KCSE 2012 Home Science Paper 1 with Marking Scheme

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SECTION A (40 marks)

Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. Give two functions of Vitamin A in the body.   (2 marks)
  2. State two symptoms of goitre.   (2 marks)
  3. Outline two precautions to take when handling calabashes.  (2 marks)
  4. Give two reasons for using dried fruits in cake making.   (2 marks)
  5. Distinguish between shallow and deep fat frying.  (2 marks)
  6. Give two methods of removing dust from surfaces in a home.   (2 marks)
  7. Give two advantages of using loose covers in the home.   (2 marks)
  8. State two ways of disposing refuse economically.   (2 marks)
  9. Define good grooming.   (1 mark)
  10. Give two ways in which medicine can be abused.   (2 marks)
  11. State two henefits of manipulative play   (2 marks)
  12. State two problems that may occur on the feet as a result of wearing tight fitting shoes.   (2 marks)
  13. Giving an example in each case, differentiate between goods and services.   (2 marks)
  14. List two vegetable stains that commonly occur in homes.  (1 mark)
  15. Give two reasons for starching articles.   (2 marks)
  16. State two precautions to take when laundering viscose rayon   (2 marks)
  17. Give two examples of inconspicuous seams.   (2 marks)
  18. Identify two functions of openings on a garment.   (2 marks)
  19. State two advantages of using tacking stitches   (2 marks)
  20. Differentiate between trimmings and trimming as used in clothing construction.   (2 marks)
  21. Complete the following table on classification of fibres.
     Viscose Rayon    
    (2 marks)

SECTION B (20 marks)

Answer question 22 in the spaces provided.

  1. You are planning to host your sister's graduation party at home. In preparation for the occasion;
    1. Without the use of chlorine, outline the procedure you would use to make muddy contaminated water safe for drinking and store ready for use.  (6 marks)
    2. Outline the procedure you would follow to thoroughly clean the plastic chairs to be used for the occasion.  (8 marks)
    3. Describe the procedure you would follow when laundering a coloured cotton handkerchief  (6 marks)

SECTION C (40 marks)

Answer any two questions from this section in the spaces provided at the end of this section.

    1. Giving a reason in cach case, state four rules to observe when making short crust pastry   (8 marks)
    2. Explain three hygiene practices to observe during food storage.  (6 marks)
    3. Explain three points to take into account when buying baking tins to ensure quality  (6 marks)\
    1. Outline the steps followed in making pin tucks.  (6 marks)
    2. Explain four qualities of a well made in seam pocket.  (8 marks)
    3. Describe the procedure of laundering a polyester pair of trousers   (6 marks)
    1. Outline the procedure of daily cleaning a baby's bedroom.   (6 marks)
    2. Giving two reasons in each case, identify a method of lighting each of the following rooms, 
      1. Study room 
      2. Living / sitting room   (6 marks)
  4. Explain four practices necessary for maintaining healthy teeth.       (8 marks)



