I.R.E Paper 2 Questions and Answers - KCSE 2022 Past Papers

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    1. Why should Muslims exercise self control? (7 marks)
    2. In which ways can Muslims exercise justice towards their servants? (6 marks)
    3. Discus ways through which Islam helps to combat HIV/AIDS. (7 marks)
    1. Why did Prophet Muhammad (Pb.u.h) marry many wives? (6 marks)
    2. State seven duties of a Muslim wife (7 marks)
    3. State seven factors that facilitated the Prophet's migration to Madina (7 marks)
    1. What is the significance of the observation of Allah by a Muslim woman! (6 marks)
    2. Describe seven ways through which Muslims can combet terrorism. (7 marks)
    3. Identify seven remedies to corruption (7 marks)
    1.  lessons that Muslims learn from the incident of Ir-wal-miiraj. (6 marks)
    2. Describe seven achievements of Prophet Muhammad (Pluh). (6 marks)
    3. State seven contributions of Muslims to education in East Africa in the Twentieth Century (7 marks)
    1. State the achievements of Khalifa Mamus of the Abbasids (7 marks)
    2. Describe factors responsible for the spread of Islam in the interior of Tanzania in the Nineteenth Century.
      (7 marks)
    3. State six contributions of Uthman Dan Fodio to the development of Islam. (6 marks)
    1. Give seven lessons that Muslims leans from the rules of conduct of Imam Al-Ghazali (7 marks)
    2. State six achievements of the Fatimids. (6 marks)
    3. Explain the importance of the conquest of Makka. (7 marks)


    1. Reasons why Muslims should exercise self-control.
      1. Enhances peace and unity in the society.
      2. Strengthens the spirit of brotherhood among Muslims.
      3. Reduces instances of fighting/ quarrelling and possibly killing in the society.
      4. Those who exercise self-control eam respect and admiration and serve as role models in the society.
      5. It was advocated for by the Prophet (P.b.u.h) through his saying that the strong among you is one who is able to control himself in anger.
      6. To emulate the Prophet (Pb.u.h) who was an example in exercising self-control and hidden anger.
      7. Allah has promised reward to those who exercise self-control (03:134)
      8. Self-control prevents human beings from committing bad deeds.
      9. Self control promotes fear of Allah in Muslims
      10. It reduces chances of contracting heart related problems eg. high blood pressure
      11. To enable Muslims develop tranquility, composure and calmness during hardships eg. death, natural calamities etc.
      12. promotes wise decision making
      13.  Those who exercise self-control find it easy to fo give their Adversaries
    2. Ways in which Muslims can exercise justice towards their servants.
      1. By paying them on time.
      2. Allowing them time to rest.
      3. Not overworking them.
      4. Not underpaying them.
      5. Assisting them in their work if possible.
      6. Not discriminating against them.
      7. Being compassionate and kind towards them.
      8. Paying them what is commensurate to their services.
      9. Granting them time off to fulfill religious obligations
      10. By being fair while promoting them.
      11. By allowing them to express themselves freely in case of dissatisfaction.
    3.  Ways through which Islam helps to combat HIV/AIDS
      1. Sex is only allowed within the boundaries of marriage to ensure that people do not engage in illicit relations that can lead to the spread of the virus.
      2. Severe punishment has been prescribed as a deterrent to people from engaging in illicit relationships that can lead to the spread of the virus.
      3. Marriage is highly encouraged in Islam to reduce the chances of people engaging in pre-marital sexual relations that could lead to infection.
      4. Polygamy is allowed in Islam so as to discourage sexual escapades or extra-marital sexual affairs which could lead to infection
      5. Muslim men and women are prohibited from looking at members of the opposite sex with desire so as to prevent them from getting lured into pre-marital and extra marital relationships which could lead to the spread of the virus.
      6. Islam discourages free mixing of different sexes to avoid falling into temptations which could lead to unwanted relationships in Islam.
      7. Islam prohibits intoxicants that interfere with the ability to reason thus minimizing the possibility of one engaging in reckless behavior which could lead to infections.
      8. Islam encourages taking preventive and precautionary measures to minimize the possibility of spreading the virus.
      9. Islam discourages people from engaging in practices that may lead to sexual misconduct eg. brothels, display of nudity, pornography etc.
      10. Islam encourages fasting as a means of diminishing sexual desires for those who are unmarried, instead of engaging in illicit sexual relations which may fuel the spread of HIV and AIDS.
      11. By creating awareness about the effects of HI and AIDS 
      12. Islam demands faithfulness and chastity in marriages
    1. Reasons why Prophet Muhammad (P.b.u.h) married many wives.
      1. To forge political alliance with prominent tribes and clans as a way of strengthening his prophetic mission.
      2. Social rehabilitation of widows whose husbands died in battles.
      3. To give parental care and guidance to orphans.
      4. To abolish certain retrogressive traditions and replace them with humane ones eg the marriage of the prophet to Zainab bint Jahsh.
