KCSE 2012 History Paper 2 with Marking Scheme

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SECTION A (25 marks)
Answer all the questions in this section

  1. Identify one type of artefact that is likely to be found in an archeological site. (1 mark)
  2. Name one source of information on the Creation Theory. (1 mark)
  3. Name two ways in which the Sumerians from Mesopotamia reclaimed land for agriculture. (2 marks)
  4. Give the main form of transport used in the Trans-Saharan Trade. (1 mark)
  5. Name two groups of people that were involved in the Trans-Atlantic Trade. (2 marks)
  6. State two negative effects of the development of the motor vehicle transport. (2 marks)
  7. Give two inventions that revolutionized the textile industry in Britain during the 18th Century. (2 marks)
  8. Identify the main factor that contributed to the growth of Athens in the Ancient Greece. (1 mark)
  9. State two European activities in Africa before 1850. (2 marks)
  10. State one way in which African collaboration with European hastened colonization of Africa. (1 mark)
  11. Give the main reason why the European powers held the Berlin Conference from 1884 to 1885. (1 mark)
  12. State one way in which the rise of dictators in Europe contributed to the outbreak of the Second World War. (1 mark)
  13. Give two economic benefits enjoyed by the members of the Commonwealth. (2 marks)
  14. Give the main reason why the Pan African movement was formed at the beginning of the 20th Century. (1 mark)
  15. Name one financial institution established by the African Union. (1 mark)
  16. Identify two factors which have undermined the exploitation of mineral resources in the Democratic Republic of Congo independence. (2 marks)
  17. State two ways in which poor infrastructure has slowed down economic development of Tanzania since independence. (2 marks)

    SECTION B (45 marks)
    Answer any three questions from this section.

  18.  
    1. State three disadvantages of hunting as an economic activity of the early man. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six benefits of settling in villages during the Late Stone Age period. (12 marks)
  19.  
    1. Give three uses of wind as a source of energy in ancient times. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six effects of iron working technology of African communities before the 19th century. (12 marks)
  20.  
    1. State five economic activities of the Asante during the 19th Century. (5 marks)
    2. Describe the social organization of the Buganda Kingdom during the pre-colonial period. (10 marks)
  21.  
    1. Outline five grievances by Africans against apartheid in South Africa. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five challenges faced by African nationalists in their struggle for a majority rule in South Africa. (10 marks)

SECTION C (30 marks)
Answer any two questions from this section.

    1. Name three communes which were established by the French in Senegal during the pre-colonial period.   (3 marks)
    2. Describe the structure of the British Colonial administration in Northern Nigeria. (12 marks)
  1.  
    1. State three permanent members of the United Nations Security Council. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six ways in which the United Nations provides humanitarian assistance. (12 marks)
  2.  
    1. Identify three categories of the members of the executive in the United States of America.
      (3 marks)
    2. Describe six functions of the Federal Government of the United States of America. (12 marks)

MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A

  1. Identify one type of artefact that is likely to be found in an archeological site. (1 mark) (
    1. Tools
    2. Weapons 
    3. Pottery 
    4. Ornaments.
      Any 1 x 1 = 1 mark
  2. Name one source of information on the Creation Theory of man. 
    1. The Bible 
    2. The Koran
      1x1 = 1 mark
  3. State two ways in which the Sumerians in Mesopotamia reclaimed land for agriculture.  (2 marks)
    1. They built banks/dykes along rivers to stop flooding. 
    2. They dug ditches to drain water from swamps.
    3. They used canals to irrigate the land. 
    4. They used the shadoof to draw water to irrigate the land.
      Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks
  4. Give the main form of transport that was used in the Trans-Saharan trade. 
    • Animal transport/camel/horse.
       1 x 1=1 mark
  5. Name two groups of people that were involved in the Trans-Atlantic trade. (2 marks)
    1. The Europeans 
    2. The Africans
    3. The Americans.
      Any 2 x 1= 2 marks
  6. State two negative effects of the development of motor vehicle transport: 
    1. It causes traffic jams especially in urban areas: 
    2. It contributes to environmental pollution;
    3. It damages roads; 
    4. It causes accidents leading to loss of lives/injuries.
      Any 2 x 1=2 marks
  7. Give two inventions that revolutionalized the textile industry in Britain during the 18th Century (2 marks)
    1. The flying shuttle;
    2. The spinning jenny:
    3. The water frame;
    4. The Spinning mule; 
    5. The power loom; 
    6. The cotton gin.
    7. Cylindical printing
      Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks
  8. Identify the main factor that contributed to the growth of Athens in Ancient Greece.
    • Trade/ commercial activities.
      1 x 1= 1 mark
  9. State two European activities in Africa before 1850.
    1. They were involved in trade.
    2. They were spreading Christianity.
    3. They were involved in exploration. 
    4. They were involved in spreading Western Education.
      Any 2 x 1= 2 marks
  10. State one way in which African collaboration with the Europeans hastened colonization in Africa. (1 mark)
    1. It encouraged Europeans to settle on African land/loss of African land.
    2. It created disunity among Africans. 
    3. It assisted the Europeans in conquering other communities. 
    4. It assisted/enabled Europeans to establish their control/entrench themselves,
      Any 1 x 1 = 1 mark
  11. Give the main reason why the European powers held Berlin conference of 1884 to 1885.   (1 mark)
    • To discuss how to partition/share/divide Africa among themselves.
      1x1= 1 mark
  12. State one way in which the rise of dictators in Europe contributed to the outbreak of the Second World War.   (1 mark)
    1. They overthrew democratic government. 
    2. They rearmed themselves.
    3. They engaged in acts of aggression/attacked other countries.
      Any 1 x 1= 1 mark
  13. Give two economic benefits enjoyed by the members of the commonwealth. (2 marks)
    1. Favourable trading opportunities to members. 
    2. Financial assistance given to the poor nations. 
    3. Technical/research assistance to member countries.
    4. Support for youth programmes/projects for development.
      Any 2 x 1= 2 marks
  14. Give the main reason why the Pan African movement was formed at the beginning of the 20th Century   (1 mark)
    • To unite peoples of African descent.
      1 x 1=1 mark
  15. Name one financial institution established by the African Union. 
    1. The African Monetary Fund 
    2. The African Central Bank 
    3. The African Investment Bank
      Any 1 x 1 = 1 mark
  16. Identify two factors which have undermined the exploitation of mineral resources in the Democratic Republican of Congo since independence.   (2 marks)
    1. Civil war in the country;
    2. Shortage of labour due to displacement of people;
    3. Smuggling of minerals;
    4. Political interference by neighbouring states; 
    5. Poor transport network.
      Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks
  17. State two ways in which poor road network has undermined economic development in Tanzania since independence.  (2 marks)
    1. It has made transportation of goods/services difficult;
    2. It has hindered exploitation of some resources:
    3. It has slowed down the movement of labour;
    4. It has increased the cost of transport.

