African Moral and Cultural Values Questions and Answers - Form 1 Topical CRE

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QUESTIONS

  1. Explain ways of acquiring partners for marriage in Traditional African Communities.
  2. Outline the African cultural practices that have been integrated in a Christian worship today.
  3. State the challenges faced by modern families in Kenya today    
  4.      
    1. Explain the role of priests in traditional African societies
    2. State the traditional African practices that lowers the dignity of women today
    3. What do you think has led to the increased social evils in the society today  
  5.      
    1. Explain the role of kinship ties in Traditional African Societies.
    2. Identify five factors that contribute to harmony and mutual responsibilities in the African  Community.
    3. Show how Christians can contribute towards the resolution of conflicts in society today.
  6.      
    1. Explain the changes that are taking place in property ownership in traditional African communities
    2. List down the traditional African practices which show that life is sacred
    3. State the challenges facing rite of initiation today
  7. Outline six ways in which observance of blood kinship is important in Traditional African Communities.     
  8.      
    1. Identify eight moral values acquired during marriage in Traditional African Community  
    2. What precautions were undertaken by Africans to ensure that marriage was permanent    
    3. State six reasons why polygamy is still practiced today    
  9.      
    1. State six reasons why unmarried people were undermined in Traditional African Communities   
    2. Mention six reasons why dowry is important in modern society
    3. Give factors affecting Traditional African Heritage today
  10. State seven moral values that couples acquire in marriage   
  11.      
    1. Outline any seven features of an African Traditional family             
    2. Explain ways in which marriage may contribute to social relationship in African Traditional Society            
    3. What are six challenges that hinder the stability of bride wealth payment in the present society today                  
  12.      
    1. State five ways in which one could become a diviner in the Traditional African Communities     
    2. Discuss factors that have contributed to harmony and mutual responsibility in the Traditional African Communities    
  13.    
    1. How did  the old  people  prepare for death  in  the traditional African communities   
    2. Explain four factors that contributed to harmony and mutual responsibility in the traditional African communities
    3. Identify six changes that have taken place in the African traditional concept of bride-wealth                                                                                                     
  14.      
    1. Explain five ways initiation rites inculcated moral values in Traditional African Community .
    2. Identify five socio- cultural changes that have taken place in Traditional African Community .
    3. State five ways the Kenyan Government is promoting African culture.
  15.      
    1. Outline elements of change in African traditional understanding of the old age.
    2. What changes have taken place in the traditional African attitude to orphans?
  16.    
    1. Explain the purpose of bridewealth in the traditional African community.  
    2. Explain the role of Kings in traditional African community.    
    3. Explain the Traditional African practices which show that life is sacred.   
  17.      
    1. Outline rules and regulation that an expectant mother is expected to observe in Traditional African  society.
    2. Outline the role of priests in Traditional African communities.
  18.      
    1. State five changes that have taken place in property ownership today.
    2. Explain the purpose of bride wealth in the traditional African community. 
    3. Explain the factors weakening kinship ties among Africa communities.   
    4. Explain the Traditional African practices which show that life is sacred. 


ANSWERS

  1.      
    • In some communities the choice is made by the parents and this may be done even before the children are born.
    • In some occasions, the boys choose for themselves an attractive girl in either function.
    • The parents of the boy identify a girl or for their son through an intermediary.
    • A senior or first wife of the polygamist may choose a wife for her husband.
    • Widow inheritance is another common marriage practice in African Traditional communities.
    • In some Traditional African Communities girls are given out to chiefs and kings by their subjects.
    • There are cases where a debtor gives his wife to a creditor in order to repay a debt. 
  2.    
    • Use of vernacular in worship.
    • Use of  traditional musical instrument such as drums and kayambas.
    • Use of body movements in worship such as dancing, clapping and jumping.
    • Shaking of hands and hugging.
    • Having a communal worship.
    • Spontaneous prayer.
    • Performing cleansing rituals.
    • Adopting African names at baptism.
    • Building churches using traditional African architectural styles.
    • Using traditional tunes and melodies in songs.
