KCSE 2017 History and Government Paper 1 with Marking Scheme

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Instructions to candidates

  • This paper has three sections:A, B and C
  • Answer all the questions in section A, three questions from section B and two questions from section C
  • Candidates should answer the questions in English

SECTION A (25 marks)

Answer all the questions in this section in the space provided at the end of question 24.

  1. Identify two pre-historic sites where the remains of Kenyapithems were discovered. (2 marks)
  2. State two ways in which the migration of the Cushites into Kenya affected the Agikuyu during the pre-colonial period.
    (2 marks)
  3. Identify the main economic activity of the Maasai during the pre-colonial period. (1 mark)
  4. State two factors which enabled the Arabs to sail from Oman to the Kenyan Coast.  (2 marks)
  5. State two conditions which one must fulfil in order to get Kenyan citizenship by registration.  (2 marks)
  6. State two ways in which poverty undermines unity in Kenya.  (2 marks)
  7. Identify one political factor which causes conflicts in Kenya.   (1 mark)
  8. Identify the main disadvantage of democracy.  (1 mark)
  9. State two ways in which the Bill of Rights promotes the interest of youth in Kenya.  (2 marks)
  10. Give two similar effects of the Maasai and Wanga collaboration with the British.  (2 marks)
  11. Identify the main reason why the local government was established in Kenya during the colonial period.  (1 mark)
  12. Give one reason why the government encouraged settlers to come to Kenya during the colonial period.  (1 mark)
  13. State one reason why the Africans in Kenya started independent schools during the colonial period.
    (1 mark)
  14. Identify the main voting system used in Kenya during the general elections.  (1 mark)
  15. Outline one function of the speaker of the County Assembly in Kenya.   (1 mark)
  16. Identify one type of ownership which is spelt out in the African Socialism adopted in Kenya after independence.
    (1 mark)
  17. Identify the two types of expenditure by the National Government of Kenya.  (2 marks)

SECTION B (45 marks)

Answer any three questions from this section in the space provided at the end of question 24.

  1.  
    1. Apart from the Akamba, identify five other Eastern Bantu communities which settled in Kenya during the pre-colonial period.   (5 marks)
    2. Describe the political organisation of the Akamba during the pre-colonial period.  (10 marks)
  2.  
    1. State five social effects of the Uganda railway on Kenya during the colonial period.  (5 marks)
    2. Explain five ways in which colonial land policies in Kenya undermined African economy during the colonial period.   (10 marks)
  3.  
    1. Give five early political organisations formed in Kenya up to 1939.  (5 marks)
    2. Explain five factors which promoted the growth of African nationalism in Kenya between 1945 and 1963.
      (10 marks)
  4.  
    1. Outline five features of African Socialism in Kenya.   (5 marks)
    2. Explain five ways in which the Harambee has promoted social development in Kenya since independence.
      (10 marks)

SECTION C (30 marks)

Answer any two questions from this section in the space provided at the end of question 24.

  1.  
    1. Give the composition of the County Assembly in Kenya.   (3 marks)
    2. Explain six factors which undermine the provision of services by the County Government in Kenya.   (12 marks)
  2.  
    1. Outline three qualifications for a person to contest for Presidency in Kenya.   (3 marks)
    2. Discuss six functions of the Cabinet in Kenya.   (12 marks)
  3.  
    1. Name three groups which provides health services in Kenya.  (3 marks)
    2. Explain six factors which have undermined government effort in the provision of health services in Kenya.
      (12 marks)

MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A (25 marks)
Answer ALL Questions

