might develop allergies.
  • Should have extra fluids for production of milk.


This is the gradual introduction of semi solids foods to an infant. It is done at the age of 4-6months. Breast feeding should continue upto 2 years. Introduce one food item at a time.

Food Poisoning.

This is an illness of the stomach caused by eating foods containing harmful substances.

Agents of food poisoning.

  • Micro-organism.
  • Chemicals.

Symptoms of food poisoning.

  • Violent vomiting.
  • Severe headache.
  • Diarrhoea.
  • Fever.
  • Feeling weak and dizzy.
  • Severe abdominal pain.
  • Nausea
  • Muscle paralysis.
  • Constipation.

Methods of prevention food poisoning.

  • Proper storage of food to avoid contamination.
  • Proper preservation of food.
  • Propersanitation and disposal of garbage.
  • Hygienic handling of food.
  • Proper cooking of food.
  • Thourough washing of hands before handling food.
  • Avoid buying damaged fruits and canned foods.
  • Proper washing of utensils and dishes used for food

The Meaning and Major Components of Environment

Environment describes all the things and conditions that make up our surroundings on earth.

The major natural components of environment consist of living things and non-living things i.e. Water, Soil, Air, Plants and Animals


Water is a very important component of the environment in that all living things depend on water. Water forms part of the environment for fish as fish get oxygen from the water and feed on water plants or some other fish found in the water. All other living things that live in water get oxygen from the water.

Other water sources found in the environment is a dependent for other living things on the land e.g. animals get water from rivers, lakes, rain and dams. People also use rain water for domestic purposes. They harvest the water using tanks and drums. They also
fetch water from rivers and wells.

Without water plants can not grow well. We already know that the conditions necessary for germination are: water, air and warmth. During photosynthesis, plants use water to make their own food.


Another important component of environment is soil which makes the homes of some small animals. Plants get nutrients from the soil so as they can grow well, get water from the soil through absorption and are finally held by the soil. Also soil is important to
animals in that they feed on plants that grow on the soil e.g. zebra, cows and goats. They are called herbivorous because they feed on green plants and vegetable materials that grow on the soil. Human beings cultivate the soil to produce food crops that they eat.

Many small animals live in the soil like ants, termites, moles, groundhogs and some bacteria which decompose dead plant and animal materials.


One of the major components of the environment is air which all living things cannot survive without. We already know that air is a composition of many gases; oxygen which makes 21% of the air is needed for respiration.

Note that living things breath in oxygen and those animals that live in water get their oxygen from the dissolved oxygen in the water. Carbon dioxide in air is 0.03% which is used by plants in making their own food in presence of sunlight, a process called
photosynthesis. These plants give out carbon dioxide. It is from the atmosphere where the plants and animals on the land get their oxygen and those in water get theirs in the water.

Animals take in oxygen through breathing and give out carbon dioxide. On the other hand plants take in carbon dioxide during photosynthesis and give out oxygen. Leguminous plants e.g. beans, ground nuts and peas use nitrogen which makes 78% part
of the air to make proteins.


Another major component of the environment is plants. Trees provide shelter for some animals such as monkeys and insects. Animals get their food from plants either directly or indirectly. Plants do also hold soil together thus preventing soil erosion.
Plants give out oxygen to the atmosphere during photosynthesis and animals take in oxygen during breathing. Dead plants decay and decompose releasing nutrients to the soil making it fertile.


Some animals help in pollination such as bees and butterflies. They help in cross pollination of flowers in plants. Animals also help in seed dispersal. Waste matters from animals add nutrients to the plants and this way soil becomes fertile. Small animals like
bacteria decompose materials in the environment to release nutrients to the environment. Animal breath out carbon dioxide into the atmosphere which in turn is used by plants to make food.

The Meaning and Effects of Soil Pollution

Soil pollution is the presence of substances that affect the quality of the soil also known as land pollution. It affects the usual use of soil and is dangerous to the health of human beings, other animals and plants. In other words, soil pollution means making soil impure. We say that when certain substances are present in the soil they pollute it. Substances that make soil or other components of the environment impure are called pollutants (contaminant). Some of examples of such pollutants are plastics, polythene papers, fertilizer, pesticides and herbicides.

NB: Pesticides kill pests while herbicides kill weeds.

If oil is spilled on the soil it pollutes it. The following are some causes of soil pollution:

  • Domestic waste disposal improperly
  • Improper disposal of raw industrial waste
  • Excess use of fertilizers, herbicides and pesticidesin the activities of poor agriculture
  • Spilling oil on the soil
  • Mining activities destroysthe soil structure and leave excessminerals on the top soil.

Effects of soil pollution

When soil is polluted, its fertility is affected and this too affects the soil productivity leading to the living components of the environment i.e. plants and animals getting affected as well.

Effects of soil pollution on plants


Most materials such as plastics and polythene papers do not decay. If such materials are not properly dumped, they may cause damage to leaves and stems of plants when deposited on the soil as they decay. Through this way, they interfere with growth of the plants as follows:

  • Absorption of water and mineral salts.
  • Growth of roots of the plants since they block the roots.
  • Air circulation in the soil.

Negative Effects of Soil Pollution on Animals.

Soil being homes of many small animals, such as worms, ants and termites, they are negative affected when soil is affected (polluted). Some small animals like bacteria make soil to be rich by decomposing dead vegetable and animal materials. Thisis the way humus is added into the soil making it more productive. Other small animals like earthworms and millipedes dig in the soil and this allows air and water circulation in the soil. The improved soil aeration and drainage of the soil allows the roots of the plants to penetrate into the soil easily.

The presence of oil, chemicals in the soil such as herbicides and pesticides and other harmful pollutants make it difficult for the small animals to survive and when they die the soil losesits quality and lowers productivity.

NB: Small animals in the soil improve soil air aeration and drainage.

Methods of Soil Conservation.

Animals and plants depend on soil. Plants grow on the soil while animals feed on the plants hence they need to conserve soil. To conserve soil means to protect it from losing its natural properties and productivity. There are various methods of conserving soil. This section briefly discusses these methods.

Table 3.1: Summary of the main methods used in soil conservation

Methods used in soil Conservation

 Soil conservation methods  
 Controlled use of agricutural chemicals  Planting trees
 Ensruring proper disposal of waste  Afforestation 
 Avoid burning vegetable cover  Contour farming 
 Mulching  Building gabions
 planting ground cover  Proper stock ing or controlled grazing 
  1. Control use of agricultural chemicals
    Agricultural chemicals include the following: fertilizers, pesticides and herbicides. If used uncontrollably they can lead to soil pollution and even water pollution. Their use can also be harmful to crops and those who consume the crop which include animals and human beings.
    Farmers should strictly follow the manufacturer’s instructions while using the agricultural chemicals. The instructions which come with agricultural chemicals clearly advise on the following:
    • Type of the chemical to use.
    • Purpose of the chemical.
    • Direction of usei.e. the amount to use and mode of application.
    • Precautionary measures to observe.
  2. Ensuring proper disposal of waste
    A lot of waste is produced by domestic and industries. Both wastes can be harmful or useful. So that soil is not polluted by these wastes it is important to have good ways of disposing them. This is called waste management.
    1. Domestic Waste
      Domestic waste means the garbage people discard from their homes. This may be of organic refuse or inorganic refuse.