  3.      
    • Childlessness which leads to divorce, separation, polygamy or extra- marital affairs
    • Divorce
    • Unfaithfulness
    • Wealth or lack of it
    • Number and sex of children, too few, too many, male or female might make couple to quarrel & fight
    • Extended families especially in- laws
    • Widow hood as a result of death
    • Alcoholism & drug abuse
    • Role conflicts due to gender equality/ domestic violence
    • Absenteeism/ abandoning of family due to careers or migration to towns
    • Separation/ careers
    • HIV/ AIDS/ STD’s
    • Financial problems/ poverty
    • Difficult children/ lack of parental guidance
    • Generation gap hence misunderstanding between parents and children
    • Unemployment/ under employment/ retrenchment 
    • Lack of communication
    • Religious differences
    • Intermarriages and hence cultural differences
  4.    
    1.    
      • They offered sacrifices on behalf of the community
      • They counsel people on proper ways of living
      • They preside over cleansing rituals
      • They warn the community of the dangers ahead
      • They mediate between people and God
      • They reconcile various warning parties
      • The cared for the sacred places 
      • They offer blessings to members
      • They intercede for the people needs 
      • They guard the communities customs & traditions
    2.    
      • The practice of female circumcision
      • Polygamy
      • Early marriages for girls
      • Wife inheritance
      • Taboos on diet 
      • Wife beating
      • Ownership of land/ property
    3.    
      • Unemployment/ poverty/ idleness
      • Breakdown of traditional moral values
      • Leniency in the law – courts
      • Drug abuse
      • Lack of role models
      • Negative mass media influence
      • Education system that does not emphasize on morality
      • Wide gap between the rich and the poor
      • Poor distribution of resources
  5.    
    1.    
      • Gives a feeling of a strong bond towards each other.
      • It enables people to help and share with others.
      • It assists people to live peacefully in harmony with one another.
      • It determines how members relate to one another
      • It provided security to all concerned.
      • It regulates marital customs rules and regulations.
      • It gives an individual a deep sense of belonging.
    2.    
      • Political ties – power is allocated to ones status measuring individuals families fit in this wider political set up.
      • Division of labour – Work is divided according to age and gender.
      • Communal worship – during times of a crisis or happiness.
      • Leisure activities are integrated with other activities after work.
      • Rites of passage where the whole community is involved.
      • Sharing of resources – E.g. among relatives or collectively by members of a given family.
      • Social norms where people know what is right or wrong
    3.    
      • Upholding the rule of law.
      • Encouraging/participating in dialogue.
      • Being role models of peace.
      • Offer guidance and counseling.
      • Proper upbringing of children.
      • Offer prayers.
      • Funding the cause of conflicts with aim of resolving them.
      • Encouraging reconciliation
      • Preaching against tribalism and other social evil.
      • Choosing honest leaders.
      • Teaching people the importance of peace.
  6.    
    1.    
      • Women/ children can now own property
      • Wealth is no longer determined by number of wives/ children
      • Introduction of money economy has reduced value of land
      • Role of elders in sharing property has been eroded
      • Land is individually owned through issuance of title deed
      • People write wills to show/ decide who should inherit their property
      • Property can be owned outside ones ancestral home
      • Land can be sold/ auctioned
    2.    
      • Greetings which expresses a state of life & prolonged prosperous life
      • Taking care of the physical body through feeding, protecting it, nurturing and taking medication when sick
      • Establishing a good relationship with God and the ancestors through worship prayers and veneration
      • Seeking God’s protection all the times especially in times of crisis
      • Taking of ancestral land which links the living and the dead
      • Taking care of both domestic and wild animals by providing food and protecting nature
      • Protecting human life including the unborn
      • Respecting sexual intercourse for married couples only
      • Obeying the rules and taboos that govern the well being of the community
    3.    
      • Female circumcision is now discouraged by the government
      • Elaborate ceremonies have been stopped in some communities- do not serve any purpose
      • The education of the young does not necessary depend on the sponsor (teachers, parents impart knowledge)
      • Seclusion period has drastically reduced (weeks not months) since the initiates have to go back to school
      • It is no longer a preparation ground for marriage- concerned are too young
  7.  
