KCSE 2012 History Paper 1 with Marking Scheme

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SECTION A (25 marks)

  1. Give two limitations of using anthropology as a source of information in History and Government. (2 marks)
  2. Identify one community in Kenya that belonged to the Southern Cushitic group. (1 mark)
  3. Name two Bantu groups in Kenya which settled in Mount Elgon area before migrating to their present homeland. (2 marks)
  4. State two religious functions performed by Oloibon of the Maasai during the pre-colonial period. (2 marks)
  5. Give two factors that enabled the early visitors to come to the Kenyan coast by 1500 A.D. (2 marks)
  6. Name one Arab family which ruled the Kenyan coast on behalf of Oman. (1 mark)
  7. Name the African community that organized the long distance trade in Kenya during the colonial period. (1mark)
  8. Give the main reason why the Kenyan citizen should obey the law. (1 mark)
  9. Give two ways in which education has promoted national unity in Kenya. (2 marks)
  10. State two advantages of representative democracy. (2 marks)
  11. Give the main reason why the colonial government created the African reserves in Kenya. (1 mark)
  12. What was the main reason for the formation of the Kenya African Democratic Union in 1960? (1 mark)
  13. Name the administrative head of Kenyan Parliament. (1 mark)
  14. Give the main function of Prison department in Kenya. (1 mark)
  15. Give the main reason why the Government of Kenya introduced Free Primary Education in 2003. (1 mark)
  16. Give the main reason why the Government of Kenya ensures effective utilization of public funds. (2 marks)
  17. Give two disadvantages of Kenya’s reliance on foreign aid as a source of revenue. (2 marks)

    SECTION B (45 marks)

  18.  
    1. State five causes of the Nandi resistance against the British invasion. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five effects of the Maasai collaboration with the British in the early 20th Century. (10 marks)
  19.  
    1. State five ways in which the Kenya-Uganda railway promoted economic development in Kenya during the colonial period. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five problems encountered during the construction of the Kenya-Uganda railway. (10 marks)

  20.  
    1. Give five grievances of the Kikuyu Central Association which were presented by Jomo Kenyatta to the Colonial Secretary in 1929. (5 marks)
    2. Describe five roles played by Thomas Joseph Mboya in the development of trade union movement in Kenya. (10 marks)
  21.  
    1. State five ways in which the government of Kenya has improved the health of its citizens since independence. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five factors which have undermined the provision of Health services by the Government of Kenya. (10 marks)

SECTION C (30 marks)
Answer any TWO questions from this section.

  1.  
    1. Give three circumstances in which one’s right to life may be taken away. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six reasons why it is important to respect Human Rights. (12 marks)
  2.  
    1. Give the composition of the Judicial Service Commission in Kenya. (5 marks)
    2. Describe five ways through which the independence of the Judiciary is guaranteed in Kenya.
      (10 marks)
  3.  
    1. Name the three categories of the Kenya Defence Forces. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six challenges faced by the Kenya Police Service in the course of discharging their duties. (12 marks)

MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A

  1. Give two limitations of using anthropology as a source of information on History and Government.
    (2 marks) 
    1. It is time consuming 
    2. It is an expensive method 
    3. Information collected may be inaccurate/distorted 
    4. Information collected may be biased.
      Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks
  2. Identify one community in Kenya which belongs to the southern cushitic group.   (1 mark)
    • Dehallo/Sanye
      Any 1x 1 = 1 mark
  3. Name two Bantu groups in Kenya which settled in Mount Elgon area before migrating to their present homeland. (2 marks)
    1. Abaluhya 
    2. Abagusii 
    3. Abakuria
      Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks
  4. State two religious functions performed by the Oloiboni of the Maasai during the pre-colonial period.
    (2 marks) 
    1. He foretold the future/consulted God.
    2. He presided over religious ceremonies/activities
    3. He offered prayers on behalf of the community 
    4. He blessed warriors before going to war.
      Any 2 x 1=2 marks
  5. Give two factors that enabled the early visitors to come to the Kenyan coast by 1500 A.D (2 marks)
    1. Existence of natural harbours 
    2. Accessibility of the East African Coast
    3. Existence of monsoon/trade winds 
    4. Knowledge of boat making/sailing ship/dhows/marine technology
      Any 2 x 1= 2 marks
  6. Name one Arab family which ruled the Kenyan coast on behalf of Oman.
    1. Mazrui 
    2. Nabahan 
    3. Busaidi
      Any 1 x 1= 1 mark
  7. Name the African Community that organized the long distance trade in Kenya during the pre-colonial period.
    • The Akamba  
      1x1=1 mark
  8. Give the main reason why a Kenyan citizen should obey the law.
    • To keep peace.
      1x1 = 1 mark
  9. Give two ways in which education has promoted national unity in Kenya.  (2 marks)
    1. Common curriculum/syllabus is used
    2. Learners from different schools interact through co-curricular activities 
    3. Learners from different community/background attend the same schools
    4. Learners in all public schools sit for a common national examination.
    5. Common medium of communication/English/Kiswahili is used in schools.
      Any 2 x 1= 2 marks
  10. State two advantages of representative democracy.
    1. People elect leaders of their own choice
    2. Supreme power is vested in the people 
    3. It is easy to make decision 
    4. Elected leaders are accountable to the people
    5. People are able to air their grievances
      Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks
  11. Give the main reason why the colonial government created African reserves in Kenya. (1 mark)
    • To create room for European farming/settlement.
      (1 x 1) = 1 mark
  12. What was the main reason for the formation of Kenya African Democratic Union in 1960, (1 mark)
    • To protect the rights/interests of the minority groups.
      1x1= 1 mark
  13. Name the administrative head of the Kenya Parliament.
    • The clerk.
       (1x1 = 1 mark)
  14. State the main function of the prisons department in Kenya. 
    • It reforms/rehabilitates convicts.
      1x1 = 1 mark
  15. Give the main reason why the government of Kenya introduced Free Primary Education in 2003.
    • To enable more people access education.
      (1x1 = 1 mark)
  16. State two ways in which the Government of Kenya ensures effective utilization of public funds. (2 marks)
    1. It budgets for the funds/finance.
    2. It undertakes regular auditing of funds.
    3. It investigates /prosecutes corrupt officers through ethics and anti-corruption It investiga commission.
    4. It procures goods/services through open tendering system.
    5. Parliament approves/monitors public funds.
      Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks
  17. Give two disadvantages of Kenya's reliance on foreign aid as a source of revenue. (2 marks)
    1. It is given with conditions. 
    2. It attracts high interest rates.
    3. It creates donor dependency syndrome/debt crisis 
    4. It limits the choice of trading partners. 
    5. It delays the implementation of projects.
      Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks

SECTION B (45 marks)

