KCSE 2010 Geography Paper 1 Questions with Marking Scheme

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QUESTIONS

SECTION A
Answer ALL the questions in this section.

  1. Give three components of the solar system. (3 marks)

    1. Identify two types of high level clouds. (2 marks)
    2. Draw a well labeled diagram of the hydrological cycle. (5 marks)

    1. Give three causes of earthquakes. (3 marks)
    2. Name two major earthquake zones of the earth. (2 marks)

    1. What is a rock? (2 marks)
    2. Give three characteristics of sedimentary rocks. (3 marks)

    1. The diagram below shows some coastal features.

      coastal features kcse 2010

      Name the feature marked P, Q and R. (3 marks)

    2. State two conditions necessary for the formation of a bench. (2 marks)

      SECTION B
      Answer question 6 and any other TWO questions from this section.

  2. Study the map of Homa Bay (1:50,000) sheet 129/2 provided and answer the following questions.
    1. A pipeline is to be laid from Lake Victoria long the line marked X-Y.
      1. What is the length of the piping to be used? (2 marks)
        (Give your answer to the nearest 100 metres)

      2. Calculate the bearing of point Y from point X.(2 marks)
      3. Calculate the area of the part of Lake Victoria shown on the map excluding the marshy sections. (Give your answer in square kilometers). (2 marks)

    2. The rectangle below represents the area in the map bounded by Eastings 54 and 60 and Northings 35 and 40. Identify and name the features marked J,K,L and M. (4 marks)

      eastings and northing kcse 2010

      1. Explain three factors which have influenced the distribution of settlements n the area covered by the map. (6 marks)
      2. Citing evidence from the map, give two agricultural activities carried out in the area covered by the map. (4 marks)

    3. Describe the drainage of the area covered by the map. (5 marks)

  3. The map below shows some vegetation regions of the world. Use it to answer questions (a) and (b).

    world vegetation regions kcse 2010


      1. Name the temperate grasslands marked D, E and F. (3 marks)
      2. Describe the characteristics of the natural vegetation found in the shaded area marked G. (6 marks)

    1. Explain how climate has influenced the existence of the following types of vegetation as shown on the map.
      1. Desert vegetation; (4 marks)
      2. Coniferous vegetation. (4 marks)

    2. You are required to carry out a field study of the natural vegetation within your local environment.
      1. Apart from identifying the different types of plants, state three other activities you would carry out during the field study. (3 marks)
      2. How would you identify the different types of plant? (3 marks)
      3. State two ways in which the information collected during the field study would be useful to the local community. (2 marks)

    1. Describe plucking as a process in glacial erosion. (4 marks)
    2. Explain three conditions that led to glacial deposition. (6 marks)
    3. The diagram below shows features resulting from glacial deposition on a lowland area. 

      glacial deposition in lowland areas kcse 2010

      1. Name the features marked X, Y and Z. (3 marks)
      2. Describe how terminal moraine is formed. (4 marks)

    4. Explain positive effects of glaciations in lowland areas. (8 marks)

    1. Differentiate between river rejuvenation and river capture. (2 marks)
    2. Give three features resulting from;
      1. river rejuvenation; (3 marks)
      2. river capture. (3 marks)

    3. Explain four ways in which a river transports its load. (8 marks)

    4. You are planning to carry out a field study on the lower course of a river.
      1. Give three reasons why you would require a route map. (3 marks)
      2. State three characteristics of a river at the old stage that you are likely to observe during the field study. (3 marks)
      3. Give three follow-up activities you would be involved in after the field study. (3 marks)

  4. The diagram below represents a well developed soil profile. Use it to answer question (a).

    soil profile kcse 2010

      1. Describe the characteristics of horizon B. (3 marks)
      2. Apart from humus, name three other components of soil. (3 marks)
      3. State three ways in which humus contribute to the quality of soil. (3 marks)

      1. Differentiate between soil structure and soil texture. (2 marks)
      2. Explain how the following factors influence the formation of soil:
        • Topography; (6 marks)
        • Time. (2 marks)

    1. Explain how the following farming practices may lead to loss of soil fertility.
      1. Overgrazing; (2 marks)
      2. Frequent ploughing; (2 marks)
      3. Continuous irrigation. (2 marks)