    • It instills virtue like respect humility hospitality.
    • It regulates behaviour towards each other.
    • It defines types of punishment.
    • Regulates marital relationships.
    • It instills team spirit and collective responsibility
    • It gives a sense of belonging
    • It defines the role played by each members in community.
    • It promotes communal work. 
  8.    
    1.    
      • Friendship i.e. couples end up being friends as they share their family duties
      • Love- couples end up being emotional to each other as they also establish love to other family members
      • Responsibility – married members take up new duties in a community which calls for their accountability
      • Respect- married couples are respected because of their status
      • Co-operation- they learn to work with other members in the society
      • Hard work- they are expected to be dedicated in their work
      • Patience- they should exercise patience in case of differences in marriages
      • Honesty- they should handle family resources in a trustworthy way
      • Self control- they should refrain from quarrels and fights
      • Mutual concern and care- they are required to work for the well being of their partners and other family members
      • Obedience- they should follow rules and regulations of the community
      • Generosity- they are expected to assist members of the community when called upon
      • Humility- they should humble themselves to their seniors and in laws
      • Courage- they should face challenges of marriage with a lot of determination to succeed
    2.    
      • Dowry was paid to seal the marriage
      • Members of the community were involved in all stages of the marriage
      • Parents from both sides consulted frequently to ensure that minor problems in marriages are solved in good time before they blow out of proportion
      • People were allowed to engage in marriage at a mature age especially after initiation
      • Unfaithfulness was heavily punished
      • There were go betweens who were always handy when problems crop up in marriages
      • Women were taught by through grand mothers before marriage to be subordinate
    3.    
      • Parents are assured of security in their old age because of their children
      • Parents are assured of continuity of their lineage when they die
      • It enables parents to have many children
      • It acts as a source of wealth to the family when children get employed
      • In case of death the gap created is easily filled by other partners in marriage
      • The problem of childlessness is easily contained as other partners can solve the problem
      • The problem of orphanage is curtailed as the remaining parents take charge of the children
  9.    
    1.    
      • Marriage was compulsory for everyone.
      • Unmarried was regarded as a child and not a grown up.
      • Lacked experience in sex, responsibilities and family matters.
      • Such a person was considered impotent.
      • Once he died, his place was forgotten.
      • Seen as a fight against community expansion.
      • It is parents who were highly valued.
    2.    
      • It ensures lasting marriage relationships.
      • It is an appreciation by the bridegroom to the bride’s family for the care.
      • It strengths the relationship between families.
      • It compensates the loss of a member.
      • It seals the covenant between the bridegroom and the bride.
      • The unites the two families together in celebrations.
      • It shows the seriousness of the man in the marriage.
    3.    
      • Foreign religion e.g Christianity Islamic and Hinduism.
      • Foreign cultures and values.
      • Western education.
      • Money economy.
      • New forms of employment
      • Improved infrastructure.
      • Modern science and technology.
  10.    
    • New forms of government systems and policies.
    • Rural – Urban Migration.
    • Mass Media
    • Modern Medicine.
    • Married couples learn to respect one another
    • Married couples learn to be faithful to one another
    • They learn to be hospital
    • They learn to be hardworking
    • They love one another
    • They learn to be responsible
    • They learn to tolerate one another
    • They learn to be patient to one another 
    • Kindness
  11.    
    1.    
      • Family is headed by the husband of grandfather
      • It includes the extended family aunts, uncles, nephews, niece e.t.c
      • Includes the ancestors and the yet o be born
      • It was polygamous
      • Family lived in a community
      • Family members roles was well defined (division of labour)
      • It was a religious unit
    2.    
      • Creates anew relationship between woman and man
      • Family relationships extends to include in-laws
      • Wedding ceremony enhances interaction between the in-laws
      • Meals shared encourages socialization
      • Songs and dances during weddings encourages people to open up
      • Customs on how to relate with one another & with in-laws determine boundaries in social interaction
    3.    