  1. Two pre-historic sites where the remains of Kenyapithecat's were discovered in Kenya.
    1. Fort Ternan. 
    2. Lake Turkaria Basin 
    3. The Samburu Hills 
    4. Around Lake Baringo.
      Any 2 x 1= 2 marks
  2. Two ways in which the migration of the Cushites into Kenya affected the Agikuyu during the pre colonial period.
    1. They.adopted female circumcision:
    2. They adopted the taboo against eating fish. 
    3. There was conflict between them. 
    4. They traded with each other.
    5. They adopted age-set system
      Any 2 x 1= 2 marks
  3. The main economic activity of the Maasai during the pre-colonial period.
    • Pastoralism/livestock keeping.1x1=1 mark.
  4. Two factors which enabled the Arabs to sail from Oman to the Kenyan Coast.
    1. There were ports/harbours along the Coast. 
    2. Presence of winds/monsoon winds. i
    3. The knowledge of boat making. / Technology 
    4. The knowledge of map reading.
      Any 2 x 1=2 marks.
  5. Two conditions one must fulfill in order to get Kenyan citizenship by registration.
    1. One must lawfully reside in Kenya continuously for at least seven years. 
    2. Achild who is not a citizen must be adopted by a Kenyan citizen.
    3. A person must be married to a Kenyan citizen for at least seven years.
      Any 2 x 1=2 marks.
  6. Two ways in which poverty undermines national unity in Kenya.
    1. It creates a state of fear/suspicion. 
    2. It creates violence/lawlessness. 
    3. It divides people on basis of their economic status.
      Any 2 x 1=2 marks.
  7. One political factor which cause conflicts in Kenya
    1. Greed for power. 
    2. Lack of democracy.
    3. Man political parties. 
    4. Exclusion from government/leadership.
      Any 1x1=1mark.
  8. The main disadvantage of democracy
    • The majority usually ignores the interests of the minority/it promotes dictatorship by the majority.
      1x 1=1 mark.
  9. Two ways in which the Bill of rights promotes the interests of the youth in Kenya.
    1. It guarantees them access to relevant education/training. 
    2. It guarantees them the freedom to associate. 
    3. It guarantees them access to cmployment opportunities. 
    4. It protects them against harmful cultural practices/exploitation.
    5. It guarantees them the freedom to be represented.
      Any 2x1=2 marks.
  10. Two similar effects of Maasai and Wanga collaboration with the British.
    1. Their leaders were elevated/made paramount chiefs.
    2. Their warriors were hired as British agents/mercenaries. 
    3. They lost their independence,
    4. They got material benefits.
      Any 2 x1=2 marks.
  11. Main reason why the local government was established in Kenya during the colonial period.
    • To link the central government with the local communities. 1 x1=1 mark.
  12. One reason why the government encouraged settlers to come to Kenya during the colonial period.
    1. In order to exploit the agricultural potential of the country.
    2. To assist in meeting administrative cost/expenses. 
    3. To produce raw materials required for British industries. 
    4. To check the immigration/influence of Asians.
      Any 1 x1=1 mark.
  13. One reason why the Africans in Kenya started independent schools during the colonial period.
    1. They wanted quality education.
    2. They wanted the lead their own schools.
    3. In order to accommodate those denied education opportunities by missionary/government schools.
    4. To cater for majority of Africans in the rural areas. 
    5. To give opportunity to learn in schools where they could express themselves/cultural practises
      Any 1x1=1 mark.
  14. The main voting system used in Kenya during the general elections,
    • The secret ballot.  1x1=1 mark.
  15. One function of the Speaker of the County Assembly in Kenya.
    1. He/she chairs debates/proceedings in the Assembly. 
    2. He/she moderates debates/discussions in the Assembly. 
    3. He/she keeps records of proceedings of the Assembly. 
    4. He/she presides the swearing in of new members.
    5. He/she forwards bills to the Governor for assent.
      Any 1 x1=1 mark.
  16. One type of ownership which was spelt out in the African Socialism adopted in Kenya after independence.
    1. Nationalization/state control of factors of production, 
    2. Free enterprise/private ownership. 
    3. State/private partnership.
      Any 1 x 1=1 mark.
  17. The two types of expenditure by the National Government of Kenya.
    1. Capital/development expenditure.
    2. Recurrent expenditure.
      2 x 1=2 marks.

SECTION B (45 marks)
Answer anyTHREE Questions from this section in the answer booklet provided.

