KCSE 2017 History and Government Paper 2 with Marking scheme

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Instructions to candidates

  • This paper has three sections:A, B and C
  • Answer all the questions in section A, three questions from section B and two questions from section C
  • Candidates should answer the questions in English

SECTION A (25 marks)

Answer all the questions in this section in the space provided at the end of question 24.

  1. Identify two types of oral traditions used to obtain information on History and Government.  (2 marks)
  2. Who discovered the Evolution Theory on the origin of man?  (1 mark)
  3. Name two early crops which were domesticated by man. (2 marks)
  4. Give one type of trade.  (1 mark)
  5. State two disadvantages of using elephants as a means of transport.  (2 marks)
  6. Highlight two advantages of wind energy.  (2 marks)
  7. State two factors which led to the growth of Meroe as an urban centre.  (2 marks)
  8. Give the main reason why the golden stool was important in the Asante Empire.  (1 mark)
  9. Give one characteristic of human rights.   (1 mark)
  10. State how humanitarian factors influenced the scramble for Africa.   (1 mark)
  11. Outline two roles of the Emirs in Northern Nigeria during the colonial period.   (2 marks)
  12. Name two African leaders who attended the 5th Pan-African Congress in 1945.-   (2 marks)
  13. Give two nations which belonged to the Triple Entente during the First World War.   (2 marks)
  14. Identify the organ of the Commonwealth which is responsible for policy making.   (1 mark)
  15. Name the European power that colonised the Democratic Republic of Congo.  (1 mark)
  16. Identify one major political party in Britain.  (1 mark)
  17. Give the first Black President of the United States of America.  (1 mark)

SECTION B (45 marks)

Answer any three questions from this section in the space provided at the end of question 24.

  1.  
    1. Give five uses of stone tools by the early man.  (5 marks)
    2. Explain five reasons why Africa is regarded as the original homeland of mankind.  (10 marks)
  2.  
    1. Give five traditional forms of communication.  (5 marks)
    2. Discuss five advantages of using the internet as a source of information on History and Government. (10 marks)
  3.  
    1. Outline five methods which were used by the Europeans to acquire colonies in Africa.   (5 marks)
    2. Explain five reasons why the Africans were defeated during the Maji Maji rebellion.  (10 marks)
  4.  
    1. State five roles which were played by Kwame Nkrumah during the struggle for independence in Ghana. 
      (5 marks)
    2. Explain five factors which were responsible for the growth of African nationalism in South Africa.   (10 marks)

SECTION C (30 marks)

Answer any two questions from this section in the space provided at the end of question 24.

  1.  
    1. Identify three political causes of the First World War.  (3 marks)
    2. Explain six effects of the Second World War.  (12 marks)
  2.  
    1. State three ways in which the Government of Tanzania nationalised resources following the Arusha Declaration.
      (3 marks)
    2. Discuss six political challenges which were experienced in the Democratic Republic of Congo at independence.(12 marks)
  3.  
    1. State three ways in which the Monarch is important in Britain.   (3 marks)
    2. Explain six responsibilities of the State governments in the United States of America.   (12 marks)


MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A (25 MARKS)

