AGRICULTURE Paper 1 Questions and Answers - KCSE 2022 Past Papers

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SECTION A (30 marks)
Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. State four human factors that influence agriculture. (2 marks)
  2. Name four methods of harvesting agroforestry trees. (2 marks)
    1. Differentiate between reafforestation and afforestation. (1 mark)
    2. Name four cover crops farmers can use for soil and water conservation. (2 marks)
  4. Name four types of water pumps. (2 marks)
  5. State four factors considered when selecting planting materials for forage crops. (2 marks)
  6. Which branch of agriculture deals with:
    1. utilisation of scarce resources? (1 mark)
    2. maintenance of farm tools and equipment? (1 mark)
  7. Give four factors that a farmer should consider in order to prepare good quality chicken manure. (2 marks)
  8. Give four reasons for keeping labour utilisation records. (2 mark)
  9. State four types of land reforms practised in Kenya. (2 marks)
  10. Give one use of each of the two types of inventory records kept by farmers. (2 marks)
    Type of inventory record
  11. State four characteristics of nitrogenous fertilisers. (2marks)
  12. Give four reasons why Kenyans should practise agroforestry. (2 marks)
  13. Distinguish between a dam and a weir. (1 mark)
  14. Name four types of grasses grown in high altitude areas as forage. (2 marks)
  15. Give four reasons for preparing a seedbed in crop production. (2 marks)

SECTION B (20 marks)
Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. If a tomato crop is planted at a spacing of 100 cm by 50 cm, calculate the plant population for plot of land measuring 5 m by 6m. (5 mark)
  2. The diagram below shows a method of grafting.
    17 ahdguhad
    1. Identify the method of grafting. (1 mark)
    2. Name two other methods of grafting apart from the one illustrated. (2 mark)
    3. Give two reasons why a farmer may prefer using the grafting method illustrated. (2 mark)
  3. The diagram below shows a maize cob infected by a certain disease.
    18 auduygada
    1. Identify the disease. (1 mark)
    2. State two control measures for the disease. (2 marks)
    3. Name any other two diseases of maize in the field. (2 marks)
  4. The diagram below shows a crop rotation programme practised on a virgin land for three
    19 aihduhada
    Arrows show how crops were rotated after the first season.
    1. Give one reason why:
      1. maize was planted first in plot A (1 mark)
      2. Irish potato was rotated with cabbage after the first season (1 mark)
    2. Name two crops that can be planted in the place of Irish potatoes in the rotation programme. (2 marks)
    3. Give a reason why it is important to include a grass lay in the rotation programme. (1 mark) 

SECTION C (40 marks)
Answer any two questions from this section in the spaces provided after question 22.

    1. Describe cabbage production under each of the following sub-headings:
      1. varieties (2 marks)
      2. nursery establishment (5 marks)
    2. Give seven agricultural support services available to wheat farmers in Kenya. (7 marks)
    3. Explain any six cultural methods of weed control. (6 marks)
    1. Explain six harmful effects of crop pests. (6 marks)
    2. State four problems farmers encounter when marketing milk. (4 marks)
    3. Give four reasons why farmers should prepare a farm budget. (4 marks)
    4. Describe the harvesting of tea under the following sub-headings: 
      1. harvesting procedure (3 marks)
      2.  precautions taken during harvesting (3 marks)
    1. Describe five ways in which each of the following affects agriculture:
      1. HIV and AIDS (5 marks)
      2. poor economic growth (5 marks)
    2. Give five roles of calcium in the growing of tomatoes. (5 marks) 
    3. State five details farmers should include in a purchase order. (5 marks)