  1. Functions of vitamin A in the body:
    • regulates growth especially that of children
    • maintains heathy skin 
    • protects the body from infections
    • necessary for good vision. 
    • prevents night blindness 
    • promotes healthy mucus membrane
      any 2 x 1 = 2 marks
  2. Symptoms of Goitre: 
    • irritability
    • tiredness/fatigue
    • weight loss/wasted.
    • change of eating habits.
    • swelling of the neck/thyroid gland
    • hoarse voice 
    • difficult in swallowing
      2x1 = 2 marks
  3. Precautions to take when handling calabashes:
    • avoid banging or hitting with heavy objects 
    • do not expose to naked flame 
    • always store in a cool, dry place. 
    • avoid scrubbing the inside
    • avoid soaking/steeping
      any 2 x 1 = 2 marks
  4. Reasons for using dried fruits in cake making: To; 
    • enrich 
    • preserve 
    • add flavour 
    • improve texture
    • improve appearance
      2 x 1 = 2 marks
  5. Difference between shallow and deep fat frying
    • shallow frying is cooking food in a small amount of hot fat while 
    • Deep fat frying is cooking food by complete immersion in hot fat/oil.
      Well differentiated = 2 marks
  6. Methods of removing dust from surface in a home:
    • sweeping
    • dusting
    • brushing
    • suction 
    • dispersal
      2x1 = 2 marks
  7. Advantages in using loose covers in the home. They:
    • ease maintenance of the article 
    • enhance beauty/decoration
    • protect the article.
      any 2x 1 = 2 marks
  8. Ways of disposing refuse economically:
    • using as animal feed
    • converting to manure 
    • recycling.
      any 2 x 1 = 2 marks
  9. Definition of Good Grooming
    • taking care of oneself so that one looks neat, clean and generally attractive in appearance.
      well defined - 1 mark
  10. Ways in which medicine can be abused:
    • taking someone else's medicine in belief that your illnesses are similar 
    • taking medicine without a doctors prescription 
    • using medicine for reasons other than treatment.
    • using expired or poorly stored medicine 
    • not completing the recommended dose
      any 2 x 1 = 2 marks
  11. Benefits of manipulative play. It:
    • enables children to exercise their limbs/their muscles/strength 
    • enables children to enjoy play
    • teaches size, colours, volume and shapes 
    • improves co-ordination.
      any 2 x 1 = 2 marks
  12. Problems that may occur on the feet as a result of wearing tight fitting shoes include:
    • corns
    • blisters
    • in grown toe nails 
    • bent toes/incorrectly arranged toes 
    • bunions 
    • poor blood circulation
      any 2 x 1 = 2 marks
  13. Difference between goods and services 
    • Goods are tangible items such as food, tools and clothes which can be bought or sold while 
    • services are work rendered at a fee such as cleaning, medical, catering and teaching.
      Well differentiated = 2 marks
  14. Vegetable stains commonly occurring in homes, are:
    • banana sap
    • grass stain
    • fruit juice stain. 
    • coffee 
    • tea
      any 2 x ½  = 1 mark
  15. Reasons for starching articles. To:
    • restore body and feel of the article 
    • improve appearance
    • give article glossy surface (crease resistant) 
    • make them dirt resistant
    • making them crease resistant
      any 2 x 1 = 2 marks
  16. Precautions to take when laundering viscose rayon:
    • do not rub or twist
    • dry under the shade/away from sunlight
    • dry evenly 
    • use a warm iron 
    • iron when damp. 
    • use kneading and squeezing method
      any 2 x 1 = 2 marks
  17. Examples of inconspicuous seams are: 
    • plain
    • French seam.
    • Open seam
      2x 1 = 2 marks
  18. Functions of openings on a garment. They:
    • allow putting on and taking off the garment
    • decorate the garment 
    • introduce a style feature.
      any 2 x 1 = 2 marks
  19. Advantages of using tacking stitches. They:
    • give direction/guidance for permanent stitching
    • hold two or more pieces of fabric in place before permanent stitching
    • allow for fitting and adjusting a garment before permanent stitching.
      any 2 x 1 = 2 marks
  20. Difference between trimmings and trimming in clothing construction. 
    • Trimmings are sewing notions used for decorating garments such as laces and bias binding while
    • Trimming is the action of cutting off excessive fabric on seams or edges of fabric.
      Award 2 marks for correct differentiation.
  21. Completing the table on classification of fibres
     Viscose Rayon    Regenerated fibres (½ mark) 
     Elastofibre   Synthetic fibre (½ mark)
     Polyester   Synthetic fibre (½ mark)
     Asbestos   Mineral  (½ mark)
    4 x ½ mark = 2 marks

SECTION B (20 marks)

    1. The procedure to make muddy contaminated water safe for drinking: 
      • leave the water to stand (½) for sometime (½) for mud to settle at the bottom of the
        container and then decant (1)
      • filter (½) using a filter paper/home filter/clean cloth (½)
      • boil (1) the water. Put the boiled water in a clean (½) container 
      • cover (½) with clean (½) lid/cover (½)
        Total marks = 6 marks
    2. The procedure of thorough cleaning plastic chairs:
      • Collect equipment and materials (½)
      • dust the chairs with a dry cloth (½) remove mud with a blunt stick or wet cloth (½)
      • clean with warm soapy water (½) using a soft cloth/sisal fibres/sponge (½) from top to bottom/underneath/back (½)
      • rinse (½) using warm (½) water - final (½) rinse with cold (½) water 
      • remove excessive water (½) using a clean cloth/turn/tilt chair upside down so that water can drain off (½)
      • buff with a clean (½) dry (½) non fluffy (½) cloth 
      • clean equipment,dry and store (½)
        Maximum marks = 8 marks
    3. The procedure to follow when laundering a coloured cotton handkerchief:
      • Wash (½) in warm soapy (½) water using friction method (½) 
      • rinse (½) in clean warm water (½) - finally rinse in cold (½) water, add vinegar (½) 
      • dry in the shade (½) 
      • iron while slightly damp (½) using a hot iron (½) Air (½) and fold appropriately (½)
        maximum marks = 6 marks