      5. To demonstrate that Islam permits inter-religious marriages with the people who are monotheistic e.g. swafiyah bint Huya
      6. (a Jew) and Maria-the Copt (a Christian).
      7. As a way of destroying or removing social classes and barriers. He married women from both high and low class.
      8. To teach practically that Islam allows plural marriages, inline with the traditions of most of the prophets who preceded him.
      9. Because Allah granted him special permission to marry more than four wives (Q. 33:50)
      10. As a gesture not to disappoint women who offered themselves to the Prophet (Ph.u.h) e.g. the case of Maimunah
      11. To cement relationship with his companions, eg. his marriage to Aisha daughter of Abubakar and Hafswa, daughter of Umar.
    2. Duties of a Muslim wife.
      1. She should obey her hushand in lawful matters
      2. Should take good care of the husband's property
      3. Should koup her husband's secrets.
      4. Should take care of the children and give them a good Islamic upbringing.
      5. She should protect the honour of her husband by not having relations with other men.
      6. She should not admit anyone in the house whom her husband does not approve
      7. She should treat her husband with respect, love and kindness.
      8. She should avail herself to the husband for intimacy.
      9. She should provide an enabling environment for the husband to get children, i.e. by not taking contraceptives without the knowledge of the husband.
      10. She should always remind her husband to fulfill religious obligations.
    3. Factors that facilitated the Prophet's migration to Madina.
      1. Persecution for Muslims in Makkah had become so intense.
      2. The invitation offered to the Prophet (.b.u.h) by the people of Madina.
      3. The two covenants of Aqabah which assured the Prophet (P.b.u.h) of his protection when he migrates to Makkah.
      4. The tribes of Madina were generally hospitable compared to those in Makkah.
      5. The permission granted by Allah to His prophet to migrate to Madina.
      6. The need for expansion of Islam-Islam had spread in Makkah and by migrating to Madina more Muslims from other regions would embrace Islam.
      7. Madina was a conducive environment for the propagation of Islam.
      8. The boycott imposed on the Muslims weakened them physically and financially and when the opportunity came, the Prophet orde ed his companions to migrate.
      9. The plot by the Qureish to kill the Prophet (Pb.a.h)
    1. Significance of observing Iddah by a Muslim woman
      1. It gives a chance for the separated/ divorced couple to reconsider and reconcile.
      2. It gives an opportunity to determine if there is pregnancy from the previous husband and avoid problems of paternity,
      3. in case of a widow, it is the time for mourning and consolation or grieving,
      4. It gives a chance to the woman to recollect and reflect about her future plans.
      5. It is a show of respect for the deceased husband by the woman.
      6. It is an obligatory act for a woman and a form of worship in case of divorce or widowhood.
      7. It is a sign of sanctity to the institution of marriage where time is given to allow for gradual adjustment in ease of divorce or death of a husband.
    2. Ways through which Muslims can combat terrorism.
      1. Muslims should speak and condemn acts of terror because Islam is a religion of peace.
      2. Creating public awareness through the mass media so as to enlighten the society on the ills of terrorism and also the Islamic stand on terrorism.
      3. Reporting any persons suspected to be supporting or engaging in acts of terrorism to the relevant authorities.
      4. Terrorism as a topie taught in IRE in schools, this inculcates the knowledge on terror and its effects in children
      5. Muslims should neither support nor engage in acts of terrorism as it is both a crime and a sin, they should be beyond reproach.
      6. Organizing campaigns, seminars, workshops and talks to advice and counsel the youth against radicalization which leads to acts of terrorism.
      7. Muslims should cooperate and work hand in hand with govemment agencies, provide useful information that can guard against terrorism.
      8. To lobby the govemment to address the root cause of terrorism eg creating employment opportunities for the youth.
      9. Advocate for stiff punishment for those involved in terrorism
      10. Inculcating a sense of patriotism in the youth.
      11. Rewarding those who report cases of terrorism.
    3. Remedies to curruption
      1. Muslims should neither accept nor give bribes. They should be beyond reproach, as a far as the issue of corruption is concerned.
      2. By reporting those involved in corruption to the relevant authorities so that action can be taken them.
      3. For those in authority, appointments should be on merit, on one should be promoted procedurally, there should be no nepotism.
      4. Through advocating for good governance, fairness and justice in all dealings. Muslims should always be the first to speak and oppo e injustice and corruption.
      5. Creating public awareness through the mass media so as to enlighten the society on the ills of corruption.
      6. Corruption as a topic taught in schools-this inculcates good morals in children hence they cannot engage in corruption.
