Development of Agriculture - History Form 1 Topical Revision Questions and Answers

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QUESTIONS

  1. What aspects of agriculture can African Countries borrow from North America to cub food crisis? (2 marks) QUES 4,DIST 1
  2. Name the types of writing invented in Mesopotamia and Egypt in ancient times (2mks) QUES 3,DIST 2
  3. Discuss the factors behind the success of early agriculture in Egypt (10mrks) QUES 18b,DIST 2
  4. State two results of the land enclosure system in Britain during the Agrarian revolution (2 Mrks) QUES 3,DIST 4
  5.                                  
    1. State three factors that led to the development of early Agriculture by man (3 Marks )
    2. Describe the type of Agriculture in Britain before 1750 (12 Marks ) QUES 16,DIST 4
  6. Give the main contribution of Jethro Tull in the development of agriculture in Britain (1mk) QUES 3,DIST 5
  7. Explain six factors which promoted plantation farming in Europe during the Agrarian Revolution (12mks) QUES 17b,DIST 5
  8. Give two benefits that man got from the domestication of animals. (2 mks) QUES 3,DIST 6
  9.                                  
    1. Identify three agricultural practices that were used in Britain before 17th Century.(3mks)
    2. Explain six ways in which the third world countries are trying to achieve food security. (12mks) QUES 18,DIST 6
  10. Name the first animal that was domesticated by man. (1mk) QUES 3,DIST 7
  11. Which country pioneered agrarian revolution (1mk) QUES 4,DIST 7
  12. In what way did Britain contribute to the Agrarian revolution in Northern America (1mk) QUES 8,DIST 8
  13.                            
    1. Outline the improvements made in the way of life of early man during the new Stone Age Period (5mks)
    2. Explain five effects of early agriculture in Egypt (10mks) QUES 19b,DIST 8
  14. State the independent theory about the origin and spread of agriculture (1mk) QUES 4,DIST 10
  15. What two man – made factors influenced the development of early agriculture in Egypt (2mks) QUES 5,DIST 10
  16. Identify one theory that explains the origin of early agriculture (1mk) QUES 3,DIST 11
  17.                        
    1. State five factors that led to the Agrarian Revolution in the United States. (5mks)
    2. Discuss the effects of the Agrarian Revolution in Britain (10mks) QUES 18,DIST 11
  18. Name one main cash crop that was grown in North America during the Agrarian Revolution. (1mk) QUES 4,DIST 12
  19.                          
    1. What factors favoured the beginning of Agriculture during the new stone age period. (3mks)
    2. Explain six factors which promoted plantation farming in Europe during the Agrarian Revolution. (12mks) QUES 18,DIST 12
  20. List any two demerits of the open field system of framing used in Britain before 1750. (2mks) QUES 4,DIST 13
  21.                        
    1. State three inventions that promoted Agrarian Revolution in Britain. (3mks)
    2. Explain the effects of Agrarian Revolution in U.S.A. (12mks) QUES 18,DIST 14
  22. Give the main reason why early agriculture developed in Mesopotamia. (1mk) QUES 3,DIST 15
  23. Discuss five effects of agrarian revolution in the USA. (10 mks) QUES 18b,DIST 15
  24. Name two main cash crops that were grown in North America during the agrarian revolution. (2mks) QUES 2,DIST 16
  25.                    
    1. Identify five factors which promoted plantation farming in Europe during the Agrarian revolution.(5mks)
    2. Explain the similarities between early agriculture in Mesopotamia and Egypt. (10mks) QUES 19,DIST 16
  26. Give one disadvantage of strip farming in Britain, before Agrarian Revolution (1mk) QUES 3,DIST 17
  27. Describe the factors that led to development of early agriculture in Mesopotamia. (12mks) QUES 18b,DIST 17
  28. Name two early centres of agriculture in the world. (2 marks) QUES 6,DIST 19
  29. Name the type of writing invented by the early world. (2 marks) QUES 7,DIST 19
  30. What was the main contribution of Lord Viscount Townsend in modern farming (1mk) QUES 4,DIST 20
  31. State two social consequences of early agriculture in Egypt (2mks) QUES 6,DIST 20
  32.                          