    1. Rules to observe when making short crust pastry:
      • all ingredients must be weighed accurately to come up with a quality product
      • the mixture should be aerated as much as possible to allow proper raising of the product
      • pastry should be kept as cool as possible to avoid the fat melting
      • the pastry should be handled as little as possible to avoid hardening the product
      • the pastry should be rolled on a light floured surface to avoid sticking 
      • pastry should be rolled with light to and fro movement to avoid extracting the trapped air
      • the pastry should be baked in a fairly hot oven so that the water is quickly turned to steam to puff up the pastry 
      • all measured liquids should be added at once to give an even texture.
        any 4 x 2 = 8 marks
    2. Hygiene practices to observe during food storage:
      • storage equipment such as refrigerators, kitchen stores, must be kept clean at all times to avoid attracting pests and micro-organisms
      • the principal of first in, first out should be practiced when storing foods to prevent food spoilage
      • containers used to hold cooked food should be free from cracks and chips to avoid harbouring micro-organisms
      • dry foods should be stored in well ventilated storage places which are free from pests to avoid spoilage. 
      • Food should be covered or wrapped during storage to avoid contamination
        any 3 x 2 = 6 marks
    3. Points to take into account when buying baking tins to ensure they are of good quality:
      • buy reliable and tested products as these are more likely to be of reasonable standards and good value for money
      • insist on a warranty as this is a good indicator of the quality of the item
      • buy from reliable and established dealers as they are dependable
      • buy renowned brands as they are a symbol of quality. 
      • buy rust-free tins to avoid poisoning, discolouration or altering the taste of food
      • buy one that is smoothly finished to avoid injuries and ease of cleaning
        any 3 x 2 = 6 marks
    1. Steps followed in making pin tucks:
      • mark the position of the tucks
      • fold the fabric appropriately/on straight grain on the RS 
      • hold the tucks with temporary stitches close to the fold 
      • stitch close to the fold
      • work as above, until all tucks are made 
      • remove the temporary stitches and press.
        correct sequence 6 x 1 = 6 marks
    2. Qualities of a well-made in-seam pocket. the: 
      • pocket is inconspicuous on the RS for neat appearance
      • pocket should lie flat to avoid bulkiness
      • pocket should face the RS of the garment for ease of use 
      • pocket is reinforced at the mouth to avoid tearing 
      • grain of the pocket and that of the garment should be matching to give good drape
      • pocket mouth should be large enough for the hand of the wearer to enter with ease
      • pocket bag should be deep enough to prevent items placed inside from dropping out.
        any 4 x 2 = 8 marks
    3. Procedure of laundering a polyester pair of trousers:
      • wash in warm detergent water by kneading and squeezing 
      • rinse thoroughly in warm water
      • give a final rinse in cold water 
      • use fabric conditioner
      • drip dry in the shade 
      • press with a warm iron
      • air dry completely
      • store appropriately.
        correct sequence 6x1 = 6 marks
    1. Procedure in daily cleaning of baby's bedroom:
      • strip the bed, air the beddings and wash bedsheets and pillow cases 
      • collect the equipment and materials required for cleaning 
      • make the bed 
      • dust all the surfaces and ornaments 
      • sweep/mop the floor 
      • tidy, arrange the room and clean the equipment used, dry and store.
        correct sequence 6x1 = 6 marks
    2. Methods of lighting
      1. Study Room:
        • the light source is of the correct intensity as it avoids glare which may strain the eyes
        • the light is distributed downwards hence does not cast shadow.
      2. Living room:
        • the light enhances beauty of interesting art objects/pictures, designs
        • create/reflects different moods in the home
        • light is distributed evenly in all directions 
        • less intense, therefore suitable for general activities
        • intensity of light can be controlled such as by use of adjustable pendent (which can be lowered or raised).
          identification 1 x 2 = 2 marks
          reason 2 x 2 = 4 marks
          Total = 6 marks
    3. Practices necessary for maintaining healthy teeth:
      • visit the dentist for dental check up to ensure any problem is taken care of promptly
      • discourage the use of sharp objects to remove food from in-between the teeth to avoid damaging the gums
      • brush the teeth regularly - preferably at night before going to bed and in the morning to avoid build up of plaque
      • eat a balanced diet with plenty of calcium and phosphorous to promote growth of well formed strong teeth
      • avoid eating sweet things after cleaning teeth and especially before going to bed to prevent decay/weakening of the teeth
      • eat hard foods occasionally to exercise your jaws and to strengthen your teeth. 
      • floss the teeth regularly to keep away food particles.
        any 4 x 2 = 8 marks
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