MARKING SCHEME

  1. Give three components of the solar system.
    • the sun
    • the planets
    • Asteroids
    • meteors
    • comets (Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)
  2.                  
    1. Identify two types of high level clouds
      • Cirrus
      • Cirro-cumulus
      • Cirro stratus (any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)
    2. Draw a well labelled diagram of a hydrological cycle.
      geo 1 kaguyda
      • Correctly drawn diagram
      • Clouds - 1 mark
      • Rain - 1 mark
      • Surface run off - 1 mark
      • Lad/ocean - 1 mark (max = 4 mks)
  3.                    
    1. Give three causes of earthquake
      • Growth low pressure
      • Convergence/collision
      • Movement of magma within the earth’s crust/volcanic eruption (volcanicity)
      • folding/faulting
      • Isostatic adjustment
      • Blasting of rocks/bomb any 3 x 1
    2. Name two major earthquake/ones of the world.
      • the Circum - Pacific belt
      • the Tethyam - Mediterranean belt
      • the Great Rift Valley belt
      • Mid Atlantic Ocean belt (Any 2 x 1 = 2)
  4.                        
    1. What is a rock?
      • Any naturally formed solid aggregate/a naturally occurring solid material composed of one of minerals.
    2. Give three characteristics of sedimentary rocks
      • some sedimentary rocks contain fossils.
      • The rocks have cleavage/are foliated/have planes
      • The rocks horizontal layers/are stratified. (any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)
  5.                      
    1.                
      1. The diagram below shows some coastal features.
        • Refer to question paper
      2. Name the features P, Q and R
        • P - Headland
        • O - Spit
        • R - Stack ( 3 x1 = 3 marks)
    2. State two conditions necessary for the forestation of a beach.
      • Presence of abundant supply of materials to be deposited.
      • Presence of a shallow shore/continental shelf.
      • A relatively weak long shore current
      • A weak backwash/strong wash/constructive wires.
      • Gently sloping land at the sea shore. (Any 2 x 1 mark each)
  6. Study the map of Homa Bay (1:50,000) sheet 129/2 provided and answer the following question
    1. A pipeline is to be laid along the line marked X - Y
      1. What is the length of the piping to be used? (Give your answer to the nearest 100m)
        7km 100m/7100m
      2. calculate the bearing of point Y from point X
        225º ± 1º (224º - 210º)
      3. Calculate the area of the part of Lake Victoria shown on the map excluding the marshy sections. Give your answer in square kilometres
        15km2 + 1km2 (2 mks)
    2. The rectangle below represents the area in the map extract bounded by Eastings 54 and 60 and Northings 25 and 40. Identify and name the features marked J, K, L and M.
      • J - Lala Dam
      • K - Magare School
      • L - Dry weather road
      • M - forest (4 mks)
    3.                  
      1. Explain three factors which have influenced the distribution of settlement in the area covered by the map.
        • There are mean settlements in the Eastern part of the area because the land is gently slopping.
        • There are clusters of settlements where there are markets/urban centres such as Homa Bay because there are social amenities and economic activities that attract settlements.
        • The hilly areas around Ruri had few or no settlements because the lad is steep/
        • There are no settlements to the south west because the area is set aside as a national reserve and it is forested.
        • Shores of Lake Victoria have no settlement because they are poorly drained/marshy
        • Homa Bay, Municipality area is the most densely settled because it has (Any 3 x 2)
      2. Citing evidence from the map, give two agricultural activities carried out in the area covered by the map.
        • cereal farming - flour mills/maize control store
        • cotton growing - cotton experimental farm/ginnery
        • sisal farming - sisal factory(3 marks)
      3. Describe the drainage of the area covered by the map.
        • the main drainage feature is Lake Victoria
        • the main river is River a keen/run off they drain into L. Victoria
        • there are many short streams originating from Ruri Hills
        • Some rivers for parallel pattern
        • many streams disappear
        • River Akech and its tributaries form dendtritic pattern
        • The area has dams/water holes (Any 5 x 1 = 5 marks)
  7. The map below shows some vegetation regions of the world. Use it to answer questions (a) and (b)
    Refer to question paper
    1.                  
      1. name the temperate grasslands marked D, E and F.
        • D - Prairies
        • E - Steppes
        • F - Downs (3 marks)
      2. Describe the characteristics of the natural vegetation found in the shaded area marked G.
        • the forests consists of nixed variety of tree species.
        • the trees shed their leaves at different times of the year/forests are evergreen.
        • the trees are tall/with the trunks
        • the trees have broad leaves/drip tipped leaves.
        • the trees take long to manure
        • the tree species are mainly hardwood
        • the trees grow close to each other