    • Level of education and technology;
    • Health;
    • Economy;
    • Government policy;
    • Market forces;
    • Cultural practices and religious beliefs;
    • Transport and communication.      4x1⁄2 = (2 marks)
    • Pruning;
    • Coppicing;
    • Pollarding;
    • Thinning.   4x1⁄2 = (2 marks)
    1. Reafforestation is the planting of trees where forests have been cleared while afforestation is the planting of trees where they had never existed.   ( 1 mark)
      • Sweet potatoes;
      • Lucerne;
      • Desmodium;
      • Spreading beans.   4x1⁄2 = (2 marks)
    • Centrifugal/ rotardynamic pump;
    • Piston/ reciprocating pump;
    • Semi-rotary pump;
    • Hydram.             4x1⁄2 = (2 marks)
    • Adaptability to the local ecological conditions;
    • Fast growth;
    • High herbage yield;
    • High germination percentage:
    • High nutritive value;
    • Pure/certified seed.       4x1⁄2 = (2 marks)
    1. Agricultural economics;
    2. Agricultural engineering.   2x1⁄2 = (2 marks)
    • Type of litter;
    • Type of food eaten;
    • Method of storage;
    • Age of the manure/maturity period.    4x1⁄2 = (2 marks)
    • Help determine labour allocation;
    • Determine labour requirements;
    • Help settle labour disputes;
    • Help determine peak labour demand periods;
    • Determine cost of labour.    4x1⁄2 = (2 marks)
    • Land consolidation;
    • Land adjudication;
    • Land registration;
    • Settlement;
    • Resettlement.    4x1⁄2 = (2 marks)
    1. Consumable goods inventory: records assets of the farm which are used up in the production process.  (1 mark)
    2. Permanent goods inventory: records farm assets not used up in the production process.   (1 mark)
    • Highly volatile;
    • Have scorching/ burning effects;
    • Short residual effects;
    • Highly soluble in water;
    • Easily leached;
    • Highly corrosive;
    • They are hygroscopic.
    • Supply forestry products;
    • Increase productivity of the land;
    • Soil and water conservation;
    • Labour saving:
    • Improves water catchment areas;
    • Provide aesthetic value in the farm;
    • Conserves forests.    4x1⁄2 = (2 marks)
    • A dam is a barrier constructed across a river or dry valley to collect and hold large volume of water while
    • A weir is a barrier constructed across a river to raise the water level and allow the excess water to flow over it.
    • Kikuyu grass;
    • Nandi Seteria;
    • Giant Seteria;
    • Rhodes grass;
    • Molasses grass.    4x1⁄2 = (2 marks)
    • Kill weeds;
    • Incorporate organic matter into the soil;
    • Aerates the soil;
    • Encourage root penetration;
    • Encourage water infiltration;
    • Destroy different stages of crop pests.
  16. Plant population
    Area of land
          5m x 6m       
        100cm x 50 cm
    = 500 x 600 = 300,000;
         100 x 50       5000
    = 60 plants;       (5 marks)
    1. Side grafting:   ( 1mark)
      • Whip/tongue;
      • Approach;
      • Bark; 
      • Notch;   2x1 = (2marks)
      • When the scion is smaller in diameter than the root stock; 
      • To repair damaged trees;
      • To produce different types of fruits on the same root stock; 
      • To utilize a high quality root stock.   2x1 = (2marks)
    1. Maize smut;   ( 1mark)
      • Crop rotation;
      • Field hygiene;
      • Use of certified/ clean seeds
      • Use of fungicides;    2x1 = (2marks)
      • Leaf blight;
      • Rust;
      • Maize steak    2x1 = (2 marks)
      1. Maize is a heavy/gross feeder hence starts on virgin land;   (1 mark)
        • Irish potato is a root crop while cabbage is a leaf crop hence different nutritional requirements;
        • Irish potato and cabbage have different families of origin hence different pests and diseases.     1x1 = (1 mark)
      • Sweet potatoes;
      • Cassava;
      • Carrots.      2x1 = (2 marks)
    3. To improve soil structure; control soil erosion.     1x1 = (1 mark)
      1. Varieties
        • Brusnick;
        • Sugar loaf,
        • Early Jersey;
        • Mukuki;
        • Drum head;
        • Copenhagen;
        • Golden acre;
        • Gloria;
        • Sure-head;
        • Savoy;    2x1 = (2 marks)
      2. Nursery Establishment
        • Cabbage nursery should be sited in an area where the Brassica family crops have not been grown for the last three years;
        • The nursery should be prepared to a fine tilth;
        • Remove all roots, stones and perennial weeds.
        • Shallow drills should be made 10 cm apart where seeds are evenly drilled and covered lightly with soil;