  1.  
    1. State five causes of the Nandi resistance against the British invasion.  (5 marks)
      1. They wanted to safeguard their independence.
      2. They were proud people who disliked interference by strangers.
      3. Had successfully raided /fought their neighbours/intruders in the past.
      4. They disliked the whiteman's/European skin colour/dressing.
      5. They did not want to lose their land.
      6. They fought to avert the fulfillment of Kimnyole's/Orkoiyot's prophecy.
      7. They had an able leader who inspired them to fight/resist.
        Any 5 x 1 = 5 marks
    2. Explain five effects of the Maasai collaboration with the British in the early 20th Century (10 marks)
      1. Lenana was made a paramount chief of the Maasai because of his cooperation.
      2. They lost land which was taken up by the British for farming/settlement.
      3. They were rewarded with material wealth/granted favoured status due to their cooperation
      4. They lost their independence/were manipulated as their land became a British protectorate.
      5. It led to the division/separation between those for/against collaboration thereby weakening them further.
      6. They were hired as mercenaries to assist the British in subduing/suppressing communities that were resisting establishment of colonial rule.
      7. It led to the eviction/displacement of the Maasai thereby causing untold suffering /loss of livelihood.
      8. It led to the disruption of their economic structure thereby causing loss of wealth.
        Any 5x 2 = 10 marks
  2.  
    1. State five ways in which the construction of the Kenya Uganda Railway promoted economic development in Kenya during the colonial period. (5 marks)
      1. It hastened It hastened transportation of goods/services.
      2. It promoted the growth of trade/commercial activities.
      3. It opened the interior for better farming/agriculture. 
      4. It led to the growth of industries/mining. 
      5. It led to the growth/development of urban centres.
      6. It generated revenue to the colonial government.
      7. It created employment.
      8. Development of other forms of transport
        Any 5 x 1= 5 marks
    2. Explain five problems encountered during the construction of the Kenya Uganda Railway. (10 marks)
      1. The harsh climate created difficult working environment thus slowing down the work
      2. There was inadequate labour which led to importation of workers from India.
      3. The workers were attacked by tropical diseases/pests leading to their ineffectiveness/ death
      4. The terrain was poor/difficulty thus slowing down the constructions work.
      5. Some communities attacked the workers/stole equipments thereby delaying the construction.
      6. They were attacked by wild-animals/man-eaters of Tsavo thus leading to deaths of some workers.
      7. The transportation of some constructions materials was difficult due to their bulkiness.
      8. There was irregular/delays in the supply of construction materials/equipments which slowed down the work.
      9. There was inadequate supply of essential/basic commodities which made life unbearable.
        Any 5 x 2=10 marks
  3.  
    1. Give five grievances of the Kikuyu Central Association which were presented by Jomo Kenyatta to the Colonial Secretary in 1929.     (5 marks)
      1. Land alienation.
      2. Taxation of Africans.
      3. Lack of African representation of LegCo
      4. Lack of quality/poor education for Africans.
      5. Release of Harry Thuku.
      6. Abolition of forced labour.
      7. Abolition of Kipande system.
        Any 5 x 1 = 5 marks
    2. Describe five roles played by Thomas Joseph Mboya in the development of trade union movement in Kenya. (10 marks)
      1. He was instrumental in the formation of trade union movement.
      2. He served as a leader in trade union organizations both locally and internationally.
      3. He organized protests/ demonstrations against the arrest and harassment of trade union members/workers.
      4. He liaised with international trade union organizations where he gained knowledge/ experience of running trade unions.
      5. He solicited for funds to finance the activities of trade union movement in Kenya,
      6. He organized trade union courses/ seminars in various parts of the country to educate the workers/leaders.
      7. He agitated for better terms/conditions for workers.
      8. He attended courses on industrial relations abroad where he gained knowledge on labour relations.
        Any 5 x 2 = 10 marks
  4.  
    1. State five ways in which the government of Kenya has improved the health of its citizens since independence.    (5 marks)
      1. It has established/created the Ministry of Health.
      2. It has established hospitals/clinics/dispensaries.
      3. It has encouraged NGOs/religious organizations/individuals to provide health services.
      4. It has established medical training institutions.
      5. It has recognized the use of herbal medicine.
      6. It has established National Health Insurance Fund.
      7. It has established Medical Research Institutes.
      8. It has employed health workers.
      9. It has subsidized the cost of healthcare/ free medical services.
      10. It educates people on health matters.
        Any 5x 1 = 5 marks
    2. Explain five factors which have undermined the provision of health services by the government of Kenya.   (10 marks)
      1. High population growth rate has limited government ability to finance health services.
      2. High poverty levels among the people has hampered access to medical services due to the cost involved.
      3. Lack of enough medical personnel has compromised the quality of the services provided.
      4. Lack of adequate funds to provide enough medical facilities has lowered the quality of services provided.
      5. The continued pollution of the environment has led to increased ailments thereby jeopardising the government's efforts.
      6. Malnutrition/poor diet has made it difficult for the government to maintain good health among the people.
      7. The increased number of terminal diseases has led to the diversion of resources from the core health services.
      8. Unforeseen high rate of accidents/injuries has strained the scarce resources.
      9. Traditional/cultural practices have frustrated the government's effort to provide health care.
      10. Corruption in the health sector has compromised delivery of services.
      11. Illegal abortions and early pregnancies endanger lives of mothers.
      12. Poor transport and communication in some areas undermine the provision of services.
        Any 5 x 2 = 10 marks

