I.R.E Paper 1 Questions and Answers - KCSE 2022 Past Papers

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    1. Give eight reasons why the Quran was not compiled during the life time of the Prophet (P.b.uh) (8 marks)
    2. Why was the Quran revealed in Arabic? (6 marks)
    3. Identify six attributes mentioned in and Kari (6 marks)
    1. Why is the Quran considered a miracle by Muslims? (8 marks)
    2. Outline six benefits of diacriticalisation of the Quran. (6 marks)
    3. State six characteristics of believers in Surah An-Nur (6 marks)
    1. Describe the simple classification of Hadith. (6 marks)
    2. Explain the test used to determine the authenticity of the math of a Iladith. (7 marks)
    3. The Prophet (Ph.uh) said: "the best home for Muslims is one where in there is an
      In reference to the ladith, give seven ways in which Muslims can take care of orphans. (7 marks)
    1. Identity eight categories of legal acts in Islamic law. (8 marks)
    2. State six principles of peaceful co-existence according to Surah Al-Hujurat. (Q 49) (6 marks)
    3. State six lessons a Muslim youth can learn from the life of Imam Shaffi (6 marks)
    1. Outline six restrictions of num (5 marks)
    2. What are the benefits of performing swolow in a congregation? (6 marks)
    3. Explain four differences between Zakat and Sadaqah. (8 marks)
    1. State six ways in which Hadith is being preserved in modern times. (6 marks)
    2. State the Islamic teachings on rewards by Allah (S.W.). (6 marks)
    3. How does the belief in the oneness of Allah affect the life of a Muslim? (8 marks)


    1. Reasons why the Quran was not compiled during the lifetime of the Prophet (P.b.u.h):
      1.  The Quran was still in its revelation stages hence it could not be compiled.
      2. There was abrogation (Naskh) of some verses and replacement of these verses with others was on-going
      3. Revelation of the last chapter came nine days before the death of the Prophet (P.buh), therefore, making the compilation exercise difficul
      4. The verses and chapters were not revealed in their final order and hence compilation would only be done after the arrangement of the chapters and verses.
      5. The Prophet (Phah) was a living reference hence there was no need to compile the Quran at the time.
      6. Due to the presence of the Prophet (Pbuh), there were no disputes experienced and so companions did not see the need for it's compilation
      7. Allah had assured the Prophet (Pha.h) of collecting and preserving the Quran in his heart. (Q 75: 16-17)
      8. The whole text of the Quran was not revealed at once but in bens could not be compiled during the lifetime of the Prophet (P.hu.h),
      9. The Prophet had not yet been commanded to compile the Quran.
      10. Memorization was an art that was highly encouraged by the Prophet (P.b.u.h)
    2. Reasons why the Quran was revealed in Arabic:
      1. The Prophet (Pb.u.h) to whom the Quran was revealed was an Arab. (Q 14:4)
      2. The language of the people where Prophet Muhammad (p.b.u.h) was born was Arabic and therefore Allah revealed it in the language of these people. (Q 44:58)
      3. To make it easy for mankind to understand its injunctions. (Q 12:2)
      4. It was revealed in Arabic because it is pure and clear. (Q 16: 103)
      5. To challenge the eloquent Arabs who could not come up with the clear and poetic Arabic language of the Quran.
      6. Allah has the authority to choose the language He wills, in the
        revelation of the Quran
      7.  It was revealed in Arabic so that people may get warned about the greatness of Allah. (Q 42:7)
      8. Arabic was a rich language in terms of its vocabulary and structure.
      9. So as to avoid excuses from the Arabs.
    3. Attributes of Allah mentioned in Ayatul Kursi:
      1. The most high.  Al-Aliyu
      2. The most great. Al-Adim
      3. The ever-living. Al-Hayyu
      4. The all-knowing. Al-Aleem
      5. The sustainer. Al-qayyum
      6. The protector. Al-Hafi
      7. The only one.
      8. Doesn't slumber nor sleep
      9. The owner of allwhat is in heavens and earth.
    1. Reasons why Quran is considered a miracle:
      1. There was no one who was able to produce a book like it.
      2. The Quran contained prophesies that come to pass eg. the victory of Romans over Persians in Surah Al-Rum
      3. Quran contains facts that have been proven through scientific discoveries eg. the origin of life. (Q21:30)
      4. It is free from contradictions. (Q4:82)
      5. Guidance (day): Heing the best guide to mankind in all aspects.
      6. Language and style excels over all other styles.
      7. It is comprehensive and thus fulfils all human needs and aspirations.
      8. It posively to the hearts of mankinabership-join
      9. Has remained in its original fem/ it is divinely protected.
      10. It's message is universal.
      11. It is full of wisdom.
      12. It is Shifa (cure) soothes and cures the heart.
      13. It can never he overtaken by time and events.
      14. It was revealed to and taught by unlettered prophet. It can easily be memorized.
    2. Benefits of discriticalization of the Quran
      1. It helps non-Arab Muslims to make proper pronunciation of the Quran while reciting it.
      2. It helps to safeguard distortion of the meaning of the Quran.
      3. It makes the reading of the Quranic text much easier.
      4. It helps to bring about uniformity in the way Muslims recite the Quran throughout the Muslim world.
      5. From the perspective of teaching, it makes it easy for leamers to acquire skills for reading and memorization.
      6. Oral diction of the Quran can accurately be rendered into writing through the use of diacritical marks and vowel sounds.