      • Western influence discourages wealth
      • It is commercialized
      • Co-habilitation
      • Poverty makes it difficult to pay bride wealth
      • Modernity
  12.    
    1.    
      • Through apprecenticeship/learning the art of diviner
      • Through inheritance
      • Through visions
      • Through dreams
      • One could be possessed by spirits
    2.    
      • Marriage, two families were involved in the negotiations
      • There was sharing of food
      • Observations of norms /rules/regulations/laws
      • Communal labour/ work was encouraged
      • The presence of children that cement marriage
      • Certain values/virtues e.g. honesty, hard work were instilled in the individuals
      • Common belief in one God/religious beliefs and practices
      • Social activities/people come together during initiation /marriage/harvest festivals
      • Land was owned  communally
      • There was belief in common ancestor
      • There was celebration of leisure activities
      • Observing rites of passages 
      • Presence of strong kinship ties
      • People shared political /economic organization
      • There existed proper system of defence
      • The widows /orphans /women/strangers were taken care of
      • Education of children was based on societal values e.g. hard work
  13.    
    1.    
      • Bless their  children
      • Share  out  his  property
      • Choose  is  preferred place  of  burial
      • Picks a success of  among his  children
      • Enumerates   what  he  wants  to be  after  his death
      • Pays /declares  his debts
      • Beseeches  the ancestors  to  accept  him
      • Bids farewell to family/relatives
      • Reconciles  with the  parties  he  had  differed  with
      • A fellowship meal  is  prepared  so that  he eats  with  other members 
    2.    
      • division of  labour-laziness w as  condemned
      • communal  ownership of  land
      • religious  belief  and  practices
      • kinship ties defines relationship  with one  another
      • observance  of  social  norms  regulates human  relationships
      • communal  sharing of  material possessions
      • rites  of passage bring people  together  to celebrate life and  show  solidarity
      • leisure activities bring people  together
      • political organizations  reflects  the  need  for  harmony and mutual responsibility 
    3.    
      • it has been individualized  /it  is  no  longer  shared
      • it  has been commercialized /no longer taken  as a  token of appreciation
      • its  no longer fixed  but  subject  to  inflation  and bargaining
      • it is  sometimes fixed according too  status, education and  position  of the  girl
      • its paid in cash  money  not  in form  of  animals  in  some  cases
      • girls  are  viewed as an  investment  sold
      • it  dehumanizes the  girl
      • it  has become a  manifestation  of  geed  and  exploitation 
  14.    
    1.    
      • The initiates were taught self control on matters of sex and therefore were expected to maintain acceptable standards
      • They were expected to behave maturely by enduring pain and hardships during initiation and throughout their life
      • They were trained to be humble and obedient. They are to show respect to their seniours
      • They were trained to be responsible parents and bread winners
    2.    
      • Mode of dressing has changed
      • Some rites of passage have been dropped
      • New forms of worship have been introduced i.e. Christian and Islam
      • The ancestors are no longer considered part of the family
      • People practice family planning and are individualistic
      • Land is now owned individually rather than communally
      • The aged have been left on their own 
      • Political systems and forms of government have changed
      • There is intermingling of communities due to migration and selling of land
    3.    
      • Creating permits to vernacular radio stations
      • Establishing of traditional courts
      • Organizing of drama and music festival for schools
      • Encouraging traditional rites of passage e.g. male circumcision
      • Integration – of African heritage in schools curriculum
      • Creation of museums at national and provincial levels
      • Establishing the ministry of culture and social services
  15.    
    1.    
      • Many old people live in special homes
      • Some old people end up in streets as beggars
      • Young people ignore the contribution of old people in their lives
      • People today prepare for old age in various ways e.g. pension schemes
      • There are organizations which organize funds for the destitute old.
    2.    
      • So many orphans’ today hat people find it difficult to care for them.
      • Many orphans are mistreated and neglected
      • Orphans are taken to orphanages
      • Government gives bursary for the education of the orphans
      • Many orphans today are a victim of child labour.

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