      Organic refuse: This refers to those that can rot and includes food remains, vegetables, and fruit peelings.

      Inorganic refuse: This does not rot and some may take long time to decay.
      Examples of such are plastics, broken glasses, metal parts and cans. Domestic
      waste should not be dumped on the soil surface.

      Methods of disposing domestic waste
      Converting waste into compost manure
      A compost pit should be dug at home for all garbage that can rot e.g. food leftovers. This can be made into compost manure

      Using local authority service
      Waste in urban areasis deposited into the garbage bins provided by the local authorities who arrange for its collection and thereafter proper disposal.
      Table 3.2:common methods of waste disposal
       Method   Description 
       Incinerator  this is burning the inorganic refuse at very high temperatures in a machine
       Recycling This is the most effective method. It involve collecting waste e.g. papers, plastics, broken glasses and food cans, treating them with chemicals and reusing them to make more of the same products
      Depositing in pit latrines Inorganic waste should be thrown into a pit latrine or buried deep in the soil. Also it can be burnt in an improvised incinerator as shown below.
      Reusing Reusing means using an item more then once or for a different function from the one it was meant for at the beginning. Many such as cooking fat and oils, honey and jam are packed in reusable jars and cans. These can be used at home to store other products e.g. salt, sugar or small foods. Honey jars can be used as drinking glasses.
    2. Industrial Waste
      A lot of waste is produced in the industries. Such wastes include oil, contaminated acids and metal waste. Water is contaminated with chemicals, waste rubbers and waste papers. Some of these chemicals are not only hazardous to the soil but to the living component sin the environment.
       Method    Description 
       On-site treatment This is where waste is treated harmless at an industry at the point where it is produced. This in turn reduces the danger of polluting the environment during the transportation process to the point where it is appropriate to be disposed.
       Reusing Some industries use some products more than once or for different function from the initially meant for e.g. commercial industries, the solvent they use such as petrol to dry clean garments is not thrown away but filtered and reused.
       Recycling Companies that make bottles do not throw broken bottles away but recycle them to make new ones. There are other companies that buy waste paper and recycle them to make tissues e.g. toilet rolls, facial tissues and serviettes.
       Waste Exchange Programme  One industry may produce waste that can or may be needed by another industry for its raw materials. This can be considered as useful waste. To explain this lets look at furniture manufacturer where the saw dust is produced and wood shaving as waste products. These can be used by a company that manufactures papers.
      Treating hazardous waste This is where the new methods are used to treat hazardous waste to make them non-hazardous. Harmful pollutants are destroyed so that they do not pose any danger to the environment.
      raw materials
      This is the process where the raw materials that produce harmful wastes are replaced with other that produces less harmful waste.
      Changing Manufacturing process  A process or stage which produces waste during the manufacturing process may be changed or eliminated so that the waste is no longer produced.
      Incineration This is the process of burning waste using machines such as incerators and furnaces.
      Reducing its generation This is the best method of reducing waste. It involves simply preventing waste generation.
      Government regulations In this, government has put in place laws to control the disposal of waste. Such control aims at preventing illegal dumping of harmful waste.
  3. Avoid burning vegetable cover
    When we want to clearland for farming, we should slash or uproot the unwanted vegetations but not burning them. This is because cleared vegetation left to rot increase humus and adds nutrients to the soil.

    NB: Vegetation cover guards soil against exposure to the agents of soil erosion.

    When we burn vegetation, we kill the living organisms in the soil and no humus goes into the soil. Vegetation cover also prevents soil from agents of soil erosion such as wind, water and animals.
  4. Mulching
    This is covering the soil with dead plant materials such as dry grass and leaves. This prevents excessloss of water from the soil through evaporation. This also reduces splash erosion. The mulch decays afterwards and adds humus to the soil.
  5. Planting ground cover
    It is advisable to plant ground coversince land should not be left bear. Ground cover may include ground cover crops that spread out overthe soil surface and cover it. Examples of such cover crops include grass and sweet potatoes. These crops or plants hold the soil firmly with their roots helping or preventing the soil from being carried away by agents of soil erosion such as wind and rain. Cover crops also trap soil as water flows through the garden thus conserving soil.
  6. Terracing
    Terraces dug along the contours on the slopes reduce the speed of run-off water. This reduces soil erosion and this way soil is conserved.
  7. Planting trees
    Planting of trees can be either afforestation or re-afforestation.
  8. Afforestation
    This is planting of trees in areas where none has been planted.
  9. Re-afforestation
    This is planting trees where forests have been cleared. Trees are important in preserving soil:
    • Reduce wind erosion by breaking the wind
    • The roots hold soil particlesfirmly together. This helps the soil from being carried away by agents of soil erosion.
    • They provide shade thus reducing the amount of water evaporation.
    • They reduce the speed of running water. This reduces the strength of water to erode the soil.
    • The leaves fall off and decompose thus increasing the amount of humus in the soil.
  10. Contour farming
    In this crops are planted along the contours on ridges. This helps reduce soil erosion thus conserving the soil.
  11. Building gabions
    As already known, gulley erosion where running waterforms V or U - shaped channels. These gullies can be blocked by building structures called gabions across them. Gabions are heavy boxes made of wire mesh that are filled with stones. As water flows through the gabion, soil is trapped thus reducing soil erosion and repairs the soil structure.
  12. Proper stocking or controlled grazing
    Farmers should keep livestock that a piece of land can hold. This is called proper stocking which leads to soil conservation. When animals overgraze they uproot the vegetable cover e.g. grass. This way the soil becomes exposed to agents of soil erosion such as wind and water.

Air Pollution

Air is an important component of the environment. Pure air is a mixture of 21% oxygen, 78% nitrogen, 0.03% carbon dioxide and 0.97% rare gases, water vapour, and dust particles. Presence of harmful substances in the air is called air pollution. The substances are called pollutants. Pollutants endanger human health and also affect other living components in the environment i.e. plants and animals. Others which arte indirectly affected by air pollution are water and soil.