SECTION B (45 marks)

  1.  
    1. State three disadvantages of hunting as an economic activity of the early man.  (3 marks)
      1. It is difficult to locate/spot the animals/insecure/unreliable source;
      2. Animals are a threat/dangerous to humans:
      3. It requires many people;
      4. Hunting is time consuming;
      5. It is tiresome/cumbersome;
      6. Animals run faster than man.
        Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks
    2. Explain six benefits of settling in villages during the late stone age period.  (12 marks)
      1. There was security as people could protect themselves against enemies
      2. Living as a large group enabled people to work together hence accomplishing tasks with ease.
      3. Settling in villages assured man of permanent dwelling thereby reducing movement.
      4. Man began growing crops thereby ensuring regular food supply.
      5. Man domesticated animals which provided animal products thereby reducing his hunting activities.
      6. Living in villages promoted interactions thereby increasing social cohesion/sharing of ideas/resources.
      7. People were able to exchange goods/services hence getting what they did not have that is barter trade.
      8. It enabled them to build better shelter thereby protecting themselves from harsh weather conditions.
        Any 6 x 2 = 12 marks
  2.  
    1. Give three uses of wind as a source of energy in ancient times.  (3 marks)
      1. To winnow grains;
      2. To drive/turn wind mills;
      3. To propel boats/sailing ships;
      4. To drive water pumps;
      5. To dry grains.
        Any 3 x 1= 3 marks
    2. Explain six effects of iron working technology on African communities before the 19th Century
      (12 marks)
      1. The use of iron tools made cultivation of the land easier/faster as they were more efficient.
      2. Iron tools were used to clear forests thereby enabling people to migrate/settle in new areas.
      3. Iron weapons were used to fight other communities thereby increasing warfare/ conflicts.
      4. It led to the rise of professional smiths who were accorded high status in the community.
      5. The demand for iron tools enhanced trade between communities.
      6. Communities were able to protect themselves better using iron weapons which were more effective.
      7. Powerful states emerged as iron weapons were used to conquer/annex weaker communities/territories
      8. Iron implements were used as a medium of exchange thereby facilitating trade transactions.
      9. The use of iron tools/implements led to increased food production since more land was brought under cultivation.
      10. It led to the development of towns.
      11. Widespread use of iron led to the decline of use of other metals.
      12. Destruction of forests.
        Any 6 x 2= 12 marks
  3.  
    1. State five economic activities of the Asante during the 19th Century.  (5 marks)
      1. They grew crops for food/trade;
      2. They carried out trade among themselves/other groups.
      3. They were involved in mining;
      4. They practised Art and Crafts/basketry/weaving;
      5. They practised iron working/black smithing;
      6. They did hunting/gathering;
      7. They practised pottery making.
      8. They kept animals.
      9. They practised fishing.
        Any 5 x 1 = 5 marks
    2. Describe the social organization of the Buganda Kingdom during the pre-colonial period.  (10 marks)
      1. They were organized into clans which had their own traditions/customs. 
      2. They worshipped many gods/polytheism.
      3. The people highly regarded the Kabaka whom they considered to be semi-divine.
      4. The people believed in life after death since they worshipped the spirits of the dead.
      5. The umbilical cord/jaw bones of Kabaka were preserved for future remembrance. 
      6. The people performed sacrifices during the time of misfortune/fortunes.
      7. They had symbols of royalty in form of royal drums/spears/crowns which were kept at the Kabaka's palace/royal regalia.
      8. The Kabaka presided over religious functions/rituals.
      9. They had religious shrines which were scattered all over the Kingdom.
      10. They were polygamous /married many wives in order to strengthen social relations.
      11. They had a supreme god called Katonda.
      12. They were divided into classes/social stratification, 
      13. It was an exogamous society - had kinships which regulated marriages and sexual   relationships.
      14. There was division of labour/duties for men and women.
        Any 5 x 2 = 10 marks
  4.  
    1. Outline five grievances by Africans against apartheid in South Africa. (5 marks)
      1. Africans were not allowed to vote for black representatives in government.
      2. They were prohibited from living in urban areas/sharing facilities with whites.
      3. The pass laws restricted African movement.
      4. They were confined into Bantustans/reserves.
      5. The labour laws denied them equal employment opportunities.
      6. Low quality education prepared them for only low cadre jobs.
      7. The Land Acts gave whites exclusive rights over land.
        Any 5x1 = 5 marks
    2. Explain five challenges faced by African nationalists in their struggle for a majority rule in South Africa.   (10 marks)
      1. Some nationalists were arrested/detained which crippled their activities thereby slowing down the struggle.
      2. The political parties were banned by the government making it difficult for the nationalists to coordinate their activities.
      3. The nationalists were not united, creating tension among themselves thus rendering their struggle less effective.
      4. The government enacted pass laws which restricted movement thus hampering their interactions.
      5. They lacked adequate funds to finance the struggle thus slowing down their operations.
      6. They lacked press freedom making it difficult for them to spread their ideas.
      7. They lacked advanced weapons thereby making them less effective in their armed struggle.
      8. They had different approaches in their struggle (moderated/radical wings) thus creating a loophole which was exploited by the government.
      9. Some nationalists were killed which led to low morale hence slowing down the momentum of the struggle.
      10. Use of divide and rule policy to divide Africans.
      11. Many nationalists were forced to flee their state.
      12. Nationalists were always trailed by secret police and apartheid informers.
        Any 5 x 2 = 10 marks