        • Apply mulch on the surface which should be removed on emergence of the seedlings;
        • Construct a thin shade over the nursery;
        • Water the seedlings in the nursery regularly.     5x1 =  ( 5marks)
      • Tractor hire service;
      • Banking services;
      • Extension services;
      • Farmer training:
      • Credit services;
      • Marketing services;
      • Agricultural research;
      • Input supply;
      • Insurance.      7x1 =  (7 marks)
      • Crop rotation: to destroy weeds associated with certain crops;
      • Timely planting: allows the crop to establish earlier before the weeds thus smothers weeds;
      • Use clean seeds/planting materials: prevents entry of weeds to the farm land;
      • Proper spacing: for the canopy to smother weeds/ leaves little space for weed growth;
      • Clean seedbed: for the crop to establish and outcompete weeds; Flooding: to suffocate and discourage growth of non-aquatic weeds;
      • Mulching to smother/ prevent growth of weeds;
      • Cover cropping to smother/ prevent growth of weeds;
      • Pests unearth planted seeds resulting to low crop population e.g. squirrels, mice.
      • Pests damage crop roots causing wilting and death e.g. nematodes, moles, mites, etc.
      • Destroy leaves reducing photosynthetic area, reducing yield e.g. cutworm, armyworm etc.
      • They suck the plant sap leading to retarded growth e.g. aphids
      • Pests attack fruits, berries, flowers, lowering their quality and quantity e.g. bollworm.
      • Some pests destroy embryos of seeds-lowering germination potential e.g. weevils.
      • Transmit diseases or open the plan to secondary infection e.g. aphids, mealy bugs
      • Some pests attack the growing points of the crops leading to stunted growth e.g. stalk borer
      • Perishability easily goes bad before marketing;
      • Seasonality is plenty during rainy season hence floods the market;
      • Bulkiness - is bulky hence difficult to store and transport;
      • Storage - requires special storage facilities which are expensive;
      • Poor transport system - most rural areas have poor road network    4x1 = (4 marks)
      • To plan for the production process;
      • To plan for the labour costs and other expected costs and revenue;
      • Avoid over or under estimation;
      • For future planning and budgeting;
      • Assist in farm evaluation;
      • Assist the farmer to get bank overdrafts and loans.     4x1 = (4 marks)
        • Pluck using hands
        • Pluck at intervals of 7 days in wet season and 10-14 days in dry season;
        • Pluck the 1st and 2nd leaves and a bud;
        • Ready for plucking at two years (pegging) or 4 years (formative pruned);   3x1 = (3 marks)
        • Do not compress the tea leaves to prevent heating up;
        • Keep plucked tea cool under shade as plucking continues;
        • Deliver plucked tea leaves to the factory on the same day;
        • Put plucked tea in woven basket to allow free air circulation.      3x1= (3 marks)
        • Reduces population;
        • Most affected are young and energetic leading to loss of manpower;
        • Some of the affected are highly skilled whose life is lost leaving behind the old and unskilled;
        • A lot of money and time is spent on treatment of opportunistic infections;
        • Time spent on caring for the sick could be valuable for agricultural production;
        • Loss of interest or motivation to invest in agriculture;
        • Low food supply and increase in poverty in general; 
        • Low standards of living;
        • Increased cost of living;
        • Shortage of labour;       5x1 =  (5 marks)
        • compromises availability of capital for agricultural production;
        • Poor marketing facilities;
        • Poor use of natural resources;
        • Collapse of agro-based industries;
        • Low adoption of improved agricultural technologies/ innovations.
      • It improves soil aeration;
      • It improves water infiltration;
      • Improves water holding capacity;
      • Helps to neutralize acidic soils;
      • Strengthens plant cell-wall;
      • Increases protein synthesis;
      • It is used in cell division;
      • It improves cation exchange capacity (CEC).   5x1 = (5 marks)
      • Purchase order number/ serial number;
      • Types of goods required;
      • Quantities of the goods ordered;
      • Name of the farmer/ farm;
      • Name and signature of authorizing person; 
      • Date within which the goods should be delivered.    5x1 =  (5 marks)
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