Major causes of air of Pollution

  1. Tobacco smoking
    This is one of the major forms of air pollution. It is normally smoked as cigarettes. In addiction to nicotine and tar, tobacco contains carbon monoxide as well which is a highly poisonous gas as it interferes with the ability of the blood to transport oxygen to the body organs. Smoke from cigarettes does not only affect the active smoker but also the passive smokeri.e. any one who inhales the cigarette smoke (polluted air) unintentionally.
  2. Burning tyres and plastic materials
    The combustion of tyres and plastic materials produces harmful emissions and poisonous gases and especially when they do not completely burn. Incomplete combustion produces gases such as carbon monoxide which poses threat to humans health and to the survival of animals and plants. Similarly, carbon dioxide is a product of incomplete combustion. As we already know the normal carbon dioxide in the air is 0.03% excess carbon dioxide in the air as pollutant. Other pollutants from combustion are tiny particles of smoke and soot.

    Rubber and plastics when burnt produces black sooty flame and emits smoke that makes the air smoggy and also emits a foul smell. Charcoal burning is also a threatto the environment
  3. Emission of Gases from Vehicle Exhaust
    Vehicles use fuels like petrol and diesel to run. The combustion of these fuels in the engine of the vehicles produces harmful gases e.g. carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and other gases. These gases produced by vehicles contain poisonous gases then contribute to pollution of the air. Exhaust gases from vehicles thus contribute to pollution of air and especially in cities and big towns where traffic is heavy.

    Another harmful substance that may be contained in burning fuels is lead which is dangerousto human health.
  4. Spraying Farm Chemicals
    Agricultural or otherwise farm chemicals include the following: Herbicides, Acaricides and Pesticides

    Farm chemicals are dissolved in water and sprayed to either crops or animals using a sprayer. As spraying farm chemical is done, wind blows some of the chemicals thus polluting the air. The person spraying the chemicals should take the following precaution measures to avoid inhaling the chemicals:
    • Wearing protective clothessuch as gas mask, gloves and protective coats.
    • Spraying in the same direction the wind is blowing to and not against the wind.
  5. Aerosol sprays
    These are packed in cans or other containersfrom which liquid is forced out in form of a fine mist. The perfume or pesticide is dissolved in solvent which remains in the atmosphere after spraying and pollutes it. The solvent may contain harmful chemical substances which interfere with the ozone layer.

    NB: Ozone is a gasin the upper part of the atmosphere. It forms a protective blanket known as the ozone layer which protects the earth from harmful rays from the sun. Harmful gases result in tuning of the ozone layer. When this is depleted, the survival of human being, animals and plants is at a threat.
  6. Industrial Waste Gases
    Most industries release waste gases into the air which may be harmful. Some of these industries produce excess carbon dioxide which can pollute the air. Some otherindustries produce a gas called sulphur dioxide which is also harmful. Other industries too produce dust and small particles which are harmful. These waste industrial gases must be treated so that they are made safe.

Effects of Air Pollution on Living Things and Non-Living Things

Polluted air is a threat to human, animals and plant life. Also it is dangerous to nonliving components of the environment e.g. water and soil. It corrodes materials such as corrugated iron sheets and marble.

  1. Effects of air pollution on living things

    1. Effects of air pollution on plants
      In order to grow healthy, plants need clean air. Polluted air affects plants in the following ways:
      • Leaves are covered with dust particle and thus blocking the sunlight and so affecting photosynthesis, the process by which plants make their own food. Soot and dust block the stomata this may affects plants.
      • Some waste gases such as sulphur dioxide dissolve in water droplets to form acidic solutions which damage leaves of plants. Presence of these gases in the air could also lead to formation of acid rain which make the soil to be acidic thus affecting the availability of nutrients to plants. High acidity on the soil may interfere with the survival of organisms that are very important to plants growth. When absorbed through roots, acid rain interferes with proper development of plant and it may wither and die. When deposited in water sources like pond, lakes and oceans, water plants that feed on water animals are affected.
    2. Effects of air pollution on animals
      Air pollution is a threat to humans, domestic and wild animals through the following ways:
      • Causes respiratory problems. When animals inhale dust and other harmful gases, they can develop respiratory such as coughing and sneezing which may result to respiratory diseases.
      • May cause allergies resulting in coughing, sneezing, irritation of eyes and breathing problems.
      • When acid rain gets deposited into water sources like lakes, ponds, and oceans, water animals e.g. fish are affected.
  2. Effects of air pollution on non living things

    • Sulphur and carbon dioxide are among gases that cause air pollution when dissolved in the rain water. They form acid rain which corrodes metals such as corrugated iron sheets and stones like marble.
    • Acid rain causes weathering of rocks.
    • The view of environment is also destroyed by smoke and smog which are a mixture of gas particles.
    • Smog destroys materials made of rubber too.
    • Dust particles soil our clothes and settle on surface of tables, window sills and furniture thus making then dirty.

Ways of Controlling Air Pollution

Air pollution is controlled in several ways: These include;

  • Avoiding smoking cigarettes
  • NOT burning tyres and plastic materials

Table 3.4: Air Pollution Control Measures

 Measure  Description 
Avoid smoking cigarettes  In an effort to control air pollution banning of cigarette smoking in public places e.g. hospitals, schools, and in public transport vehicles has been done. These areas have been declared smoking free zones and billboards displaying the ban in these areas have been erected.
NOT burning tyres and plastic materials Polythene papers and tyres plus other plastics should be recycled or buried deep in the soil. They should not be burnt

Hard and soft water.

Hard water is water which contains dissolved salts ie magnesium and calcium. Mainly from sea,
oceans, boreholes, lakes and dams.

Soft water is water with no or little dissolved salt in it. Mainly rain water.

Advantages of hard water.

  • Contains dissolved minerals which are good for our health.
  • It has a good taste to drink.
  • It is good in brewing industry.

Disadvantages of hard water.

  • Wastes a lot of soap because it does not lather easily.
  • It discolours teeth when drank.
  • It stains clothes.
  • It causes clogging and blocking of pipes.
  • It forms scales or fur on boilers and hot water pipes.
  • Wastes a lot of time and energy during laundry.

Advantages of soft water.

  • Does not stains teeth.
  • Best in laundry.

Disadvantages of soft water.

  • Does not have a good taste.
  • Has no minerals required by the body.

Types of water hardness.

There are two types of water hardness, namely;

  • Temporary water hardness.
  • Permanent water hardness.

Temporary water hardness can be removed by boiling or distillation. Permanent water hardness can be removed by adding chemicals.

NB: The process of removing the dissolved minerals from hard water is called softening.


Adaptations of Animals to their Environment

Feeding Habitats in Mammals.


