Home Science Paper 1 Questions and Answers - KCSE 2021 Past Papers

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SECTION A (40 marks)
Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. Give the meaning of the term food hygiene. (2 marks)
  2. Identify two functions of fats and oils in the body. (2 marks)
  3. Highlight two reasons why reheating food is discouraged. (2 marks)
  4. State one use of each of the following kitchen utensils: (2 marks)
    1. sauce pots..
    2. casseroles
  5. State two advantages of blanching vegetables. (2 marks)
  6. Define the term cosmetics. (2 marks)
  7. Outline three practices that help to maintain healthy teeth. (3 marks)
  8. State two reasons why weaning a baby too early is discouraged. (2 marks)
  9. Name two types of brushes used to remove dirt from surfaces in the home. (1 mark)
  10. State two causes of poor sanitation. (2 marks)
  11. Highlight the importance of pouring hot detergent water into a kitchen sink after cleaning it. (1 mark)
  12. Identify two points to consider when buying land for a family house. (2 marks)
  13. Define the term goods. (1 mark)
  14. State two advantages of buying goods using hire purchase method. (2 marks)
  15. Give two points to consider when choosing pegs. (2 marks)
  16. Identify two laundry processes that may be carried out before washing a cotton shirt (2 marks)
  17. Name two balance marks used on patterns in clothing construction. (1 mark)
  18.  Give one use of each of the following stitches: (2 marks)
    1. Oversewing
    2. Overcasting
  19. State one function of each of the following parts of a sewing machine: (3 marks)
    1. pressor foot
    2. tension disc
    3. spool pin
  20. Identify two types of pockets used on a boy's trouser (2 marks)
  21. Differentiate between natural and man-made fibres. (2 marks)

SECTION B (20 marks)

Answer question 22 in the space provided.

  1. Your parents are away on a trip and you have been left in charge of the home. Outline the procedure to follow when:
    1. cleaning a concrete floor of the verandah thoroughly (10 marks)
    2. cleaning a discoloured melamine plate thoroughly  (6 marks)
    3. dry cleaning your father's acrylic neck-tie (4 marks)

SECTION C (40 marks)

Answer any two questions from this section in the space provided after question 25.

    1. Explain five advantages of making a family budget. (10 marks)
    2. Describe five factors that may lead to malnutrition. (10 marks)
    1. Explain three factors that determine the type of seam to use on garments. (6 marks)
    2. Explain three points to consider when choosing an ironing board. (6 marks)
    3. Explain four properties of polyester that make it suitable for making school uniforms. (8 marks)
    1. Explain three different ways of providing family shelter. (6 marks)
    2. Explain four ways of meeting social needs of a patient recovering at home. (8 marks)
    3. Giving a reason in each case, describe three activities carried out on the mother at the ante-natal clinic. (6 marks)