        • the forests have little or no undergrowth.
        • the trees has numerous lianas/climbing plants/epiphytes.
        • some of the trees have buttress roots.
        • the forests have canopies
        • the forest crowns form three distinct layers. (9 marks)
    2. Explain how climate has influenced the existence of the following types of vegetation shown on the map.
      1. Desert vegetation
        • the area has scarce vegetation because it receives low rainfall/experience droughts.
        • the long periods of drought causes seeds to exist in a dormant state only to germinate during the short rains,
        • the higher rainfall along the margins of the region lead to more luxuriant vegetation in the areas.
        • strong winds may uproot some of the plants leaving the ground bare/strong winds disperse seeds from one part of the region to another leading to establishment of plant species far and wide in the region.Any 2 x 2 = 4 marks
      2. Coniferous forests
        • the long cold winter and short summers make trees grow at a slow rate.
        • Due to long cold winters and short summers the vegetation types consists of a limited variety of species of plants.
        • The low rainfall received in the area/permanently frozen subsoil makes the trees develop shallow roots that spread widely to utilize the moisture in the top soil.
        • precipitation in the region is mainly in form of snow. (4 x 2 = 8 mks)
    3. You are required to carry out a field stuffy of the natural vegetation within your local environment.
      1. apart from identifying the different types of plants, state three other activities you would carry out during the field study.
        • Collecting samples of plants
        • measuring distances
        • estimating heights of plants
        • drawing sketches/transacts
        • recording/taking notes
        • taking photographs of plants
        • counting plants (Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)
      2. How would you identify the different types of plants?
        • by their appearance
        • by their colour
        • by their leaf size/pattern/type
        • by their age
        • by the texture of the leaves
        • by their flowers (any 3 x 1 = 3mks)
      3. State two ways in which the information collected during the field study would be useful to the local community.
        • It can be used to plan agricultural activities
        • It can be used to help in the conservation of land/wildlife/soil/water
        • It can be used to help in the rationalization of land use.
        • It can be used for future reference.
        • It can be used to determine the economic uses of plants/herbal medicine (Any 3 marks)
  8.            
    1. Describe plucking as a process in glacial erosion.
      • pressure from the overlying mass of ice cause freeze thaw action
      • melting water fills the cracks/joints in the bed rock.
      • as water freezes it exerts pressure on the cracks enlarging them.
      • the enlarged cracks lead to disintegration of the rock.
    2. Explain three conditions that lead to glacial deposition.
      • rising temperature lead to melting of ice thereby causing the ice to deposit its loads.
      • change of gradient to relatively flat surface will reduce the velocity of the glacial.
      • movement which will subsequently lead to deposition of glacial materials.
      • alternating warm and cold periods lead to seasonal melting of ice which allows materials embedded in the ice to be released and deposited.
      • Stagnation/accumulation of glacier leads to pressure at the base of the glacier which in turn leads to melting of ice at the base.
      • The melt water then carries and deposits materials underneath which loosens the heavy materials beneath the mass of ice and subsequently deposited.
        Condition 1 mark
        Explanation 1 mark (any 3 x 2 = 6 marks)
    3. The diagram below shows features resulting from glacial on a lowland area.
      Refer to question paper
      1. Name the features marked X, Y and Z.
        • X - Drumlins
        • Y - A river/melt water
        • Z - kettle lake/lake (3 marks)
      2. Describe how terminal moraine is formed
        • moving ice carries solid materials
        • moving ice stagnates
        • melting ice releases its load
        • gradually the load piles into a ridge
        • over time the ridge forms a horse shoes shape/block of solid materials called terminal moraine.(4 marks)
    4. Explain four positive effects of glaciation in lowland areas
      • Glacial till provides fertile soils which are suitable for arable farming.
      • Ice sheets in their scouring effect reduce the surface which may expose the minerals making them easy to extract.
      • Out wash plains comprise of sand and gravel which are used as building materials.
      • Glacial lakes found in lowland areas can be exploited for various economic uses such as fishing transportation.
      • Glaciation forms features such as drumbing eskers which are tourists attractions.
      • Glaciated lowlands are generally flat and ideal for establishment of settlements/development of transportation network. (8 marks)
  9.                          
    1. Differentiate between river rejuvenation and river capture.