These are mammals that feed on plants eg cow, buffalo, antelopes, elephants etc

They are classified into two, namely;

  • Grazers- They feed on grass eg cattle, buffalo, hippopotamus
  • Browers- They feed on twigs and leaves eg antelopes, girraffes, goats
 Part   Adaptation   Function 
  Horny pad  Hard, horny pad on the upper jaw. Holding food tightly against incisor when cutting.
 Diastema Toothless gap between  For turning vegetable
  Incisors and premolar materials for proper chewing.
 Incisors They have incisors on the lowerjaw which are sharp, flat and  chisel-shaped Biting, holding, nibbling and cutting food.
Molars and premolars. Present in both jaws.
Same size and shape.
Large, flat and ridged.
For grinding, crushing and chewing food
Continous replacement of
molars and premolars
Molars and premolars replace continous throughout their life. To replace the worn out ones due to constant grinding of food materials.
Cow's tongue  Long and rough. Long to reach out and grip grass.
Rough to avoid injury by hard vegetation.
Horse and rabbit's
Large, has certain bacteria. Used for digesting tough plants materials called cellulose.
Camel's hump Fats stored in hump. Releases metabolic water when oxidised and
burned in the body.


These are mammals that feeds on flesh only. They include; lions, dogs, cats, leopard, etc

Adaptations of carnivores.

  1. They have sharp and pointed incisiors for catching and holding their prey.
  2. They have long pointed and strong canines for tearing off pieces of flesh from bone, they also penetrate flesh, holding and killing the prey.
  3. They have ridged, flattened premolars and molars which fit well into each, saw like on both jaws for crushing bones and flesh into small portions.
  4. They have strong scissor like carnassial teeth on both jaws for slicing into flesh and cracking bones.
  5. They have well spaced teeth to prevent flesh from getting stuck between teeth.

Feeding Adaptations in Birds.

Grain eaters.

These are birds which feeds on grains or seeds.
They include; chicken, doves, Turkey, pigeons,Weaver bird and quelea birds. They have a strong, short, straight, thick, blunt and cone shaped beaks for picking grains.
Their claws are adapted to scratching.

Flesh eaters.

They are know us birds of prey.
They include Hawks, eagles, kites and falcons
They have short, thick, sharp and hooked(curved) beaks for cutting and tearing flesh.
They have a sharp eyesight for spotting their prey from far.
They have strong,sharp and curved claws called talons for holding and tearing their prey.

Nectar feeders.

They feed on nectars.
Examples include; sunbird and humming bird.
They have a long slender and slight curved beak for sucking nectarsfrom a flower.

Filter feeders.

These birds filters their foods from mud.
They include; ducks, sea gulls, swans, geese, pelican and flamingo.
They have a flat, broad, strong and serrated (v-shaped) beaksfor sieving or filtering their foods
Their feet are webbed.

Adaptations of Animals to Movement.

Reasons for movement.

  1. To search for food (prey).
  2. To search for shelter.
  3. To escape from predators.
  4. To search for favouble climatic condition.
  5. To seek mates for reproduction.

Adaptations to Flying.

  1. They have wings which has feathers to increase surface area for flapping against air.
  2. They have hollow bones to make themlight so that they can float on air
  3. They have a streamlined bodiesto enable them move quickly, smoothly and easily through air.

Adaptations to Swimming

  1. They have fins(pelvic, pectoral, caudal, dorsal and anal fins) which help them to move in water.
  2. They have swim bladder (air bladder) which help them to control their depth during swimming.
  3. They have webbed feet which act as oarsfor propelling themin water.
  4. They have streamlined body which help them to move smoothely in water.
  5. They have scales pointing backwards and covered with slimy substance to minimise waterresistance

Adaptations to Hopping and Leaping.

They have a powerful hind legs to enable them move forward. Some have a
short fore legs and strong hind eg kangaroo. Some also have tails for balancing.
They include; amphibians, grasshopper, locust and kangaroos.

Signs of Ill Health in Livestock.

  • Stunted or retarded growth.
  • Loss of weight.
  • Reduced yields.
  • Rough coat.
  • Coughing.
  • Blood or worms in stool.
  • Inactive.

Effects of Livestock Diseases.

  • Lowers yields.
  • Lowers quality of the product.
  • Diseases can be passed to human being.
  • Can cause death to animals

Adaptations of plants to their environment.

Adaptations are mechanisms that enable a plant to survive in a habitat. Plants habitats include:-

  • Dry areas
  • Wet areas.
  • Normal soil and water condition

Plants adapted to dry area.

Plants that are able to survive in dry area are called xerophytes.

Examples include: Cactus, acacia, euphorbia, baobab, sisal, marram grass, pricky pears, desert
shrubs, sun dune grass, jacaranda, thorn tree, cassava, casuarinas and candelabra.

Characteristics of xerophytes.

  1. They have deep and widespread root system to obtain waterfrom a wider area.
  2. They have stemsthat can store water; their stems are thick, fleshy and succulent. They also have waxy cuticle to reflect sunlight which may cause overheating.
  3. They have needle-like leaves which reduces water loss by transpiration and evaporation.
  4. Some have few leaves to reduce water losslike acacia.
  5. Some shed leaves in dry seasonsto reduce water loss eg jacaranda.
  6. Some fold their leaves to trap moisture for the plant eg sun dune grass.
  7. Some are covered with a thick waxy cuticle which reduces water loss through evaporation eg sisal.
  8. Some become inactive during dry seasons.
  9. Some have sunken stomata that are hidden in small depression.
  10. Some have reversed stomatal rhythm i.e. open their stomata during the night and close during the day.
  11. Some have more stomata on the lowersurface than on the upper surface to reduce water loss through evaporation.

Plants adapted to wet areas.

They are called hydrophytes.

Most they grow in equatorial forests, swamps, marshes, lakes and rivers.

They include: water lily, butter cup, mangroves, bladderwort, water lettuce, duck weed, aquatic
ferns, rice plants and water hyacinth.

Adaptations of hydrophytes.

  1. They have broad or wide flat leaves which enables them to float on water and encourages water loss by transpiration eg water lily
  2. They have shallow roots which reduce the rate of absorption
  3. They have leafy shoots which encourages water loss by transpiration, they also have more stomatas on the upper surface than on the lowersurface
  4. They have numerous stomata which remain open to allow gas absorption for photosynthesis.
  5. They have flexible stemsthat cannot be broken by water currents.
  6. They have thin cuticle to encourage water loss through transpiration.
  7. They have air sacs to enable them to float on water.
  8. They have waxy and hairy leaf surface to prevent water from standing on the leaf surface.
  9. They have floating flowers to allow for the cross pollination by small animals.

Adaptations to normal soil and water conditions.

Plants which grow in normal soil and water conditions are called mesophytes.

They includes maize, beans, potatoes and bananas.

Signs of unhealthy crops.

  1. Leaf discoloration.
  2. Stunted or stranded growth.
  3. Curled leaves.
  4. Spots or streaks
  5. Wilting.

Effects of crop diseases.

  1. Lower yields.
  2. Reduces quality of produce.
  3. Reducesincome or economic loss.

Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs)

These are diseases which are passed from one person to another person through sexual contact.