    1. List three types of crops grown in ancient Mesopotamia (3mks)
    2. Explain six impacts of Agrarian Revolution on the European society (12 mks) QUES 17,DIST 20

ANSWERS TO DEVELOPMENT OF AGRICULTURE

  1. What two aspects of agriculture can African countries borrow from North America
    1. Regional specialisation according to climate and soils
    2. Application of fertilizer
    3. Farm mechanisation
    4. Improved infrastructure
    5. Enhanced scientific & research
    6. Large scale/plantation agriculture
    7. Use of hybrid seeds/exotic breeds
    8. Proper food preservation e.g. use of refrigeration.
      Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks) QUES 4,DIST 1
  2. Name the types of writings invented in Mesopotamia and Egypt in ancient times.
    • Cuneiform (Mesopotamia)
    • Hieroglyphics (Egypt) QUES 3,DIST 2
    • Enough water for irrigation from river Nile
  3.                    
    • Availability of crops to cultivate – wheat and barley and animals to keep sheep and goats
    • Egyptian borrowed agricultural skills from neighboring Mesopotamia
    • Availability of fertile soil as a result of the silt from river Nile when the river floods
    • Political stability as Nile valley was protected from foreign invasion by surrounding desert and houbourless coast.
      Any 5x2 = 10mks QUES 18b,DIST 2
  4. Two results of the land enclose system in Britain during the Agrarian revolution
    • Reduce spread diseases
    • Displacement of people
    • Encourage rural – urban migration
    • Facilitate large scale farming
    • Regulated cross-breeding
    • Allowed mechanization
    • Enable proper use of land
    • Enhanced security
      1 x 2 = 2 marks QUES 3,DIST 4
  5.                          
    1. Three factors that led to the development of early agriculture by man
      • Climate changes - e.g. drought which threatened human survival
      • Population increase – requesting increase in food production
      • Inadequate wild food due to competition between man and animals
      • Unreliability of hunting and gathering
      • Natural calamities which destroyed vegetation and drove away wild animals
      • Man realization that some crops could re-grow and some animals were friendly
        1 x 3 = 3 Marks
    2. Type of agriculture in Britain before 1750
      • Land was owned by Kings who give to Nobles and was rented to peasants
      • Small scale farming
      • No use of fertilizers, pesticides and fungicides
      • No use of machines
      • No government support
      • Poor breeds of crops and animals
      • There was common grazing land
      • Scattered pieces of land
      • Use of open field system of farming QUES 16,DIST 4
  6. Invention of the seed drill (1 x 1 = 1mk) QUES 3,DIST 5
  7.                            
    • Invention of machines eg seed drill, iron plough
    • Discovery of fertilizers
    • Discovery of pesticides and insecticides
    • Improvement of transport means eg. Railway
    • Demand for agricultural raw materials in the growing industries
    • High demand for food by the rapidly growing urban population
    • Reclamation of wasteland eg. Swamps by draining
    • Development of new breeds of crops and animals
    • The land enclosure system / land consolidation
      (any 6 points well explained 6 x 2 = 12mks) QUES 17b,DIST 5
  8. Give two benefits that man got from the domestification of animals. (2 mks)
    • man had constant supply of food.
    • Man could now have a settled life as food was available.
    • Man got skin, for clothing from slaughtered animals.
    • Man engaged drought animals like donkeys and ox in works like transport and land preparation.
    • Some animals like the dog gave him security.
      (2 x 1 — 2 mks) QUES 3,DIST 6
  9. Identify three agricultural practices that were used in Britain before 17th Century. (3mks)
    • Reclamation of waste lands.
    • Encouraging the cultivation of food crops.
    • Employing the use of modem machineries in farming.
    • Seeking for food aid from the west. Importation of foods.
    • Opening up irrigation schemes.
    • Encouraging the use of fertilizers by farmers in crop cultivation.
    • Offering subsidies/financial assistance to their domestic farmers.
    • Giving technical advice to farmers through extension officers.
    • Improving storage facilities for food.
      (2 x 6 = 12 mks) QUES 18b,DIST 6
  10. Name the first animal that was domesticated by man. ( 1 mk)
    • Dog QUES 3,DIST 7
  11. The country which pioneered agrarian revolution (1 mk - Britain QUES 4,DIST 7
  12. Way in which Britain contributed to the agrarian revolution in North America
    • British immigrants to America introduced some new farming methods e.g. crop rotation
    • Raw materials from N. America were in great demand in Britain for her industries.
      1x1=1mk QUES 8,DIST 8
  13. Explain the effects of early agriculture in Egypt
    • Improved farming led to increased food production and regular food supply
    • Led to settled life and improve standard of living
    • Led to increased in trade due to supply production of agricultural products
    • Led to urbanization due to trade a long rive Nile valley e.g. Thebes, Aswan, Memphis.
    • Led to discovery of writing called Hieroglophics due to the need to record agricultural products. And also new form of calendar was invented.
