Kenya Certificate Of Secondary Education(KCSE 2013) Agriculture Paper 2 with Marking Scheme

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SECTION A (30 marks)
Answer ALL the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. State four ways of controlling lice in poultry.
  2. State three signs of heat observed in rabbits.
  3. Name three methods of extracting honey from combs.
  4. State three signs of broodiness in a hen.
  5. Give the main reason for each of the following in dairy farming: (12 marks)
    1. milking quickly and evenly;
    2. milking at regular times;
    3. complete milking.
  6. State four factors that stimulate milk let-down in a lactating cow. (2 marks)
  7. State four signs of infestation by external parasites in goats. (2 marks)
  8. Give four disadvantages of inbreeding in livestock production.
  9. State four advantages of fish farming in Kenya.
  10. Give two reasons for castration in piglets. (2 marks)
  11. Name two practices that are carried out on eggs in preparation for marketing. (1 mark)
  12. State two precautions that should be observed when shearing sheep to ensure production of high quality wool. (1 mark)
  13. Name four parts of a farm building that can be reinforced using concrete.
  14. State four factors that can affect digestibility of a feedstuff in livestock.
  15. State two causes of soft shelled eggs.
  16. Give four characteristics of a good site for a fish pond.
  17. State four disadvantages of fold system in poultry rearing. (2 marks)
  18. Name four methods of docking in sheep rearing. (2 marks)

SECTION B (20 marks)
Answer ALL the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. Below are photographs showing parts of a ruminant stomach. Study them and answer the questions that follow.
    1. Identify the parts labelled A and B (2 marks)
    2. State one function of the part labelled
      A..... (1 mark)
      C.......... (1 mark)
    3. Name one enzyme that is produced in the part labelled D. (1 mark)
  2. Below is a diagram illustrating the reproductive system of a bull. Study it and answer the questions that follow.
    1. Identify the parts labelled
    2. State the function of the part labelled
      Epididymis. (1 mark)
      Seminal vesicles... (1 mark)
  3. Below is a photograph showing an egg being candled. Study it and answer the questions that follow.
    1. Why is candling important in poultry farming? (1 mark)
    2. What changes will be observed on the same egg if it was candled on the 18th day of incubation? (2 marks)
  4. The following is an illustration of a handsaw. Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow.
    1. Name the parts labelled
      G........ (1 mark)
    2. Explain three maintenance practices that should be carried out on the part labelled H. (3 marks)
  5. Below is a diagram illustrating a farm implement. Study it and answer the questions that follow.
    1. Identify the implement illustrated above. (1 mark)
    2. State the use of the:
      1. implement on the farm;
      2. part of the implement labelled J.

SECTION C (40 marks)
Answer any TWO questions from this section in the spaces provided after question 26.

    1. Give five reasons for keeping livestock healthy. (5 marks)
    2. Describe the symptoms of roundworm infestation in livestock. (7 marks)
    3. Describe the control measures for cannibalism in layers. (8 marks)
    1. Describe the body conformation features of a dairy heifer. (5 marks)
    2. State the disadvantages of using live fences on a farm. (7 marks)
    3. Describe how a four-stroke cycle petrol engine works. (8 marks)
    1. Describe the disease control routine management practices in calf rearing (7 marks)
    2. Describe contagious abortion (Brucellosis) disease under the following sub-headings: (i)
      1. causal organism; (1 mark)
      2. animals affected; (2 marks)
      3. symptoms; (4 marks)
      4. control measures. (6 marks)