They are also called sexual transmitted diseases (STDs)

 STI   Cause and transmission    signs and symptoms
  •  caused by bacteria.
  • transmitted through: 
    1. Sexual intercourse.
    2. Infected mother to child at birth. 
    3. Deep mouth kissing.
    4. Sharing of person items.
  • Painless sore (chancre) on genitals.
  • Chancre is irregularin shape.
  • Sores in the mouth, lips, anus, fingers.
  • Painful rash all over the body after several weeks.
  • Hard lumps on the skin.
  • Loss of hair.
  • Cause paralysis and heart disease.
  • Madness and death if not treated.
  • Caused by bacteria.
  • Transmitted through:
    1. Sexual intercourse.
    2. Infected mother to child at birth.
    3. Contact with an infected person's fluids or genitals.  
  • Pain when passing out urine.
  • Yellowish or greenish discharge from penis.
  • Pain in the lower abdomen in females
  • Swelling of testicles.
  • Knees and other body joints swell
  • Infertility if not treated.
  • Caused by bacteria.
  • Transmitted through;
    • Sexual intercourse
  • Painful regular sore with a red border(bubo)
  • Painful and swollen lymph glands.
  • Sore on hand sand thighs.


NB: Genital herpes and HIV/AIDS are other STIs caused by virus.



Fertilization is the fusion or union of the nuclei of the ovum and the sperm in the
oviduct/fallopian tube.

Types of Fertilization.

There are two types of Fertilization that takes place in the female's body. Namely;

  • Internal fertilization- Which takes place inside the female's body, mainly in human beings,
    birds and reptiles.
  • External fertization - Which takes place outside the female's body, mainly amphibians and

Process of Fertilization in human beings

During sexual intercourse/coitus/copulation, sperms are introduced in the vagina by the penis.

Sperms swim in the semen using their tails until they reach the oviduct where they meet a
mature ovum.

Many sperms surrounds the ovum but only one penetrates the ovum, the nuclei of the sperm
and the ovum fuse to form a Zygote

After fertilization a woman becomes pregnant and this is called conception. NB: The sperms
which do not penetrate the ovum are killed.

The zygote then undergo cell division, travels down to uterus and attaches itself on the uterine walls, this is called implantation

After implantation, the zygote is called embryo 

Foetal Development.

After implantation, the embryo develops a disc-shaped organ called placenta which joins the
embryo to the mother.

At 6weeks the embryo has formed most of the important body organs such as the
lips, nose, arms, ears, eyes, feet and toes.

At 8weeks(2months), the embryo is called foetus. The foetus is surrounded by the amnion which
contains a fluid called amniotic fluid.

Functions of the placenta

  • Exchange of carbon dioxide and oxygen between the mother and the foetus.
  • Supply food from the mother's blood to the foetus.
  • Production of hormones that maintains pregnancy.
  • Facilitates transfer of waste productsfrom the foetus to the mother's blood.

Functions of the umbilical cord.

  • Joins the foetus to the placenta.
  • It is a passage for oxygen, food and carbon dioxide.

Functions of the amniotic fluid.

  • It acts as a shock absorber to protect the foetus against physical injuries.
  • It keeps the foetus warm.
  • It prevents the foetus from drying.
  • It lubricates the foetus for easy movement.

NB: Gestation period takes nine months or 36 to 40weeks or 280days in human beings, this is
the period between conception and birth.

Signs of pregnancy.

  • Menstruation stops.
  • The breast becomes larger, tender and sensitive.
  • Increased frequency of urination.
  • Craving for some foods.
  • In later stage, expectant mothers experience some slight backaches.
  • Heartburns.
  • The abdomen enlarges.
  • Breathlessness,tiredness and increased pulse rate.
  • Movement of the foetus is felt.
  • Morning sickness or nausea.

Birth process.

It is also called parturition.

When the foetus is fully developed, the head faces downwards and is positioned directly above the

Stages in the birth process.

  • The uterus walls contract causing labor pain.
  • The cervix widens.
  • Amnion burst and amniotic fluid flows out of the vagina.
  • The baby is pushed out through the vagina with the head first.
  • Breathing is induced by pinching of patting the baby.
  • The umbilical cord is tied and cut, this prevents loss of blood from the mother and the baby also separates the baby from the mother.
  • The placenta is expelled from the body. The expelled placenta is called afterbirth.


This is the removal of waste productsfrom the body.

Excretory Organs (SKIL)

There are 3 main excretory organs, namely;

  • Skin
  • Lungs
  • Kidneys.

Waste products removed by these organs are;

  • Excess water.
  • Excess salt.
  • Urea.
  • Carbon dioxide.
  • Lactic acid.

Water, salt, urea and lactic acid forms sweat

Water, urea and salt forms urine.

 Excretory organs.    Excretory waste removed 
 Skin   Excess water, salt, urea, lactic acid. 
 Lungs   Excess water, carbon dioxide. 
 Kidneys   Excess water, urea, salt.


Order of urine.



 c7 set 2 Et1 Q1
Study the map of Bego Area below and use it to answer questions 1 to 7.

  1. The location of the two industries in Bego area was mainly influenced by
    1. nearness to market
    2. nearness to raw materials
    3. nearness to roads
    4. nearness to water supply
  2. Which one of the following is a food crop grown in Bego area?
    1. Bananas
    2. Sugarcane
    3. Maize 
    4. Tea
  3. The mineral mined in Bego area is
    1. limestone
    2. sand
    3. salt 
    4. soda ash
  4. The general flow of river Bego is from
    1. North East
    2. South West
    3. North West
    4. South East
  5. The economic activity carried out in the North Eastern part of Bego area is
    1. tea growing 
    2. sugarcane farming
    3. mining
    4. livestock
  6. The main reason why tea is grown in the South Western part of Bego area is that A
    1. the area has cool and wet conditions
    2. the area is hilly
    3. rivers in the area provide water irrigation 
    4. there is adequate labour
  7. Which one of the following places is at the HIGHEST altitude above sea level?
    1. Cattle dip 
    2. Pineapple farm 
    3. Tugo town
    4. Sibi town
  8. Traditional forms of government among the Nyamwezi people were beaded by
    1. chiefs
    2. kings
    3. council of elders 
    4. emperors
  9. Which one of the following is not a roleof children in a family?
    1. Taking care of family property
    2. Seeking for advice from parents
    3. Providing basic needs
    4. Respecting other members of the family
  10. The first member states of the East African community (EAC) when it was formed in 1967 were 
    1. Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania 
    2. Djibouti, Rwanda, Uganda 
    3. Tanzania, Burundi, Sudan 
    4. Ethiopia, Kenya, Somalia
  11. Which one of the following relief features in Africa formed through faulting and twisting of underneath rocks? 
    1. Mount Ruwenzori
    2. Atlas mountains
    3. Yatta plateau
    4. Rift Valley
  12. Radios are used to make government announcements because
    1. most people understand Kiswahili
    2. most areas are supplied with electricity 
    3. messages are made in indigenous languages 
    4. they are widespread