  1. Meaning of the term food hygiene:
    • This refers to food practices that prevent food from becoming contaminated or spoilt.  (2 marks)
  2. Functions of fats and oils in the body:
    • Provide energy
    • Act as a body insulator
    • Protect the body's internal organs from physical injury     Any 2 x 1 = (2 marks)
  3. Reasons why reheating food is discouraged:
    • When not properly stored it easily gets contaminated.
    • They lose their flavour.
    • Some of the food may be rendered indigestible.
    • They lose some of the nutrients.    Any 2 x 1 (2) marks)
  4. Use of each of the following kitchen utensils:
    • Sauce pots
      They are hollow utensils used for surface cooking such as boiling, join/ stewing, frying and steaming.
    • Casseroles
      A covered dish that is used for cooking, baking or serving food.  Any 2 x 1 (2) marks)
  5. Advantages of blanching vegetables:
    • To reduce bulk
    • Colour retention
    • To deactivate micro-organisms  Any 2 x 1 (2) marks)
  6. Definition of the term cosmetics:
    • Substances used to enhance a person's appearance
  7. Practices that help to maintain healthy teeth:
    • Brush teeth at least twice a day.
    • Exercise the jaw by eating raw or hard foods.
    • Eat healthy food rich in calcium, phosphorous and vitamins D and C
    • Avoid eating sugary foods
    • Visit a dentist regularly                   3 x 1 = 3 marks
  8. Reasons why weaning a baby too early is discouraged:
    • The baby's digestive system is not able to process the new foods.
    • Denies the baby bonding with the mother.
    • Weaning foods may not be well balanced and thus baby will not get adequate nutrients for proper growth.
  9. Types of brushes used to remove dirt from surfaces in the home:
    • Cobweb brush
    • Scrubbing brush
    • Toilet brush   Any 2 x ½ = (1 mark)
  10. Causes of poor sanitation:
    • Ignorance of the dangers of careless disposal of waste.
    • Poor urban planning causing overload of drainage systems.
    • Congested and crowded living conditions leading to inadequate facilities such as toilets, bathrooms.  Any 2 x 1 = (2 marks)
  11. Importance of pouring hot detergent water into a kitchen sink after cleaning it:
    • Is to remove grease
  12. Points to consider when buying land for a family house
    • Land/soil that drains
    • Legal requirements from the land authorities.
    • Access to social amenities.
    • Safety and security of the neighbourhood
  13. Definition of the terms Goods:
    • Goods are tangible items such as foods, tools and clothes which can be sold or bought with the ability to satisfy a human need or want.
  14. Advantages of buying goods using hire purchase method:
    • The consumer gets to use the item immediately.
    • One is able to buy expensive items they would not have bought in cash.
    • Benefit of receiving after sales service such as repair and maintenance of the pages wille commuing to pay for the items. 
      Any 2 x 1 = (2 marks)
  15. Points to consider when choosing pegs: They should:
    • be well fixed
    • open and close easily
    • be strong enough to secure heavy clothes without breaking     Any 2 x 1 (2 marks)
  16. Laundry processes that may be carried out before washing a cotton shirt:
    • Soaking
    • Stain removal
    • Mending                           Any 2 x 1 = (2 marks)
  17. Balance marks used on patterns in clothing construction:
    • Notches
    • Dots                     Any 1 x 1 = (1 mark)
  18. Uses of the following stitches:
    1. Oversewing- used for joining two folded edges together.
    2. Overcasting - used for neatening raw edges.           2 x 1 = (2 marks)
  19. Function of each of the following parts of a sewing machine:
    1. Pressor foot to hold the fabric in place during stitching. 
    2. Tension disc-to control the tightness of the thread during sewing.
    3. Spool spin- used to hold the reel of thread while sewing.  (3 x 1) = (3 marks)
  20. Types of pockets used on a boy's trouser:
    • Patch pocket
    • In-seam pocket
    • Bound pocket          Any 2 x1 = (2 marks)
  21. Difference between natural and man-made fibres:
    • Natural fibres are those obtaned from natural materials like animal proteins, minerals and plants cellulose while man-made fibres are manufactured from chemicals and other substances.        well differentiated 2 marks
    1. Procedure to follow when thorough cleaning a concrete floor of the verandah:
      • Collect all the cleaning equipment and materials (½)
      • Close windows (½) and sweep from the furthest corner of the room towards the door (½)
      • Collect rubbish and deposit (½) in a dustbin (½)
      • Open (½) the windows to air the room
      • Use warm water (½) soapy (½) water and a scrubbing brush (½) to scrub the floor.
      • Start from the furthest (½) end of the room
      • Scrub (½) the skirting board and the floor overlapping (½) small sections at a time using warm (½) soapy water
      • Use circular motion (1⁄2) when cleaning
      • Wipe (½) with a clean cloth/mop wrung out of warm soapy water
      • Rinse (½) with a cloth wrung (2) out of warm water
      • Dry (½) the floor thoroughly using a floor cloth/mop.
      • Clean (½) equipment used and store appropriately (½)                               20 x 1⁄2 (10 marks)
    2. Procedure to follow when thorough cleaning a discoloured melamine plate:
      • Collect materials
      • Soak (½) in diluted household bleach (½)
      • Clean in hot (½) soapy (½) water and rub gently (½) with a mild abrasive (1⁄2)
      • Rinse (½) thoroughly in warm water
      • Final rinse in cold (½) water
      • Drain (½) to dry
      • Wipe (½) with a dry clean non-fluffy (½) cloth
      • Store appropriately (1⁄2)                  12 x 1⁄2 6 marks
    3. Procedure to follow when dry cleaning an acrylic neck-tie:
      • Put the dry-cleaning solvent (1⁄2) into a basin
      • Shake (½) the tie to remove loose dirt.
      • Dip (½) the tie into the solvent.
      • Knead and squeeze (½) gently between hands.
      • Rinse (1⁄2) in another basin of clean solvent to remove all dirt.
      • Hang (½) in open air (1⁄2) to dry.
      • Press (½) with a warm iron.                      8 x ½  = (4 marks)