  1. Two types of oral traditions used to obtain information on History and Government
    1. Riddles
    2. Myths
    3. Songs
    4. Poems
    5. Tongue twister
    6. Proverbs
    7. Stories / narative
    8. Legends
    9. Dances
      Any 2 x 1 = 2 marks
  2. The one who discovered the Evolution Theory on the origin of man  Any 1x 1= 1marks.
    • Charlse Darwin   Any 1 x 1= 1mark.
  3. Two early crops to be domesticated
    1. olives
    2. melons
    3. Leeks
    4. Potatoes
    5. Maize
    6. Banana
    7. Yams
    8. Wheat
    9. Beans
    10. Barley
    11. Cucumber
    12. Rice
    13. Figs
    14. Sorghum
    15. Lettuce
    16. Millet
    17. onions 
    18. Cassava
    19. dates
      Any 2 x 1= 2marks.
  4. One type of trade
    1. Local trade
    2. Regional trade 
    3. intentional trade
      NB. Do not mark examples
      Any 1 x 1= 1 marks.
  5. Two disadvantages of using elephants as a means of transport.
    1. It is difficult to load them
    2. They easily get sores on feet/ skin / Diseases
    3. It is very hard to tame them /they are temperamental/ moody/death
    4. They cannot carry a load for a long distance
    5. They are slow /time consuming
      Any 2 x 1= 2marks.
  6. Two advantages of wind energy
    1. It is cheap
    2. It is readily available in many place/reliable
    3. It does not pollute the environment
    4. It is renewable/ cannot be exhausted
      Any 2 x 1= 2marks.
  7. Two factors that led to the growth of Meroe as an Urban Center
    1. It was an intersection/ junction of many trade routes/ strategically located/crossroads
    2. It was a mining center/ iron working
    3. The area had firtile soils / farming activities 
    4. It had abundant wood energy / fuel
      Any 2 x 1=2 marks.
  8. The main reason why the golden stool was important in the Asante Empire.
    • It united the people / it was a symbol of unity
      1 x 1= 1mark.
  9. One characteristic of human rights
    1. They are universal
    2. They are indivisible
    3. They have limitation
    4. They may be suspended under special circumstances / erogation of human rights
    5. They are inalienable i cant be taken away/ transfer from someone.
      Any 1 x 1= 1marks.
  10. How humanitarian factors influenced the scramble for Africa.
    • They advocated for the occupation of Africa in order to stamp out slave trade   1 x1= 1mark.
  11. Two roles of the Emirs in Northern Nigeria during the colonial period
    1. They collected taxes
    2. They tried cases/ settled disputes
    3. They maintained law and order
    4. They recruited labour for public works
    5. They eliminated practices which were not acceptable to the British
      Any 2 x 1= 2marks.
  12. Two African leaders who attended the 5th Pan African Congress in 1945
    1. Jomo Kenyatta 
    2. Julius Nyerere
    3. Kwame Nkrumah Leopold Sengor
    4. Kamuzu Banda
    5. Nnandi Azikiwe 
    6. Peter Abrahams 
    7. Obafemi Awolowo
      Any 2 x 1= 2marks.
  13. Two nations which belonged to the Tripple Entate during the First World War
    1. Britain
    2. Russia
    3. Japan
    4. France
    5. Montenegro
    6. Serbia Belgium
      Any 2 x 1= 2marks.
  14. The organ of the commonwealth which is responsible for policy making
    • Head of States Summit
      1 x 1= 1mark.
  15. The European power that colonized the Democratic Republic of Congo
    • Belgium
      1 x1=1mark.
  16. One major political party in Britain
    1. Labour Party
    2. Democratic Party
      Any 1 x 1= 1mark.
  17. The first Black President of the United States of America
    • Barack Obama
      1 x 1= 1mark.

SECTION B ( 45 MARKS)
Answer any THREE questions from this section in the answer booklet provided