  1.  
    1. Apart from the Akamba, identify five other Eastern Bantu communities who settled in Kenya during the pre-colonial period.
      1. The Aembu.
      2. The Ameru.
      3. The Agikuyu.
      4. The Mjikenda.
      5. Mbeere. 
      6. Pokomo. 
      7. Taita.
        Any 5 x 1=5.marks.. .
    2. Describe the political organization of the Akamba during the pre-colonial period.
      1. The homestead/musyi was the smallest/basic political unit and was headed by the father
      2. There existed a wider territorial grouping/clan/mbai which comprised of related familie.
      3. Each clan had a council of elders which settled disputes among the people. 
      4. There existed a council which comprised of elders knowledgeable in law/customary law which judged cases in the community. 
      5. Above the clan, there was territorial grouping/kivalo which comprised of warriors/fight unit who defended the community. 
      6. There were age-sets and age-grades in the community, each with specific role to play.
      7. Above junior elders were medium elders/Nthele who assisted in the administration of the community.
      8. There existed the council of senior elders/Atumia ma kivalo which participated in making judgements on serious issues in the community. 
      9. There were senior most elders/Atumia ma Ithembo who participated in religious matters such as offering sacrifices. 
      10. They had a decentralized system of government
        Any 5 well described points x 2=10 marks.
  2.  
    1. Five social effects of the Uganda Railway on Kenya during the colonial period.
      1. It speeded up the movement of, administrators missionaries into the interior. 
      2. It influenced the development of roads/telecommunication.
      3. It led to the creation of African reserves.
      4. It led to the development of urban centres.
      5. It led to the migration of Indian coolies into the country.
      6. It promoted the interaction of people/movement.
        Any 5 x 1=5 marks.
    2. Explain five ways in which colonial land policies in Kenya undermined African economy during the colonial period.
      1. Africans were pushed to the infertile land/overcrowded reserves which were less productive for agriculture.
      2. They created a class of landless people/squatters who settled on settler farms in exchange for their labour.
      3. They alienated Africans from their lands thereby undermining farming activities.
      4. Africans were dispossessed of their land and therefore could not get title deeds which they could use to access credit/loans to develop their lands.
      5. Taxes/poll/hut tax were introduced which forced Africans to offer their labour on settlement farms at the expenses of their own.
      6. African land tenure system was disrupted thereby undermining the traditional economic up.
      7. Africans were pushed to infertile lands thereby lowering their agriculture production.
      8. Development of classes within the African societies emerged thus the few Africans who could afford to buy land became wealthy.
        Any 5 well explained x 2= 10 
  3.  
    1. Five early political organizations formed in Kenya up to 1939.
      1. Kikuyu Association. 
      2. Kikuyu Central Association.
      3. East African Association
      4. Kavirondo Taxpayers Welfare Association/ Youmg kavirondo Association
      5. Ukamba Members Association.
      6. Coast African Association.
      7. Taita Hills Association.
        Any 5x1=5 marks.
    2. Explain five factors which promoted the growth of African nationalism between 1945 and 1963
      1. Acquisition of independence by India and Pakistan in 1947 and Ghana in 1957 respect encouraged Kenyan nationalists
      2. Ex-servicemen who had participated in the World Wars used their experience to organize/lead the independence struggle.
      3. Trade union movements advocated/educated workers on their rights/provided for/ agi for independence.
      4. The Mau Mau movement/uprising and its activities hastened the independence as they fought for land rights among other grievances
      5. The United Nations Organization after the World War II in 1945 advocated for granting independence to the nations still under colonialism.
      6. The formation of political parties like KANU and KADU which mobilized Africans against colonial rule. ii ir v
      7. The Labour Party in Britain was in favour of decolonization of her former colonies, inspired the nationalists.
      8. The Pan-African congress of 1945 encouraged the Africans to liberate themselves from colonial rule. 
      9. Acquisition of western educatioon of many Africans enabled them to understand political development therefore demanding for independence
      10. Signing of Atlantic Charter in 1941 which advocated for decolonization
        Any 5 well explained x 2=10 marks.
  4.  
    1. Five features of African Socialism in Kenya
      1. It emphasizes on freedom from exploitation/ discrimination.
      2. It allows different forms of ownership of property/resources.
      3. It advocates for mutual social responsibility.
      4. It stresses on political democracy.
      5. It emphasizes on social justice.
      6. It emphasizes on equitable distribution/ use of resources.
      7. Progressive taxation to ensure equitable distribution of wealth/income.
        Any 5 x 1=5 marks.
    2. Explain five ways in which the Harambee has promoted social development in Kenya since independence.
      1. Funds have been raised which has enabled sick people to receive specialized treatment locally/abroad.
      2. It has promoted interaction of people during harambees thereby promoting unity in the country.
      3. It has enabled the construction of social amenities like hospitals/schools/religious institutions and stadia. i
      4. It has promoted sporting activities by financing training/competition both locally/abroad. 
      5. It has inculcated the spirit of hard workipatriotist among people. 
      6. It has promoted education by providing scholarship to needy students. 
      7. It has supplemented government efforts in the provision of services to the people.
        Any 5 well explained points x 2=10 marks.