      • River rejuvenation is the renewal of the rivers erosive activity while river capture part of the river with more than that of the neighbouring river. (2 marks)
    2. Give three features resulting from
      1. river rejuvenation
        • knick point/waterfall
        • river terraces
        • incensed meanders
        • river gorges/rejuvenation gorges
        • valley within a valley
          Aberdare meanders
      2. River capture
        • wind gap/dry river valley
        • elbow of capture
        • pirate stream
        • beheaded stream/misfit/captured river (3 marks)
    3. Explain the four ways through which a river transports its loads.
      • The fine particles such as silt are carried in suspension because they are light and can be maintained within the turbulence of the water/some of the light materials float on the surface of the water.
      • The fairly heavy particles/pebbles are lifted and bounce over short distances by the turbulence of the water. This process is known as siltation/hydraulic lift.
      • The large and heavy particles are slide along the river bed. The process is known as traction/welling.
      • Soluble materials are dissolved in water and carried in form of solution.
        W - L
        C - 4 (8 marks)
    4. You are planning to carry out a field study on the lower course of a river.
      1.                          
        • give three reasons why you would require a route map.
        • to help identify the direction to flow.
        • to help prepare a work schedule
        • to help identify location of features for study
        • to help estimate distances to be covered
        • to help estimate the time the field study is likely to take. (3 marks)
      2. State three characteristics of a river at the old stage that you are likely to observe during the field study.
        • the river flowing at a low speed
        • the river carrying silt in suspension/the water is brown
        • the river braids as a vent.
        • the river meandering in the flood plain
        • Distributions
        • Dispersal to form
      3. Give three follow up activities you would be involved in after the field study.
        • Reading more on the topic.
        • Displaying photographs/items collected
        • Asking/answering questions
        • Writing reports
        • Discussing with the rest of the class
        • Analyzing/assessing the information collected against the hypothesis. (Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)
  10. The diagram below represents a well developed soil profile. Use it to answer question (a)
    Refer to question paper
    1.                    
      1. Describe the characteristics of horizon B
        • it is the accumulation zone for leached minerals from horizon A.
        • the soil texture is clay in nature
        • the zone sometimes forms the hard pan/murram/lateric duri crust. (Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks)
      2. Apart from humus, name three other components of soil air/soil
        • water/soil water
        • rock particles/weathered materials
        • living organisms (any 3 x 1= 3)
      3. state three ways in which humus contributes to the quality of soil
        • it helps improve soil texture
        • it provides essential minerals to the soils from the decomposed plant matter/humification and nitrification.
        • it enables soil to retain moisture
        • it facilitates aeration of the soil
        • humus in a source of food for micro-organisms (3 marks)
    2.                  
      1. Differentiate between soil structure and soil texture
        • soil structure is the way the individual soil particles are arranged into aggregate compound particles while soil texture is the degree of fineness or coarseness of the soil particles. (2 marks)
      2. Explain how the following factors influence soil formation
        • Topography
          valley bottoms encourage formation of deep fertile due to depositional/accumulation of weathered materials.
        • steep slopes encourage of the top soil thus slowing down formation of soil/they have thin soil/have poorly developed soils.formation (Any 3 x 2 )
          Time
        • where soil formation processes takes a short duration the soils are generally immature/where the process has taken a long period of time soils are generally well developed/mature.
        • Young soils retain the characteristics of the parent rock because they have not been exposed to the factors that may cause change/mature soils may not display the characteristics of the parent rock. (Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks)
    3. Explain how the following farming practices may lead to the loss of soil fertility
      1. Overgrazing
        • It leads to removal of vegetation cover thereby imposing soil to agents of erosion. (2 marks)
      2. Frequent ploughing
        • this weakens soil structure making it easy for agents of soil erosion to carry it away.
        • It increases oxidation which results in loss of organic matter. Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks
      3. continuous irrigation
        • It causes leaching of soil nutrients making the top soil deficient of soluble minerals/causes salinity (2 marks)

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