    • Led to specialization of labour as some people specialize in trade, farming, craft etc
    • Improvement in transportation due to increased demand to transport agricultural goods e.g. along river Nile
    • Increased in population because of adequate food supply QUES 19b,DIST 8
  14. State the independent theory about the origin and spread of agriculture (1mk)
    1. Agriculture developed independently in different areas of the world like Asia, Africa, Europe and America, and spread from one region to another
      1x1 = 1mark QUES 4,DIST 10
  15.                          
    1. What two man – made factors influenced the development of early agriculture in Egypt (2mks)
    2. Improved tool making e.g. ox drawn plough
    3. Use of Shadoof irrigation
    4. Building of storage facilities
    5. Their knowledge of weather forecast helped farmers to plan for the seasons
      Any 2x1 = 2 marks QUES 5,DIST 10
  16.                                    
    1. Independent
    2. One area theory.
      (Any 1 x1 = 1mk)QUES 3,DIST 11
  17.                      
    1.                          
      1. Modern – farming – Use of modern seeds & fertilizers.
      2. Availability of suitable land for large scale farming.
      3. Availability of labour from slaves
      4. Immigration of people from Europe ( Transfer of skills)
      5. Good government policy e.g. Homestead Act of 1862
      6. Improved infrastructure e.g. roads & railways
      7. Development and use of machinery. (5x 1) = 5 mks
    2.                      
      1. It is led to immigration of the landless displaced from farms.
      2. It led to rural urban migration as people sought employment.
      3. It led to increased human population due to increased food quality and quantity.
      4. It led to unemployment of peasants who had been working on farms.
      5. It led to development & expansion of agro-based industries.
      6. The Royal Agricultural society was founded in 1838 to facilitate exchange of information among farmers.
      7. Emergence of new classes of people e.g. farmers, businessmen.
        (Any 5x2 = 10mks) QUES 18,DIST 11
  18. Wheat 1x1=1mk QUES 4,DIST 12
  19. To fight for the rights of the workers. 1x1=QUES 17,DIST 12
  20.                            
    1.                                    
      • Development of tools
      • Population increase
      • Climatic changes
      • Hunting and gathering became tiresome
      • Availability of indigenous plants and animals. 3x1=3mks
    2.                  
      • Invention of machines e.g. seed drill.
      • Discovery of fertilizers
      • Improvement of transport means.
      • High demand for food.
      • Demand for agricultural materials for the growing industries.
      • Reclamation of wasteland e.g. swamps by draining.
      • Development of new breeds of crops and animals.
      • Land enclosure system (land consolidation)
        6x2=12mks QUES 18,DIST 12
  21. Demerits of open field system.
    1. High rate of thefts due to lack of fences.
    2. Diseases spread easily to neighboring farms due to migration of pests.
    3. Land not fully utilized due to fallowing
    4. Wasted land through foot paths and cart track
      2x1=2mks QUES 4,DIST 13
  22.                      
    1. State three inventions that promoted Agrarian Revolution in Britain. (3mks)
      • Discovery of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium/issue of fertilizers.
      • Invention of selective breeding by Robert Bakewell
      • Invention of the mechanical thresher and reaper by Patrick Bell
      • Invention of the seed drill by Jethro Tull
      • Development of canning process
      • Invention of the refrigerator.
        3 x 1 = 3mks
    2. Explain the effects of Agrarian Revolution in U.S.A. (12mks)
      • There was diversification of agriculture through the introduction of new farm animals and crops.
      • More land was brought into cultivation as a result of new inventions on farm machinery
      • There was increased food production due to use of new methods of farming e.g. use of fertilizers and hybrid seeds.
      • Led to expansion of agricultural related industries as a result of better farming methods.
      • Rural-urban migration since mechanization of agriculture replaced slaves and other laborers therefore people moved to the urban areas to search for employment
      • Intensification in trade since there was expansion of food production.
      • The transport system was greatly improved. Roads and railways and sea transport eased transportation.
      • There was increase in population in the U.S.A. due to availability of food.
      • It led to enhancement of research and scientific inventions especially in the area of agriculture.
        6 x 2 = 12mks QUES 18,DIST 14
  23. Give the main reason why early agriculture developed in Mesopotamia. (1mk)
    • The presence of two rivers, Euphrates and Tigris.
      • mentioning the two rivers – 1mk
      • mentioning one river ½ mk
        QUES 3,DIST 15
  24. Discuss five effects of agrarian revolution in the USA. (10 mks)
    • Diversification of agriculture through the introduction of new crops and animals from Europe.
    • Inventions like steel plough by John Deeve and the reaper by Cyrus Mccormic.