The diagram below shows a marine fishing method.

ce Et1 ss set2 Q12

  1. The marine fishing method illustrated in the above diagram is
    1. purse-seining method 
    2. trawling method 
    3. long lining method 
    4. net drifting method
  2. Improvement in modern systems of communication in Africa has mainly resulted in
    1. expansion of urban centres
    2. decrease in rates of crime
    3. increase in trading activities
    4. migration of people to towns
  3. Chief Mkwawa and Koitalel Arap Samoei had one factor in common. It is that they
    1. signed peace treaties with Europeans
    2. gave their land to European farms
    3. collaborated with the Europeans
    4. resisted European colonial rule
  4. Three of the following statements about clans are correct. Which one is not?
    1. Members are related by blood
    2. Members help one another
    3. Members live in the same area 
    4. Members have a common ancestor
  5. The following are characteristics of a vegetation zone in Africa;
    1. There is plenty of tall grass i
    2. Most trees are deciduous iii
    3. Thorny trees of medium height
      The vegetation zone described above is
      1. savannah vegetation
      2. mountain vegetation
      3. semi-desert vegetation
      4. rain forest vegetation
  6. Which one of the following language groups is not found in West Africa?
    1. Benue-Congo speakers
    2. Cushitic speakers
    3. Afro-Asiatic speakers 
    4. Mande speakers
  7. It is important for people to live in peace in the society in order to
    1. conserve the environment
    2. prevent the spread of diseases
    3. enable leaders rule for long periods
    4. enable the government to deliver services
  8. A characteristic of areas where beef ranching is done is that the areas 
    1. have dense forests 
    2. have irrigated pastures
    3. are sparsely populated 
    4. experience cool and wet climate
  9. The political party that led Tanganyika to independence was
    1. Tanganyika African National Union
    2. Chama cha Mapinduzi
    3. Tanganyika African Association :
    4. United Tanganyika party 
  10. Which one of the following groups is made up of Bantu communities who live in Southern Africa?
    1. Sara, Luba, Bakongo 
    2. Chagga, Baganda, Taita
    3. Tswana, Bemba, Hutu
    4. Zulu, Sotho, Herero
  11. Which one of the following rivers in Africa is correctly matched with the water body where it ends?
    1. River Nile - Lake Turkana 
    2. River Orange - Atlantic Ocean
    3. River Limpopo-Mediterranean Sea
    4. River Omo - Indian Ocean
  12. The main reason why Kenya traders with other countries is to
    1. earn foreign exchange
    2. promote good relations with other countries
    3. advertise tourist attracting sites,
    4. enable Kenyans to move freely
  13. Person living with disabilities in Kenya have the right to
    1. do what they want 
    2. form their own political parties
    3. be given higher salaries
    4. be nominated to the senate
  14. The plains Nilotes settled in the Rift Valley region of Kenya because 
    1. the areas had fertile soils for farming 
    2. there were many trade goods in the area 
    3. the areas were ideal for grazing
    4. the areas were not habited
  15. The aim of preparing a school motto is to
    1. guide the learners to achieve the aims of the school 
    2. prepare pupils to be future leaders
    3. outline the rules of the school 
    4. allocate time for school activities
  16. Three of the following are effects of revolution of the earth. Which one is not?
    1. It causes deflecting of winds
    2. It causes different seasons 
    3. It causes sea and land breezes rotation
    4. It causes different lengths of day and night
  17. Which one of the following is an example of a processing industry?
    1. Paper manufacturing
    2. Flour milling
    3. Glass manufacturing
    4. Shoe manufacturing

Use the map of Eastern Africa below to answer questions 30 to 33.