    • Dusting the birds with insecticide - sodium floride.
    • Observing good hygiene.
    • Fumigation/smearing the affected perches with volatile insectides.
    • Picking and killing.
    • The doe throws herself on its side.
    • Frequent urination.
    • Vulva turns red and swells.
    • Doe becomes restless.
    • Doe rubs her body against the wall.
    • Peeping/contacting other rabbits in adjacent hutches. 3x 2 = 1 21
    • Crushing and straining /squeezing method.
    • Heating method.
    • Use of centrifugal extractor.
    • Hens stop laying eggs.
    • Hens sit on eggs for long periods /continuously.
    • Hen plucks off feathers to make a nest.
    • Hens are aggressive when approached/walks with wings open.
    • Characteristics cracking sound. 3 x 2 = 1 21
    1. Oxytocin effects last for five to seven minutes;
    2. Milk let-down is initiated when the milking time is reached;
    3. Prevent drying off/prevents reducing in yield/prevents mastitis infection. 3 x 21 = 1 21 marks
    • Sight of calf
    • Washing/massaging the udder.
    • Feeding
    • Sounds associated with milking.
    • Sticking to a regular milking routine.
    • Sight of milkman 4 x 21 = 2 marks
    • Presence of sores/wounds on the skin.
    • Irritation/scratching by the animal
    • Loss of hair/alopecia.
    • Anaemia
    • Presence of various developmental stages of the parasite on the animal.
    • Reduction of vigour in animals/loss of hybrid vigour/heterosis.
    • Quality of products is lowered.
    • Reduction in disease resistance ability.
    • Appearance of undesirable hereditary defects.
    • Increase in abortion/embryonic mortality.
    • Decline in fertility
    • Reduced production.
    • Cheap source of protein for the family.
    • Require little land and is possible where land is limiting.
    • Quick source of income for the farmer.
    • Makes fish to be available within the locality.
    • Allow for even distribution of fat in the body.
    • Control breeding.
    • Increasing growth rate.
    • To make them docile.
    • Control breeding diseases.
    • Checking for abnormalities/candling.
    • Selecting eggs of the right size/weight.
    • Cleaning/wiping off dirt.
    • Sorting and grading.
    • Do not make half-cuts/make complete cuts.
    • Shear sheep during the dry warm season.
    • Do the operation on a clean dry floor/use clean shearing equipment.
    • Do not cut body parts.
    • Use clean shearing equipment
    • Foundation of the building.
    • The floor slab/floor.
    • The Lintel.
    • Pillars.
    • Walls.
    • Ratio of energy to protein in the feedstuff
    • Form in which the feed is fed to the animal/method of feed preparation.
    • Chemical composition of the feedstuff.
    • Species of the animal.
    • Amount of feed already present in the digestive system of the animal.
    • Rate of feeding/frequency of feeding.
    • Lack of calcium in the feed
    • Disease attack such as Newcastle
    • Topography/slope of land should be gentle sloping.
    • Reliable water source.
    • Area with cracks/anthills should be avoided.
    • Soil type/site should be free of gravel/stone/sand/preferably clay soil.
    • Secure from predators and thieves.
    • The site should be accessible.
    • Disadvantages of fold system:
    • Few birds per unit area.
    • Laborious in moving the folds.
    • Difficult to keep individual bird production records.
    • Produces dirty eggs.
    • Fold breaks easily due to constant movement.
    • Dehorning methods:
    • Use of sharp knife.
    • Burdizzo and knife.
    • Rubber ring and elastrator.
    • Use of hot iron.

SECTION B: (20 marks)

    1. A - Reticulum/Honey comb.
      B - Rumen/pauch.
    2. A: - Separating fine and course food materials.
      - Retaining indigestible food materials.
      C: - Absorption of water.
      - Grinding and sieving food particles
      - Temporary food storage
    3. Pepsin/Renin 1 x 1= 1 mark
    1. K - Urethra 1 mark
      L - Testes/testis 1 mark
    2. Epididymis - stores sperms 1 mark
      Seminal Vesicles - Secrete seminal fluid in which sperms move. 1 mark
      • Check egg abnormalities
      • Monitor chick development during incubation
      • Check whether the egg is fertile
      • A large dark section of developing chick.
      • A small clear section of air space.
    1. F - Toe 1 mark
      G - Blade 1 mark
      • Sharpening of teeth regularly to improve efficiency.
      • Regular cleaning after use to remove dirt.
      • Setting the teeth to maintain cutting angles.
      • Apply oil before storage to prevent rusting.
    1. A Ridger/mould board ridger. 1 mark
      1. To make ridges/furrows 1 x 1 = 1 mark
        • used to attach the implement to a tractor.
        • Adjusting the depth of operation. 1 x 1 = 1 mark