    • Use of fertilizers and hybrid seeds.
    • Expansion of agriculture related industries.
    • Mechanization of farming to replace slave labour.
    • Improved food production.
    • Improvement and expansion of transport and communication.
    • Increase in population due to availability of adequate food
    • Enhanced research and scientific invention particularly in the field of agriculture
      QUES 18b,DIST 15
  25. Two cash crops grown in North America during the Agrarian Revolution
    • Tobacco
    • Cotton
    • Corn
    • Wheat
      2x1 = 2mks QUES 2,DIST 16
  26.                        
    1. Five factors that promoted plantation farming in Europe during the Agrarian Revolution
      • The invention of machines for extensive farming e.g. horse drawn plough, iron hoes.
      • Discovery of fertilizers which led to high yield/manure.
      • Discovery of pesticides and fungicides which facilitate control of crops diseases.
      • Improvement in transport especially the railway which facilitated transportation of bulky goods/farm produce and farm workers.
      • High demand for food for rapidly growing in population.
      • Demand for agricultural and industrial raw materials.
      • Development of new breeds of crops as a result of research in agriculture.
      • The enclosure system pushed people out of the rural areas and created room for plantation agriculture.
        5 x 1 = 5
    2. Five similarities between early agriculture in Mesopotamia and Egypt.
      • In both countries agriculture was practiced along the river valley. Farmers depended on flood water for farming.
      • They developed system of irrigation
      • They used farm implements made of stone, wood and later metal.
      • They traded in farm produce.
      • Planted indigenous crops
      • Used both human and animal labour.
      • Developed a system of storage and preserving of foods.
        2 x 5 = 10 QUES 19,DIST 16
  27.                            
    • Far distance to their farms
    • Wastage of labour and time
    • Under-utilisation of land
    • Discouraged selective breeding
    • Spread of animal pests and diseases
      (Any 1 x 1=1mk)QUES 3,DIST 17
  28.                                    
    • Availability of indigenous crops and animals e.g. barley, goats, sheep, grapes.
    • Fertile lands on river basins e.g. Tigris and Euphrates
    • Water for irrigation- basin and shad of types
    • Invention of farming tools e.g. seed drill, ox drawn plough
    • Demand for food (growing population)
    • Transport system (animal and water)
    • Dykes to control floods
    • Invention of writing (records)
    • Slave labour (cheap)
    • Storage facilities (public granaries)
    • Towns created markets e.g. Babylon and Ur
    • Leaders like Namurabi/political stability
    • Seasons and farming calendar
      (Any 6 x 2=12mks)QUES 18b,DIST 17
  29.                    
    • To fight for workers right
    • Improve workers welfare
      (1x1=1mk)QUES 5,DIST 18
  30. Name two early centres of agriculture in the world (2marks)
    • Mesopotamia
    • Egypt – Nile valley
    • Indus valley
    • Ganges valley in India
      (2x1 = 2marks) QUES 6,DIST 19
  31. What was the types of writing invested by the early Egyptians. (1mark)
    • Hieroglyphics QUES 7,DIST 19
  32. What was the main contribution of Lord Viscount Townsend in modern farming (1mk)
    • Developed the crop rotation system QUES 4,DIST 20
  33. State two social consequences of early Agriculture in Egypt (2mks)
    • Population increase
    • Settled life
    • People started to enjoy leisure time
    • Development of religion and worship system
    • Development of urban centers
    • Emergence of social classes QUES 6,DIST 20
  34.                    
    1. List three types of crops grown in ancient Mesopotamia (3mks)
      • Barley
      • Wheat
      • Vines
      • Dates
      • Olives
      • Onions
      • Figs
      • Melons
      • Cucumber
        1x 3 = 3mks)
    2. Explain six impacts of Agrarian revolution on the European society (12 mks)
      • Abundance of food led to increased in population
      • Establishment of large farms and plantation farming replaced subsistence farming
      • Use of improved farming methods led to high yields
      • Introduction of new crops e.g. wheat, beans, maize, cloves led to the diversification of Agriculture
      • Mechanization of farming methods led to the redundancy of manual work/unemployment
      • Establishment of large farms encouraged the rich land lords to buy off poor farmers’ land thus creating a class of landless people.
      • Displacement of people led to rural urban migrations
      • Provided industries with raw materials which led to growth of industries
      • The price of land went up
      • Those who could, migrated to abroad e.g Canada, U.S.A. etc
      • Improvement of transport network e.g. roads, railways.
      • Led to expansion of trade
      • Should explain the answer
        2 x6=12mks QUES 17,DIST 20

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