  1.  
    1. Five uses of stone tools by the early man
      1. Grinding seeds/ grains
      2. Skinning animals
      3. Scrapping animal skins
      4. Sharpening weapons
      5. Digging roots
      6. Cutting meat/ vegetables/ roots
      7. Defence / Protection securioty
      8. Hunting
      9. Killing of animals
        Any 5 x 1= 5 marks.
    2. Five reasons why Africa is regarded as the original homeland of mankind
      1. The availability of forests provided possible shelter/ habitat/ settlement for the early man
      2. African is centrally located and its from here that man may have migrated to other parts of the world/ Center of Pangea
      3. Compared to other continents, the oldest fossils of man were discovered in Africa/archaelogical Sites are many
      4. The savanna grasslands available in the continent provided suitable hunting grounds for the early man
      5. Africa has many rivers/lakes which provided water for use by the early man
      6. African continent has relatively good climate which may have favoured human settlement/warm
        Any 5 points, well explained x 2 = 10 marks.
  2.  
    1. Five traditional forms of communication
      1. Drum beats
      2. Horn blowing
      3. Messengers/human beings/runners/birds/animals
      4. Fire and smoke signals
      5. Guestures and signals/ body movements
      6. Flags
      7. Bells
      8. Whistles
      9. Screams and cries/whistles
        Do not mark signals only
        Any 5x1= 5 marks
    2. Five advantages of using internet as a source of information on History and Government.
      1. It has promoted efficiency in the government operations in areas such as tax filling/ provision of various services
      2. It has promoted education programmes as information can be accessed online
      3. It has promoted trade as goods/ services can be sold/ brought through internet / online shopping diverse transactions
      4. Job/ employment adverts /job interviews can be made through internet thereby minimizing wastage of time/ resources
      5. It has enhanced communication as people could send/receive messages online.
      6. It has promoted research activities as it provides information in various fields
      7. It has enhanced quicker/ faster communication through use of social media such as Whats App/ Facebook/ twitter/ messenger
      8. It has promoted / enhanced storage of information through use of drop box/ cloud storage
      9. It is used for entertainment as one is able to watch video/ play games/ music online
      10. It has enhanced security systems in many countries in the world.
        Any 5 points, well explained x 2 = 10 marks.
  3.  
    1. Five methods which were used by the Europeans to acquire colonies in Africa
      1. Signing of traties
      2. Military conquest/ force iii.
      3. Company rule
      4. Diplomacy / collaboration
      5. Treachery /Trickery e.g Menelik II and Lobengula
      6. Divide and rule/ playing off communities against each other
      7. Enticing/Luring chiefs with gifts e.g clothes and weapons
        Any 5x1 = 5 marks
    2. Five reasons why the Africans were defeated during the Maji Maji rebellion
      1. The use of scorched earth policy by the Germans led to destruction of farms/ food thereby weakening their resolve to continue with the war
      2. Disunity among the Africans made it easy for the Germans to defeat them
      3. Germans had a stronger/ disciplined army, which was supported by mercenaries from other parts of africa like Somalia/ New Guinea
      4. Germans had superior weapons/ guns compared to the African soldiers/ warriors who used mainly bows and arrows/ Africans had inferior weapons
      5. The arrest/ capture of African leaders by germans demoralized the fighters resulting to their surrender
      6. The African traditional religion which had promised that magic water could protect them from the German bullets failed hence their defeat / failure of magic water
      7. Poor organization of Africans/ leaders compared to the Germans who had a proper structure of command
      8. Germany received reinforcement fromGermany and other countries e.g Somalia/New Guinea
      9. Large/powerful communities which had been defeated by germany did not enter war e.g Yao, Nyamwezi
        Any 5 points, well explained x 2 = 10 marks. 
  4.  
    1. Five roles which were played by Kwame Nkrumah during the struggle for independence in Ghana
      1. He started a newspaper/ Accra Evening News which articulated African griviances/ their plight
      2. He formed Conventions Peoples Party (CPP) which mobilized the people against the colonial rule
      3. He introduced the party salute/ slogan which urged people to support the nationalist cause
      4. He held political rallies which sensitized the people
      5. He made CPP vibrant/ popular
      6. He produced the country's flag
      7. He led Ghana to independence from Britain
      8. He used non violent methods e.g strikes, boycotts
        Any 5x1 = 5 marks
    2. Five factors which were responsible for the growth of African nationalism in South Africa
      1. Presence of African elites such as Walter Sisuli / Nelson Mandela promoted African consciousness
      2. The introduction of the Apartheid Policy which segregated the Africans / advocated for separate development
      3. Introduction of pass laws which forced Africans to carry passbooks thus controlled their movement
      4. The spread of Christianity which preached equality for all people thereby arousing Africans conciousnes about their position in the society
      5. Influence of Pan Africanists like WEB Dubois who encouraged Africans on their rights
      6. Africans resented the alienation of the land by Afrikanas which forced them to depend on them for survival
      7. Africans resented the conciliation act of 1924 which made it Illegal for Africans to form trade unions
      8. Lack of African representation in the parliament denied them a forum for airing their demand/
        grievances
      9. The communist act of 1950 outlawed any opposition to apartheid thereby provoking resentment from Africans
      10. Native Areas Act of 1923 restricted the number of Africans who could reside in the urban areas
      11. The banning of all non white political parties denied Africans a platform through which they
        could air their griviances
      12. Urbanization in South Africa provided a suitable enviroment for growth of nationalism
      13. Participation in the 2nd WWar exposed many Africans to democratic ideas
      14. Exploitation of African workers in mines made them agitate for self defemination.
        Any 5 points, well explained x 2 = 10 marks.