SECTION C: (40 marks)

    1. Reasons for keeping livestock healthy
      • Good health ensures a long economic and productive life.
      • Healthy animals give maximum production/high performance.
      • Healthy animals grow fast and reach maturity early.
      • Healthy animals produce quality products which fetch good prices.
      • Healthy animals do not spread diseases to other animals/human beings.
      • Healthy animals are economical to keep/reduce production costs.
        Any 5 x 1 = 5 marks
    2. Symptoms of roundworm attack.
      • Anorexia/loss of appetite under heavy infestation.
      • Stiff dry coat or starring coat
      • Dehydration and pale mucosa.
      • Eggs and adults are seen in faeces
      • General emaciation
      • Animal may diarrhoea
      • Anaemic condition when infestation is heavy
      • Pot-bellies especially in young animals.
      • Coughing.
    3. Control measure for cannibalism
      • Avoid bright light in the house.
      • Avoid overcrowding
      • Provide balanced diet.
      • Control external parasites.
      • Hang vegetables in the house to keep birds busy.
      • Debeak birds which peck at others.
      • Cull perpetual cannibals/birds with prolapse.
      • Provide adequate equipment feeders, waters, perches.
      • Avoid introduction of new birds in the stock.
    1. Body conformation features of a dairy heifer.
      • Straight topline.
      • Have large and well developed udder with large teats.
      • Have large stomach which makes them heavy feeders
      • Have prominent milk veins.
      • Have less flesh on their bodies/lean bodies.
      • Have well set hind quarters to allow room for large udders.
      • Prominent pin bones.
      • Wedge shaped.
      • Long thin neck. 
    2. Disadvantages of live fences Any 5 x 1 = 5 marks
      • May take long to establish into an effective fence.
      • Not effective in sub-dividing land into paddocks/occupies a large space.
      • May harbour pests.
      • May create hiding places for thieves, wild animals and vermin.
      • May be labour demanding to trim and infill regularly.
      • May have shading effects on crops/competition for nutrients, moisture.
      • May leave gaps which allow animals and thieves to pass through.
      • Some may injure both livestock and the farmer.
    3. How a for stroke cycle Engine works (7 marks)
      • Induction stroke/intake
        - Piston moves down the cylinder causing the inlet valve to open drawing in fresh supply of petrol vapour and air into the cylinder.
      • Compression stroke
        - The inlet valve closes and the piston moves up the cylinder. This compresses the fresh fuel mixture in the combustion chamber.
      • Power Stroke/ignition
        - A spark is produced at the spark plug. This causes the fuel mixture to ignite and expand resulting in pressure that forces the piston to move down the cylinder.
        - Both valve closed.
      • Exhaust stroke
        - The piston moves up the cylinder to eliminate the burnt fuel mixture through the open exhaust valve.
    1. Management practices on calves
      • Culling highly susceptible calves.
      • Spraying with appropriate acaricides to control external parasites/ticks.
      • Drenching with antihelminthes to control internal parasites.
      • Vaccinate as appropriate against diseases
      • Castration of males not required for breeding.
      • Identification at the appropriate age to facilitate record keeping.
      • Removal of any extra teats if more than four.
      • Debudding/Dehorning
      • Proper feeding of the calf.
      • Treat the sick.
      • Isolate the sick calves.
      • Maintenance of hygiene.
        Any 7 x 1 = 7 marks
    2. Brucellosis
      1. Causal organism
        Bacteria/Brucella abortus/mellitensis/suis/sp
      2. Animals affected
        • Cattle
        • Sheep
        • Goats
        • Pigs
      3. Symptoms
        • Sponteneous abortion/premature births.
        • Retained placenta.
        • Infertility in females.
        • Low libido in males.
        • Orchitis/inflamed testis.
        • Yellowish/brown slimmy discharge.
      4. Control
        • Use of A.I.
        • Culling/slaughter and properly dispose the carcass.
        • Vaccination.
        • Avoid contact with aborted foetus.
        • Blood test to detect infected animals.
        • Observe proper hygiene.

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