      7. Advocating for severe punishment for those engaged in corrupt deals so as to deter the rest of the community.
      8. Device effective ways/ measures to recover proceeds of corrupt on back to the state/society.
    1. Lessons that Muslims learn from the incident of Isra-wal-miraj
      1. Allah is the most powerful, He took the Prophet from Makkah to Jerusalem and to heaven in one night hence Muslims should rely on Allah.
      2. Miracles exist, it was possible for the Prophet to take the long journey in one night which was practically not possible, hence Muslims should never give up.
      3. Muslims should obey Allah's commands, the Prophet was shown people who were in hell because of disobedience of Allah's commands.
      4. Righteous people will he rewarded with paradise.
      5. Everything is possible through Allah.
      6. Islam is a true religion.
      7. Muslims should perform the five daily prayers
      8. It affirms that prophet Muhammad was the chosen leader as he le all the prophets in prayer in Bait Al Maqdis
      9. Muslims should trust and believe in all what the prophet says without questioning as was the case with Abubakar (RA)
      10. It confirmed that there is life after death as the Prophet was hown paradise and hell fire
      11. Allah honors the pious and those he loves as was the case with the Prophet (P.h.uh)
    2. Achievements of Prophet Muhamad (Pb.u.h.)
      1. He completed his mission of spreading Islam.
      2. Advocated for and promoted peaceful coexistence with people of diverse tribes and nations.
      3. Established an Ummah with its laws and regulations.
      4. Advocated for unity among all people
      5. Promoted rights of all people e.g. women, slaves.
      6. Advocated for Muslim brotherhood by declaring the Ansar and Muhajinan as brothers.
      7. Taught quality of mankind and discouraged racism.
      8. Ended the age of ignorance by banning barbaric and unjust way of life.
      9. He brought an end to idol worship and instituted whic
      10. Through him, the world was bequeathed with the Quran divine and everlasting book.
      11. He elevated the status of women in Islam.
      12. He advocated for religious tolerance.
      13. He facilitated conversion of many people to Islam.
    3. Contributions of Muslims to education in East Africa in the 20 Century
      1. Establishment of learning institutions e.g. schools and Madrassa.
      2. Participation in formulating Education policies through their membership in education boards.
      3. They have produced notable personalities who have played a key role in the development of education e.g. Ali Mazrui, Sheikh Abdalla Saleh Farsy.
      4. Sponsoring students in leaming institutions by way of paying school fees and upkeep.
      5. Establishment of integrated learning institutions where both religious and secular education is taught.
      6. Contribution in research in various fields e.g, medicine as wel as producing scholarly writings.
      7. Educated Muslims act as role models to be emulated by the youth. 
      8. Establishment of institutions of higher learning which provide education to all e.g. Umma University, Islamic University in Uganda
      9. esblishment of awqaaf (trusts, religious endowments) in support of education and learning
      10. Helped in the introduction of IRH an Arabic in the curriculum.
      11. Establishment of libraries to promote learning eg. Jamia Mosque library
      12. Translation of Islamic books from Arabic into other local languages
    1. Achievements of Khalifa Maaman of the Abbasids
      1. Encouraged the establishment of both private and public libraries.
      2. Financed the writing of books and supported scholars by giving them stipends.
      3. The supported both Muslim and non muslim scholars.
      4. He enconged women to attend school.
      5. Established schools even in private houses. Established Bait-l- Hilma which was an important learning centre.
      6. He financed research
      7. Encouraged pursuit of knowledge by allowing people to attend scholarly discussions in his court.
      8. During his reign, works of scholars like Plato, Aristotle, and Galileo were translated into Arabic for easy understanding
      9. He was tolerant towards followers of other faiths by allowing them to hold public office and established a council of state wh representation from all religions.
      10. He expanded the empire by defeating the Byzantines and conquered the Islands Crete and Sicily.
      11. There was economic prosperity and trade flourished during his ule.
      12. He built a strong and standing army to protect the caliphate.
      13. He improved infrastructure by building roads bridges and canals.
    2. Factors responsible for the spread of Islam in the interior of Tanzania in the Nineteenth century.
      1. Muslim traders established inland trading posts which facilitated interaction with locals hence spread of Islam.
      2. Chief Mirambo of the Nyamwezi tribe had good relations with the Arab traders, he allowed them to build a Swahili town in his kingdom hence facilitating the spread of Islam.
      3. Many of the tribal chiefs e.g. Jumbes, Akidas embraced Islam and encouraged their people to do likewise.
      4. The people who served as porters, messengers, labourers, soldiers in the caravans led by Arahs and Europeans played a significant role in the spread of Islam in the interior of Tanzania.
      5. Arab and Swahili traders intermarried with the locals hence spreading Islam.
      6. Building of Mosques and Quranic schools in the interior eg. in Ujiji facilitated the spread of Islam.
      7. Colonialists who built infrastructure and sound administration enabled Muslims to venture into the interior hence spread of Islam.