SECTION C (30 marks)

  1.  
    1. Three political causes of the First World War
      1. Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria/Sarajevo assasination
      2. Arms race
      3. Development of nationalism
      4. Desire for revenge
      5. Rivalry over colonial possession / imperialism
      6. The morocaan crisis
      7. The italo- Turkish despute over Lybia
      8. The Balkan crisis/ wars
        Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks
    2. Six effects of Second World War
      1. Many people both soldiers and civilians lost their lives during the war loss of life
      2. It led to widespread suffering/ misery as many people were displaced when their homes were destroyed
      3. It led to rise of debts as many countries involved borrowed a lot of money to finance the war/economic depression
      4. Property was destroyed as bombs were used thereby impoverishing the people
      5. It led to emergence of USA USSR as superpowers with different ideologies I
      6. t led to establishment of communist governance in Eastern Europe like Hungary and Czechoslavkia
      7. Germany was partitioned into East and West thereby creating Capitalist Communist Germany
      8. It caused the fall of dictators in Europe like Hitler of Germany/ Mussolini of Italy 
      9. Rise of nationalism-in Asia/Africa following the return of ex servicemen who organized formed political movement
      10. European Economic Corperation was formed in 1957 to assist Western European nation whose
        economies were shattered/ destroyed/ USA marshal plan
      11. It led to improvement in military technology/ industries leading to the production of advanced military hardware/ arms race
      12. It led to increased dependency of European powers on their colonies for raw materials for their
        reconstruction programmes
      13. It charged the status of women as they were now recognized as able decision makers/ leaders of families during the absence of their husbands
      14. It led to the formation of the United Nations Organization to replace the Leagues of Nation which had failed to maintain world peace/ security
      15. Displacement of poode hence becoming refugees e.g slaves/jews
      16. The atomic bomb used against japan released radio active substances which affected lives of many people.
      17. Agriculture and industry were destroyed due to lack of equipment, raw materials & labour
      18. External trade almost came to a stand skill due to fear and insecurity
      19. There was high inflation rates hence high cost of living
      20. Division of europe into the opposing block henis cold war/ eastern and western blocks
      21. The myth of european millitary superiority was destroyed due to the defeat of the British and American forces in the far East by Japan
      22. Creation of state of Israel settle displaced jews
      23. War created unemployment, due to destruction
      24. Led to the spread of infections ,diseases.
      25. Permanent ill-health and shortening of life for the people due to malnutrition.
        Any 6 points, well explained x 2 = 12 marks.
  2.  
    1. Three ways in which the government of Tanzania nationalized the resources following the Arusha Declearation
      1. Africans were put in control of the factors of production/land/capital/labour
      2. Africans were put in charge of means of production machinery and raw materials
      3. Marketing of the produce was placed in the hands of Africans
      4. The distribution of government resources was done by the Africans
        Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks
    2. Six political challenges which were experienced in the Democratic Republic of Congo at independence
      1. Completion for political dominance by political parties polarized the country thereby undermining unity
      2. Ethnic differences undermined nationalists causes thereby dividing the country
      3. The mutiny staged by African soldiers created a state of lawlessness in the country
      4. Secession of some regions/ Kasai/ Katanga caused instability in the central government hance weakening
      5. Political assation created differences among leaders/ followers thereby creating tension in the country assasinatioon of Lumumba.
      6. Africans were ill prepared for independence hence the government lacked adequate personel with management / professional skills which were required to run the government/ Lack of administration
      7. Personality differences among ignited conflicts amongst their followers to
      8. Belgium interference in the affairs of the country undermined the independence of the Africans/UNO interference
      9. The killing of Belgium nationals following the army mutiny created a state of lawlessness
      10. Political and ideological diffrences between Lumumba ans Kasavubu
      11. Civil wars and split of the county into two parts, one Led by Lumumba and kasavubu
        Any 6 points, well explained x 2 = 12 marks. 
  3.  
    1. Three ways in which the Monarch is important in Britain
      1. It contributes to better understand between Britain and other countries 
      2. It provides continuity to the executive authority
      3. It is a symbol of commonwealth unity
      4. It sets the standards for social life
      5. It inspires the head of government with a sence of responsibility/ dignity
      6. it act as a useful counselor to the head at government
        Any 3 x 1 = 3 marks
    2. Six responsibilities of the state government in the United States of America
      1. They establish the law courts which administere justice in the states
      2. They allow for the formation of Local government which cater for the peoples interest/ provide services in the rural areas
      3. They provide education (services) to the people
      4. They maintain law and through state police department which ensures adherence to the law/maintain law and order.
      5. They generate revenue required to finance their operations
      6. They regulate labour/ industry, by making appropriate legislations
      7. They regulate commerce/ trade in order to ensure stability in the sector 
      8. They Provide health services to the people
      9. Provide recreational facilities to the people
      10. They make/pass laws in the states/amend laws.
        Any 6 points, well explained x 2 = 12 marks.

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