c8Et1 set 2 ss Q29

  1. Three of the following statements about the country marked M are correct. Which one is not? 
    1. It was ruled by an emperor upto 1974 
    2. Some areas in the country are deserts 
    3. It is the largest country in Eastern Africa
    4. It successfully resisted colonial rule 
  2. The game reserve marked R is
    1. Kidepo
    2. Selous
    3. Serengeti
    4. Bwindi
  3. The community that settled in the shaded area marked S during the migration period was
    1. Pokomo 
    2. Chagga 
    3. Abagusii 
    4. Taita
  4. The country marked F was colonized by
    1. France 
    2. Italy 
    3. Britain
    4. Germany 
  5. Which one of the following citizens does not demonstrate patriotism?
    1. Riziki - participate in communal work
    2. Taiyo - Attends national day celebrations
    3. Amollo - favours his relatives in employment
    4. Gatura - Conserves forest reserves
  6. Below are descriptions of a lake in Africa. 
    1. It was formed through downwarping 
    2. It is located in a dry area
    3. It is shared by three countries
      The lake described above is
      1. Lake Tanganyika
      2. Lake Turkana 
      3. Lake Malawi
      4. Lake Chad
  7. The main problem facing in land water fishing in both Kenya and Tanzania is
    1. water hyacinth growing in lakes
    2. oil spills from ships
    3. inadequate market for fish
    4. overfishing in major fishing lakes
  8. Which one of the following actions is a government policy that may influence settlement of people in a place?
    1. Establishment of multi-purpose river projects
    2. Introduction of family planning methods
    3. Vaccination of people against diseases
    4. Allowing people to move to towns
  9. Sisal growing in Kenya has declined due
    1. frequent droughts in the country
    2. low demand fro sisal products
    3. lack of funds to invest in sisal farming
    4. increase in population in growing areas
  10. The following are some communities found in Eastern Africa
    1. Nyamwezi
    2. Akamba
    3. Baganda
      It is correct to conclude that the above communities
      1. were ruled by kings
      2. resisted European colonial rule
      3. took part in the long distance trade
      4. settle in highland regions
  11. Three of the following statements about  indigenous education in the pre-colonial period are true. Which one is not?
    1. Learners were given written tests
    2. Some skills were taught through observations
    3. Learners were taught by older members
    4. Proverbs were used to teach moral values
  12. The diagram below shows a road sign.
    c8Et1 set 2 ss Q41
    A motorist who sees the road sign shown above should
    1. turn back 
    2. call for help
    3. stop the vehicle
    4. reduce speed
  13. Below are statements about an early visitor to Eastern Arica 
    1. He settled along the coast
    2. He took part in coastal trade it
    3. He came to Eastern Africa in 1840
      The person described above is
      1. Seyyid Said
      2. William Macknon
      3. Carl Peters
      4. Vasco da Gama
  14. The formation of the Rift Valley was caused by
    1. solidification of Magma on the surface
    2. erosion of soft parts of the earth
    3. faulting and sinking of land
    4. folding and twisting of underneath rocks
  15. The lake Victoria basin and the west coast of Africa have high population due to
    1. high rainfall in the areas
    2. deposition of rich soils by rivers 
    3. cool and wet highland conditions
    4. presence of minerals in the areas
  16. Conservation of natural forests in the highland areas in Kenya is done in order to 
    1. attract tourists in the country 
    2. get a constant source of firewood 
    3. get timber for export
    4. preserve sources of rivers 
  17. Which one of the following is a social right of a child? Right to
    1. marry
    2. vote
    3. own property
    4. education
  18. When Julius Nyerere was the president of Tanzania he
    1. formed the first political party
    2. took part in forming the East African community (EAC) 
    3. made Tanzania a multi-state country
    4. was overthrown by the army 4
  19. What is the time in Dakar 17°W when the time in Kampala 28°E is 2:20pm?
    1. 11.20am
    2. 5.20am
    3. 11.20pm
    4. 5.20pm
  20. Mr. Hashm deals in Petroleum products. The best form to use to transport petroleum form Saudi Arabia is 
    1. pipeline transport
    2. air transport 
    3. water transport
    4. railway transport 
  21. The Western part of Botswana are sparsely populated due to
    1. presence of swamps
    2. insecurity
    3. semi-arid conditions
    4. flooding by rivers
  22. Which one of the following is not a impact of industries in urban areas?
    1. Dumping of waste in rivers 
    2. Increase in crop production
    3. Release of smoke into the atmosphere
    4. They encourage growth of slums
  23. Which one of the following was a negative effect of colonial rule in Eastern Africa? 
    1. Africans changed their names
    2. Some places were named after Europeans
    3. Africans lost their fertile lands 
    4. African communities developed unity
  24. Which one of the following combinations is made up of cold currents only?
    1. Aguhlas and canary currents
    2. Somali and Benguela currents
    3. Guinea and Aguhlas currents
    4. Benguela and canary currents
  25. The following are facts about a town in Eastern Africa;
    1. It was started by Arab trader 
    2. It has a petroleum refinery
    3. It is a major tourist destination town
      The town described above is
      1. Mombasa 
      2. Kampala
      3. Addis Ababa
      4. Dodoma
  26. What did the British do to Mekatilili wa Menza when they arrested her?
    1. They sent her to exile in Seychelles 
    2. They sent her to live in Kisii
    3. They cut off her head
    4. They jailed her for a long time
  27. Below are requirements for growing a certain crop;
    1. Cool highland temperatures 
    2. High rainfall that is well distributed 
    3. High altitude
    4. Fertile volcanic soils that are slightly acidic
    5. The requirements listed above favour the growing of
      1. bananas
      2. sisal
      3. sugarcane
      4. tea
  28. Who among the following leaders is not elected on a polling day in Kenya?
    1. Senator
    2. Woman Representative
    3. County commissioner
    4. County Representative
  29. Three of the following duties of the body incharge of elections in Kenya except
    1. announcing election results
    2. registering political parties 
    3. reviewing constituency boundaries
    4. organizing and supervising elections 
  30. An elected member of the county assembly loses a seat if the person
    1. is jailed for 6 months or more
    2. goes out of Kenya 
    3. is admitted in hospital
    4. is arrested by the police 
  31. A person becomes a nominated member of a county assembly through
    1. election by voters in a ward
    2. election by members of a county assembly
    3. appointing by a political party
    4. appointing by the governor


  1. Adam and Eve ate the forbidden fruit because 
    1. they wanted to become wise
    2. the snake tricked them
    3. they wanted to cover their nakedness
    4. they were hungry
  2.  During the time of Noah God destroyed people because
    1. they were building a high tower
    2. they were evil and wicked
    3. they had become too many
    4. they were speaking one language 
  3. A promise that God made to Abraham when he was living in Haran was that
    1. Abraham would live to old age
    2. Abraham's descendants would rule forever
    3. God would give him many descendant
    4. God would make him rich
  4. Who among the following people was a brother of Moses?
    1. Joshua
    2. Elkanah
    3. Caleb
    4. Aaron
  5. During the Exodus the Israelites asked 

    Moses to give them
    1. Weapons
    2. Kings
    3. Water
    4. Clothes
  6. Gideon was able to defeat the Midianites because
    1. he obeyed God's commands
    2. he was a brave soldier 
    3. he was experienced in fighting
    4. he had a large army
  7. King Saul disobeyed God when he
    1. A took the wife of Uriah
    2. failed to kill animals captured in war 
    3. married many wives
    4. took Naboth's vineyard
  8. When King Solomon prayed to God he asked for
    1. wealth
    2. wisdom
    3. long live
    4. fame
  9. When prophet Elisha visited the woman of Shunem he told her that
    1. she would get a husband
    2. her flour and oil would never run out 
    3. she would have a son
    4. she would be the ruler of Israel
  10. Which one of the following was done by the wisemen who visited Jesus? They
    1. went back singing and rejoicing
    2. ate with Joseph and Mary 
    3. offered burnt sacrifices
    4. did not go back to Herod
  11. Zechariah the father of John the Baptist worked as
    1. a priest
    2. a carpenter 
    3. a tax collector 
    4. a shepherd
  12. When the devil told Jesus to kneel down and worship him Jesus replied that
    1. you should not put the Lord to the test 
    2. man shall not live by bread alone 
    3. you should worship the Lord your God alone 
    4. human beings cannot live on bread alone
  13. Jesus taught his disciples during
    1. the sermon on the mountain
    2. the last supper
    3. the walk to Emmaus
    4. a fishing session in lake Galilee
  14. The two brothers who left their father in a boat and followed Jesus were
    1. John and Peter 
    2. John and Andrew
    3. John and Philip
    4. John and James
  15. The parable of the three servants teaches christians to
    1. respect people in authority
    2. use their talents well
    3. be kind to the needy
    4. repent their sins
  16. Jesus healed people possessed with demons. This showed his power over
    1. diseases
    2. evil
    3. nature
    4. death
  17. Simon of Cyrene carried the cross of Jesus because
    1. he knew Jesus
    2. Jesus was tired 
    3. the soldiers forced
    4. he was a God-fearing man
  18. Jesus forgave the sins of a thief who had been crucified on his side because 
    1. the thief was innocent 
    2. the thief was a God fearing man
    3. the thief was repentant 
    4. Jesus knew the thief
  19. Which one of the following women visited the empty tomb?
    1. Lydia
    2. Salome
    3. Tabitha
    4. Martha
  20. Which one of the following combinations consist of people who met Jesus on the day he resurrected?
    1. Mary Magdalene and Cleopas
    2. Thomas and Matthew
    3. Peter and John
    4. Mary mother James and Philip
  21. Immediately before Jesus ascended to heaven he told his disciples to
    1. look themselves in a room 
    2. be satisfied with what they get 
    3. go to all places and preach
    4. preach in different languages
  22. Which one of the following actions in traditional African communities is forbidden? 
    1. Hitting an elder 
    2. Giving food to strangers 
    3. Walking at night
    4. Singing songs
  23. In traditional African communities ancestors are best remembered through
    1. performing libations
    2. using the items they left 
    3. calling out their names during prayer
    4. naming children after them
  24. Which one of the following is the main reason for marriage in traditional African communities?
    1. To get dowry payment 
    2. To continue the family lineage
    3. To get a companion
    4. To feel important
  25. Which one of the following is a rite of passage in traditional African communities? 
    1. Burial
    2. Confirmation 
    3. Naming
    4. Initiation
  26. Christians take their first harvest of crop to the church mainly to
    1. feed worshippers in the church 
    2. sell surplus food 
    3. show gratitude for God's blessings 
    4. provide food for the clergy
  27. It is important for christians to work in order to
    1. do the will of God
    2. become rich
    3. be recognized in the society 
    4. get paid
  28. Leisure time should be spent doing those activities that
    1. make a person rich
    2. goes against moral values
    3. promote the welfare of a community
    4. promote personal interest
  29. Gabriel a stands six pupil, prays for his sick mother. This element of prayer is 
    1. petition
    2. confession
    3. adoration
    4. intercession 
  30. The early European missionaries taught Africans how to read and write because they wanted them to 
    1. get jobs
    2. read the Bible 
    3. be equal to the Europeans
    4. stop their customs