      7. The use of diacritical marks not only aided in the correct reading of the Quran, but also other texts in the Arabic language. (viii) Diacritical marks assisted in the spread of Islam to other parts of the world by making it easy for people to recite and understand the meaning of Quran.
    3. Characteristics of believers in Surah An-Nur
      1. They observe Swalar and Zakar - Verse 37.
      2. They obey the commandments of Allah and the message- verse 52.
      3. They believe in only one God i.e. Allah verse 62.
      4. They respect their leaders, verse 62.
      5. They respect the privacy of others e.g. by knocking and asking permissions before entering other people's houses and they also offer greetings. Verse 27
      6. They are doers of righteous deeds verse 55.
      7. They do no associate Allah with other deity's verse 55.
      8. Engage in lawful marriage, ie don't commit zinas-Verse 3
      9. Are repentant-Verse 3
      10. They are truthful, do not give false testimonies-Verses 6,7
      11. They do not follow the footsteps of shaitwan Verse 21
      12. They use their wealth to assist the less fortunate members of the society-Verse 22
      13. They are modest, they lower their gaze and guard their beauties. Verse 30-31
    1. Simple classification of Hadith:
      1. Salih: these are excellent hadith both in Isnad ad mata, they beliefs.
      2. Hasan these are good hadith they may suffer from slight/ defects such as defect in memory of a narrator
      3. Dhaif these are weak hadith, the narrators are not reliable and the main is not agreeable.
    2. Test used to determine the authenticity of the matn of a hadith
      1. The hadith must quote what was said or done or what was approved by the Prophet (Pb.u.h)
      2. It should not go against the Quran or general principles of Islam.
      3. It should not go against established Summah other authentic sayings of the Prophet. (P.b.u.h)
      4. It should not criticize or speak ill of the household and companions of the Prophet (P.b.u.h).
      5. It should not be inconsistent. For example, promising large rewards for small deeds, except where it is proven in limited instances.
      6. It should not be illogical or contrary to reason.
      7. It should not favour a particular person, group of people, clan, race or Madhab
      8. It should not contain detailed prophecy of future events with specific dates, time and localit
      9. The original content of the hadith should be in Arabic.
    3. Ways in which Muslims can take care of orphans:
      1. Providing them with basic needs such as food, shelter, clothing, medical care and security.
      2. Establishment of endowments (wag) and orphanages by avoiding misappropriation of properties for orphans.
      3. Investing their properties in profitable enterprises
      4. Returning property held in trust to orphans when they attain the age of puberty and discretion (hu)
      5. Establishment of Muslim charities and community based organizations caring for orphans.
      6. Supporting them in the quest for education and providing scholarship to them.
      7. Offering them employment after completing their education to enable them to self-sufficien
      8. By including them in social issues and not discriminating them.
    1. Categories of legal acts in Islamic Law:
      1. Fardh-are obligatory acts, their omission is a sin and commission attracts tha
      2. Wajib essential acts that that enable one to perform fardh acts.
      3. Sunnahb/mandub-Are recommended acts, their commission is rewarded and their omissinon is not punished.
      4. Salih Acts done while fulfilling all the conditions for its validity.
      5. Botil-Acts done without fulling conditions for their validity.
      6. Mbah Acts where a mukala is neither rewarded nor punished.
      7. Halal-Acts which are lawful.
      8. Haram-Acts which are unlawful
      9. Makruh Acts which are disliked by Sharia.
    2. Principles of peaceful co-existence according to Surah Al-Hujurat:
      1. Respect for leaders who are symbols of community togetherness should be upheld. (Q 49:1-5)
      2. Verification of any information received to avoid quarrels and fights that may harm people in the society and threaten their unity. (V6)
      3. Belief in Allah and the teachings of His Prophet lead to a peaceful and law abiding society. (V7)
      4. Acknowledgement of the differences in culture, tribes, nations a way of interacting and tolerating one another. Tolerance towards others regardless of their tribes and culture leads to peace and tranquility in the society. (V 13)
      5. Dignity of all members of the society should be protected. Muslims should not defame others or call them by unacceptable nicknames. (V11)
      6. Making peace between fighting parties and always defending the oppressed. (V9)
      7. Equality before Allah and the law as the Surah exhorts believers to have strong belief in Allah to gain themselves the highest respect.