SECTION C (30 marks)

  1.  
    1. Give three circumstances in which one's right to life may be taken away. (3 marks)
      1. When sentenced to death by a court of law.
      2. In self-defence - somebody might kill another in the process.
      3. When the life of a law enforcing officer is endangered.
      4. When the health/ life of a mother pregnant woman is in danger.
      5. During the war. 
      6. When preventing escape of a lawfully detained person. 
      7. When preventing a person from committing a crime/felony.
      8. When suppressing a riot/rebellion/mutiny.
        Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks
    2. Explain six reasons why it is important to respect human rights. (12 marks)
      1. It promotes human dignity as the rights of the people are observed. 
      2. It promotes unity among the people by encouraging harmonious co-existence.
      3. It promotes the rule of law by enhancing justice/good governance in society.
      4. It promotes respect for other people's cultures by appreciating cultural diversity. 
      5. It promotes tolerance by accommodating other people's views/ideas.
      6. It promotes democracy as other people's opinions/views are respected. 
      7. It promotes international relations by observing conventions/ treaties on human rights. 
      8. It promotes development by creating an enabling/conducive environment. 
      9. It justifies special treatment of minority/disadvantaged groups/communities. 
      10. Provides guidance to state organs regarding the exercise of state powers.
        Any 6 x 2 = 12 marks
  2.  
    1. Give the composition of the Judicial Service Commission in Kenya. (5 marks)
      1. The Chief Justice. 
      2. One supreme court judge.
      3. One court of appeal judge. 
      4. One high court judge and one magistrate.
      5. The Attorney General
      6. Two advocates, one a woman and one a man.
      7. A nominee of the public service commission. 
      8. One man and one woman to represent the public.
      9. Chief registrar/secretary to the commission.
        Any 5 x 1 = 5 marks
    2. Describe five ways through which independence of the judiciary is guaranteed in Kenya. (10 marks)
      1. It is established by the constitution as an arm of the national government.
      2. Its authority is guided/controlled by the constitution when carrying out its mandate.
      3. It draws its expenses directly from the Judges Consolidated Fund in order to ensure independence.
      4. Judges of the superior courts have security of tenure of office can only be dismissed in accordance with the constitution.
      5. Members of the judiciary are not held accountable to their actions/decision if they are taken in the best interest of dispensing justice.
      6. The judges/ magistrates swear the oath of allegiance to the constitution.
      7. Remuneration/ benefits given to judges cannot be varied in such a way as to disadvantage them.
      8. The appointment of magistrates is done by the Judicial Service Commission in order to guarantee its independence.
        Any 5 x 2 = 10 marks
  3.  
    1. Name the three categories of the Kenya Defence forces.   (3 marks)
      1. The Kenya Army
      2. The Kenya Airforce
      3. The Kenya Navy
        Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks
    2. Explain six challenges faced by the Kenya Police Service in the course of discharging their duties.
      1. Lack of support/negative attitude from the members of the public who refuse/withhold useful information.
      2. Corruption among some officers renders them ineffective in discharging their duties.
      3. Inadequate transport facilities hampers their movement thereby making it difficult for them to respond to emergencies.
      4. Sophisticated weapons used by criminals threatens/ endangers police officers' lives.
      5. Inadequate modern communication equipment makes it difficult for them to relay/ pass confidential information.
      6. Interference by politicians/ members of the public demoralises/ frustrates their efforts.
      7. Betrayal by some officers who collude with the criminals to break the law/ subvert justice
      8. Inadequate training of the officers renders them incompetent in discharging their duties.
      9. Terrorism/increased acts of crime.
      10. poor working and living conditions eg. poor housing/low salaries.
        Any 6x2 = 12 marks

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