    1. Advantages for making a family budget:
      • Act as a guide to wise purchasing.
      • Enable one to give priority to essential items thereby avoiding impulse buying.
      • Enable an individual or family to live within their means.
      • Enable the family to set priorities on their present and future needs.
      • Provide an organised method of accumulating family savings.
      • Provide a basis of analysing needs of the family.
      • Give psychological satisfaction to the family members because their needs are catered for.
      • Enable a family to estimate all their financial needs and sources for other methods of supplementing their income.
        Any 5 x 2 = (10 marks)
    2. Causes of malnutrition:
      • Poverty
        - This may be as a result of lack of resources to obtain food. People who lack resources to obtain adequate food supplies end
        up suffering from various nutritional deficiency diseases.
      • Parasites
        - Infestation of worms and malarial parasites reduces the amounts of nutrients available to the body such as iron and vitamin B12 leading to anaemia.
      • Ignorance
        - Lack of information on healthy foods can lead to consumption of less nutritious foods such as juices, biscuits and sodas.
      • Poor health
        - When one is sick, the body is unable to absorb and utilize certain nutrients.
      • Natural calamities
        Calamities such as floods, drought and war affect production and availability of food. Pandemics such as HIV/AIDS also affect the productive age group which leads to reduction in food production.
      • Lifestyle
        Modern changes in lifestyle such as inactivity and poor eating habits, which may lead to diseases such as obesity, gout, diabetes and hypertension.
      • Food taboos
        Food taboos superstitions and religious beliefs may lead to the prohibition of eating certain foods  Any 5 x 2 = (10 marks)
    1. Factors to consider when choosing the type of seam when constructing garments:
      • Type of garment
        - Outer and inner garments require different seams according to their use.
      • Type of fabric
        - Fraying fabrics require self-neatening seams. Heavy fabrics require seams that reduce bulk.
      • Effect desired
        - You may intend the seam to be conspicuous or inconspicuous to give a particular effect
      • Position of the seam on the garment
        - Whether on an armhole, side seam. Some positions will require stronger seams. Any 3 x 2= (6 marks)
    2. Points to consider when choosing an ironing board:
      • It should be firm and stable to ensure it stands on its own with pressure.
      • It should have a heat proof mat at one end to provide a placement area for the hot iron during ironing.
      • Choose an ironing board which can be adjusted to ensure a comfortable working height.
      • Choose an ironing board with a sleeve board for easier ironing of              Any 3 x 2 = (6 marks)
    3. Properties of polyester that makes it suitable for making school uniforms:
      • It is strong
        - Polyester is suitable for school uniform because it is strong and therefore it can withstand frequent laundering.
      • It takes dye readily
        Polyester can be easily dyed and printed to produce different colours required to make uniforms.
      • Polyester can withstand mild alkalis, washing detergents and stain removing agents. It is suitable for making uniforms because it is easily laundered.
      • Stains and dirt are easily removed therefore easy to maintain.
      • User friendly because it is resistant to shrinking, creasing and stretching.          Any 4 x 2 = (8 marks)
    1. Different ways of providing family shelter:
      • Buying
        - This is where a family purchases/buys a house that is already built.
      • Building
        - This is where a family builds/construct a house on their own land.
      • Renting
        - This is where a family lives in a house then they pay rent at the end of the month.
      • Living in an employer's house
        - This is where a family lives in a house provided by their employer.             Any 3 x 2 = (6 marks)
    2. Ways of meeting social needs of a patient recovering at home:
      • The patient should be visited often and talked to for reassurance purposes.
      • The loved ones and close friends should be present as it makes them happy.
      • Avoid isolating the sick to avoid sadness and depression.
      • Those people that the sick would hate to see should be kept away to enhance quick recovery.
      • Provide entertainment through newspapers, T.V., radio, books,            Any 4 x 2 (8 marks)
    3. Activities carried out to the mother at the ante-natal clinic:
      • Checking the blood pressure to ensure it is normal.
      • Checking sugar and protein in urine to ensure the uterus gets normal blood flow.
      • Monitoring the mother's weight to ensure the foetus is growing and the mother is not gaining excess weight.
      • Checking the level of haemoglobin in case of blood transfusion during delivery.
      • Checking the foetal heartbeat to ascertain that the foetus is alive.               Any 3 x 2 = (6 marks)
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