SECTION C(30 marks)

  1.  
    1. Name three communes that were established by the French in Senegal during the colonial period.
      1. St Louis
      2. Goree'
      3. Rufisque
      4. Dakar
        Any 3 x 1= 3 marks
    2. Describe the structure of the British colonial administration in Northern Africa.  (12 marks)
      1. The colonial secretary based in London.
      2. Under the colonial secretary was the governor who was in-charge of the administration of the colony.
      3. The colony was divided into provinces headed by a Resident/Provincial Commissioner who co-ordinated administration in the provinces.
      4. The provinces were further subdivided into districts headed by District officers who were answerable to the Provincial Commissioner/Resident.
      5. Districts were sub-divided into locations/Emirates headed by the Chiefs/Emirs
      6. There were headmen who were in-charge of the villages and assisted the Emirs in matters of administration.
      7. Both the Resident/Provincial Commissioner and the District Officers were British.
      8. Each province had a protectorate court/Court of Appeal which was presided over by the Resident.
        Any 6 x 2 = 12 marks
  2.  
    1. Name three permanent members of the United Nations Security Council. (3 marks)
      1. France
      2. China
      3. Russia
      4. Britain United Kingdom
      5. United States of America
        Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks
    2. Explain six ways in which the United Nations provides humanitarian assistance.   (12 marks)
      1. It assists refugees / displaced persons with clothes in order to preserve human dignity.
      2. It assists in resettling displaced persons by negotiating for their resettlement in safe areas.
      3. It provides relief food in drought stricken areas in order to avert loss of lives
      4. It provides medical supplies to the victims of w human health.
      5. It provides shelter to the deserving cases by building houses/giving materials for construction.
      6. It provides education to vulnerable groups in order to promote literacy.
      7. It assists in evacuating people affected by flood to safer grounds to avert suffering.
      8. It protects refugees by ensuring their respect/observance of basic human rights.
        Any 6 x 2 = 12 marks
  3.  
    1. Identify three categories of members of the Executive in the United States of America,  (3 marks)
      1. The President. 
      2. The Vice-President.
      3. The Cabinet.
      4. The Civil Service.
        Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks
    2. Describe six functions of the Federal Government of the United States of America.   (12 marks)
      1. It handles foreign policy matters which affects her relationship with other governments of the world.
      2. It indicates/arbitrates disputes involving different states of the union with the view of reaching an amicable solution.
      3. It conducts/regulates trade/commerce between Federal states/foreign nations.
      4. It is in charge of the national defence of federal states against external aggression.
      5. It establishes federal courts which administers justice in the states of the union.
      6. It levies/collects taxes in various federal states. 
      7. It can declare war with foreign government with approval by the congress.
      8. It makes/issues currency/regulates its value.
      9. It pays foreign debt owed to other nations.
      10. It enacts legislation which governs the federation/makes laws. 
      11. It admits new states into the federation eg. Hawaii
        Any 6 x 2=12 

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