SECTION C (30 marks)

  1.  
    1. The composition of the County Assembly in Kenya
      1. Elected members.:
      2. Nominated members.
      3. The speaker, who is ex-official.
        3x1=3 marks. 
    2. Explain six factors which undermines the provision of services by the County Government in Kenya.
      1. Corruption/Embezzlement of funds by some officers denies them funds required for effective service delivery. 
      2. Over-employment by counties results in bloated wage bills at expense of development projects.
      3. Inadequate/insufficient funds makes it difficult for them to meet all of their obligation. 
      4. Interference by the National Government/politicians which creates conflicts of interest. 
      5. Delay in disbursement of funds by National Government slows down/halts operations service delivery
      6. Poor infrastructure/roads in some counties slows down movement of goods and services. 
      7. Tribalism/favoritism in employment creates division/conflicts/misunderstanding amongst communities living in the County. 
      8. Duplication of roles between the County government and National Government leads to wastage of resources.
      9. Uncollected garbage/dumping of waste leads to the pollution of the environment. 
      10. Traffic congestion in major cities/ towns slows down the movement of people/wastage of time.
      11. Inadequate skilled personnel causes delays in the provision of specialized services. 
      12. Increase in the number of street children/families poses a threat to security.
      13. Natural calamities in some counties like floods lead to diversion of some resources to address the emergencies which are usually costly.
      14. High population in some counties making it difficult to provide quality services
      15. Rivalry /wrangling among leaders in the counties undermine the government’s operations.
        Any 6 well explained points x 2=12 marks.

  2.  
    1. Three qualifications for a person to contest for presidency in Kenya.
      1. One should be a Kenyan citizen by birth. 
      2. Be nominated by a political party/be an independent candidate.
      3. Be qualified to stand for election as a member of parliament. 
      4. Should be nominated by not fewer than two thousand voters from each of a majority of the counties.
      5. Be of sound mind.
      6. Should not have served for more than two consecutive terms of president.
      7. One should not have been declared bankrupt by the court of law.
      8. One must meet the requirements of Chapter Six of the Constitution of Kenya/integrity.
      9. Must be a registered voter.
      10. Does not allegiance to a foreign state
        Any 3 x 1 =3 marks.
    2. Discuss six functions of the cabinet in Kenya 
      1. It performs any duties delegated to it by the president. 
      2. It appoints board members of the parastatals in their respective ministries.
      3. It initiates new bills/government bills which are debated in the parliament. 
      4. It formulates policies/programmes of the government and interprets them to the people.
      5. They coordinate/control activities in the respective ministries. 
      6. It updates the president on the progress of activities taking place in the ministries.
      7. It advises the president on matters pertaining to the administration/governance of the country.
      8. Through the Minister for Finance, it prepares the budget which shows government expenditure/sources of revenue.
      9. It provides parliament with full and regular reports concerning matters.
        Any 6 well discussed x 2=12 marks
  3.  
    1. Three groups which provides health services in Kenya.
      1. Government.
      2. Non-government organizations.
      3. Religious groups/institutions.
      4. Private institution/companies.
      5. Charitable organizations. 
      6. International organizations.
      7. Individuals.
        Any 3 x1=3marks.
    2. Explain six factors which have undermined government effort in the provision of health services in Kenya-since-independence. 
      1. Inadequate funding by the government which has resulted into provision of poor services.
      2. Corruption in the hiealth sector has made it difficult for the government to provide  equipment /facilities /medicine required. 
      3. Inadequate hospitals/dispensaries/health centres makes it difficult for many people to access health services/High population
      4. Poor payment/renumeration of health workers has demoralized them hence making them less productive/ brain drain
      5. Frequent/industrial unrests by health workers has resulted into death/suffering of many. patients. 
      6. Inadequate facilities, equipments has made it difficult for the public to access quality service
      7. Poor supervision of health workers has led to infiltration of the sector by unqualified health providers. 
      8. The spread of HIV/AIDS pandemic/terminal diseases like cancer has increased the cost of   treatment/medication.
      9. Poverty/cost sharing policy has hindered some people from accessing health services.
      10. Unforseen high rates of accidents/ injuries has strained the scarce resources.
        Any 6 well explained points x 2=12 marks.

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