      8. Living like brothers and seeking reconciliation whenever. aggrieved by others (V 10%)
      9. Avoiding suspicion, people will avoid sowing seeds of animosity and discord. (V 12)
    3. Lessons that a Muslim youth can learn from the life of Imam Shafli:
      1. It is important to memorize the Quran Imam Shaffi memorize the Quran at a tender age.
      2. Muslims should be dedicated in their search of knowledge despite many challenges, they should perservere in the search for knowledge, he travelled far to seek for knowledge.
      3. Muslim scholars should leave their legacy to benefit other Muslims eg. by writing books.
      4. To be successful in life, a Muslim should avoid evil, Imam Shalli shied away from evil deed
      5. Muslims should contribute to the development of Islam through teaching others.
      6. Muslims should promote unity by reconciling divergent views in the society.
      7. Muslims should take up careers as jurists/scholars.
    1. Restrictions of Ihram:
      1. Combing or grooming the hair.
      2. Sexual intercourse and all that can lead to it.
      3. Trimming/shaving/clipping hair.
      4. Use of perfume/ fragrance.
      5. Clipping the nails.
      6. Hunting/killing animals.
      7. Uprooting trees/ cutting grass or green vegetation.
      8. Contracting, witnessing or proposing marriage. 
      9. Wearing sewn garments by men.
      10. Covering one's head (men).
      11. Covering one's face (women).
      12. Vain talk
    2. Benefits of performing Swalar in congregation:
      1. It instils in worshippers a high sense of obedience as they follow the Imam during the Swalah
      2. It creates a sense of equality among Muslims as they stand in prayers regardless of their social status.
      3. It fosters unity and brotherhood among Muslims as they meet and interact during prayers.
      4. It helps Muslims to know about the welfare and whereabouts of others and help one another in case of need.
      5. Helps to strengthen the faith of each individual worshipper as the prayer serves an opportunity that gives dawah/ lectures on islam
      6. Helps Muslims to socialize and know each other and share experiences.
      7. Help Muslims to perfect their back by correcting one another during the prayers.
      8. Praying in jamaa helps in fulfilling one of the Prophets sunnah and thus gain thawab
      9. It promotes punctuality and time consciousness.
      10. Nurtures leadership qualities as only those who are respected are the ones chosen as imams.
    3. Differences between Zakar and Sadaqah
      1. Zakat is compulsory to those who have the means, while Sadaqah is optional.
      2. Zakat recipients must be Muslims while Sadaqah can be given to both Muslim and non-Muslims.
      3. Zakat has specified recipients, while Sadaqah can be given to anyone.
      4. There is a fixed rate of Zakat payment, while any amount can be offered as Sadaqah
      5. There is a minimum amount in which Zakat is payable (nisab), while Sadaqah has no nisab-any amount/ deed may qualify as Sadaqah or act of charity
      6. Zakat is payable on tangible property, while Sadaqah may include good deeds or services eg, smile.
      7. Zakat is a paid of Islam, while Sadaqah is a Sunnah, recommended by the Prophet (P.b.u.h)
      8. Zakat is paid on specific items while sadaqah can be paid on anything
    1. Ways in which hadith is preserved in modern times
      1. It has been written down in volumes of books.
      2. it has been memorized.
      3. It is taught in school and madrasas.
      4. It is recorded in audio visuals eg. cds, flash disks
      5. Muslims have specialized in the science of Hadith.
      6. It is read in sermons and other Islamic gatherings. 
      7. It is preserved on social media the internet eg. Facebook, Whatsapp, special websites.
      8. Muslims organize Hadith memorization competitions.
      9. It is put into practice
      10. It is translated into other languages.
    2. Islamic teachings on rewards by Allah (S.W):
      1. Allah will reward the righteous with paradise.
      2. A person who commits sins and repents thereafter shall be rewarded with forgiveness.
      3. Allah rewards even the smallest of deeds that human beings cannot even feel, sense or sec.
      4. Allah rewards whoever he wills.
      5. Allah may hold on rewarding you here on earth and then reward you abundantly in the hereafter.
      6. Reward for believers is eternal paradise.
      7. Allah rewards believers with his mercy and pleasure
      8. Rewards are determined by the intentions of a person's deeds. 
      9. Allah gives multiple rewards on a single deeds.
      10. Allah changes evil deeds into good deeds
      11. Allah is just
    3. How the belief in oneness of Allah affects the life of a Muslim
      1. It helps a Muslim in observance of the commandments of Allah.
      2. It makes one to obey Allah.
      3. It instills in the heart of a believer satisfaction and hope in life.
      4. It generates in a Muslim a sense of modesty and humility.
      5. It creates in a Muslim the highest degree of self respect and respect for others
      6. It liberates a Muslim from the worship of none other than Allah.
      7. It enhances unity and brotherhood amongst Muslims.
      8. It helps a Muslim develop taqwa.
      9. It makes a person to have a very strong degree of determination, patience and trust in Allah.
      10. It instils courage because Muslims believe that everything happens by the decree of Allah.
      11. It consoles Muslims in terms of hardships and fills their heart with hope in life
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