  1. "Fawailul lil muswaliin" is a verse from Suratul ________________.
    1. Maun
    2. Tiyn 
    3. Fiyl
    4. Kauthar
  2. Swafa and Marwa is performed to remember which Prophet together with his mother?
    1. Ishaq
    2. Issa
    3. Ibrahim
    4. Ismail
  3. Believe in the angels of Allah is the pillar of Iman.
    1. First
    2. Second 
    3. Fourth 
    4. Third
  4. We celebrate iddul Fitri in the month of
    1. Shawwal 
    2. Ramadhan
    3. Rajab
    4. Muharram
  5. The story of Abraham AlAshram is explained in which Surah?
    1. Maun
    2. Tiyn
    3. Fiyl
    4. Kauthar
  6. When the Prophet left for Madina he left laying his bed.
    1. Abu-Bakr
    2. Umar 
    3. Ali
    4. Uthman
  7. Which one among the following is an example of medium Najis?
    1. Women in monthly period
    2. Bleeding or producing pus
    3. Ejaculation of sperms
    4. Sexual intercourse
  8. The people of Makkah who welcomed the people of Madinah are called 
    1. Jews
    2. Muhajirin 
    3. Answar 
    4. Kharajites
  9. Prophet Muhammad went to for a trade caravan when he met Bahira. 
    1. Medina 
    2. Syria 
    3. Makka
    4. Egypt 
  10. Work in islam is regarded as an act of
    1. Torture
    2. Ibaadah 
    3. Makruh
    4. Punishment
  11. The ninth month in the Islamic calendar
    1. Rajab
    2. Ramadhan
    3. Shawwal
    4. Muharram
  12. The second battle to be fought by the Muslims is
    1. Siffin
    2. Badr
    3. Uhud 
    4. Khandag
  13. The prophet advised as to say the truth even if it is
    1. Bitter 
    2. Bad 
    3. Hurting 
    4. Sour
  14. On which of the following is Zakat not payable?
    1. Animal
    2. Agricultures produce 
    3. Furniture 
    4. Mineral
  15. Who among the following people is NOT a recipient of Zakat? 
    1. Debtor
    2. New converts 
    3. Slaves 
    4. Orphan
  16. Three of the following are not Major Hadath EXCEPT?
    1. Vomit 
    2. Blood
    3. Urine 
    4. Sperms
  17. In which Surah was Abu Lahab cursed?
    1. Masad
    2. Nasr 
    3. Fiyl. 
    4. Kauthar
  18. The archers placed at Mount Uhud during the battle of Uhud disobeyed the Prophet because of 
    1. Fear 
    2. Jealous 
    3. Greedy 
    4. Fatigue
  19. Which surahs teaches Muslims not to dwell so much on worldly gains?
    1. Humaza 
    2. Takkathur 
    3. Nasr 
    4. Kauthar
  20. The Angel in charge of questioning the dead in the grave are called__________
    1. Munkar and Nakir
    2. Ratib and Atid
    3. Hamalatul Arshi
    4. Hafadha
  21. The attribute of Allah which Muslims believe in are ___________
    1. 10 
    2. 17 
    3. 6
    4. 99 
  22. The first wife of Prophet Muhammad is ______________.
    1. Aisha 
    2. Maryam 
    3. Fatimah 
    4. Khadija
  23. The first thing done to a new born baby is ______________.
    1. Adhan 
    2. Khitan
    3. Aqiqa 
    4. Iqamah
  24. Which among the following Prophet was sent to King Herod?
    1. Zakaria
    2. Yusuf
    3. Issa
    4. Ayyub 
  25. Where was Prophets Muhammad mother buried? 
    1. Abwan 
    2. Makkah
    3. Madinah 
    4. Syria
  26. Which among the following prayers is commonly known as" swalatul Wustwa".
    1. Dhuhr.
    2. Maghrib.
    3. .Asr. 
    4. Fajr
  27. Which month do Muslims observe fasting? 
    1. Muharram
    2. Ramadhan
    3. Safar
    4. Rabiul Awal
  28. The 24 Prophet of Allah mentioned in the Holy Quran is _______________.
    1. Adam
    2. Muhammad 
    3. Idris
    4. Issa 
  29. How many goats are slaughtered for the Aqiqa of a baby girl?
    1. One
    2. Two 
    3. Three
    4. four
  30. Swalatul Khusuf is the prayer for the eclipse of the _____________.
    1. Moon 
    2. Sun
    3. Stars 
    4. Rain


  1. B
  2. C
  3. A
  4. B
  5. D
  6. A
  7. D
  8. A
  9. C
  10. A
  11. A
  12. D
  13. A
  14. C
  15. D
  16. A
  17. A
  18. B
  19. D
  20. C
  21. A
  22. D
  23. B
  24. B
  25. D
  26. C
  27. A
  28. C
  29. B
  30. D
  31. B
  32. D
  33. B
  34. C
  35. C
  36. D
  37. A
  38. C
  39. C
  40. A
  41. D
  42. D
  43. C
  44. A
  45. D
  46. D
  47. C
  48. A
  49. D
  50. C
  51. B
  52. C
  53. D
  54. A
  55. B
  56. D
  57. C
  58. C
  59. A
  60. C


  1. A
  2. B
  3. C
  4. D
  5. C
  6. A
  7. B
  8. B
  9. C
  10. D
  11. A
  12. C
  13. A
  14. D
  15. B
  16. B
  17. C
  18. C
  19. B
  20. A
  21. C
  22. A
  23. D
  24. B
  25. C
  26. C
  27. A
  28. C
  29. D
  30. B