      8. Use of Kiswahili language made communication easier between the locals and Muslim traders hence facilitated the spread of Islam.
      9. Quran teachers who ventured into the interior for purposes of teaching the religion facilitated its spread.
      10. The local community admired the culture of Muslims hence embracing Islam
    3. Contributions of Uthman Dan Fodio to the development of Islam.
      1. He devoted his time in educating the masses on the fundamentals of Islam through public lectures, sermons in Gobir sod surrounding areas. His teachings and exemplary life
        (he led a simple life) attracted people to Islam.
      2. He had a strong following, the Jaman with whom he conquered large territories which he reorganized into a caliphate-Sokoto capital.
      3. The establishment of the caliphate brought peace and stability which were not only necessary for reconstruction but for the spread and development of Islam.
      4. He revived and strengthened Islam in the Caliphate by giving it new impetus. The masses abandoned their traditional practices (funeral, dress, eating) for the Islamic practices.
      5. He was a scholar. He authored many works in Hausa and Arabic which contributed to Islamic learning and intellectual development.
      6. He reformed Islam by getting rid of and discouraging non-Islamic practices e.g. female circumcision, playing of music instruments.
      7. He uplifted the social status of women and championed women education, His wives and daughters were well educated.
      8. He was a fervent advocate of education for all (men and women). He encouraged the masses to have basic education in Islamic education by leaming Figh, Tawheed and history. Learning spread through the Caliphate and new converts were able to read the Quran.
      9. He advocated for pure Islam and fought against extremism.
      10. He appealed to the people to accept the schools of law (Madhabs).
      11. His mastery of Arabic, Hausa, Fulani and Tuwadic languages made it easy for him to communicate his ideas and philosophy throughout the caliphate.
      12. He strengthened the relationship between his caliphate and the rest of the Muslim world.
      13. He established and strengthened his relationship with Muslim scholars.
      14. His leadership and reforms had influence in the future general ons today Islam is strong in Northem Nigeria.
      15. Through the efforts and influence of Dan Fodio many Nigerian -Hausas, Fulani, Nupe, Yoruba converted from the traditional African religion to Islam.
    1. Lessons that Muslims can learn from Ghazali's rules of conduct
      1. Muslims must have good intentions in all their undertakings.
      2. Unity of purpose should be the basis of anything a Muslim wishes to do
      3. Muslims must uphold truth and work towards eradication of falsehood.
      4. Muslims should desist from selfish desires
      5. Muslims should adhere to the Sunnah of the Prophet (Pbuh) and shy away from all innovations.
      6. Muslims should be active and responsible in their duties without undue delay procrastination.
      7. Muslims should place all their dependence on Allah
      8. Muslims should strive at all given times to do good deeds and always seek the mercy of Allah to accept their deeds.
      9. Muslims should be steadfast in Ibadah e.g. prayers, as this is the only way a Muslim can get closer to Allah.
      10. Muslims should always reflect upon their inner self as a mean of getting closer to Allah.
      11. Muslims should seek the inner and outer knowledge of Allah.
    2. Achievements of Fattimids.
      1. Improvement of infrastructure e.g. the building of bridges, buildings and canals in Egypt.
      2. The fattimids established Al-Azhar University, which became one of the earliest institutions of higher learning in the world.
      3. They founded Darul Hikma which had a library and facilitated the growth of Muslim scholars and Islamic scholarship.
      4. They patronized Muslim scholars in various sciences eg Ali bin Hassan Al-Haitham who became a great physist and Optician.
      5. They promoted the development of Islamic architecture and art with great distinction e.g. the great mosque of Al-Azhar.
      6. The Fatimids also excelled in other aesthetic sciences such as arts, Muslim drawings, design, ceramics and carvings.
      7. They established a strong naval force which helped in defending the dynasty from external threats.
      8. Fatimids extended the territorial spread of Islam to other countries such as to Syria, Palestine and Hijaz
      9. The Fattimids distinguished themselves as most tolerant to other Muslims who did not belong to Shia faith.
      10. They introduced Islamic celebrations such as Milad un Nabi.
      11. Textile industry flourished during their time
      12. They improved Agriculture through irrigation systems.
      13. They improved postal services in the area.
      14. They advanced the field of lincesture and writing 
    3. Importance of the conquest of Makka.
      1. It allowed Muslims access to their holy city.
      2. The Prophet (P.b.u.h) was finally able to defeat the Quraish showing triumph of truth over falschood.
      3. Enabled the Prophet to clean the Kaaba and get rid of the idols.
      4. Signified the end of idol worship and establishment of tawhid
      5. Proved that the Prophet (Pb.u.h) was a great and true leader of Islam.
      6. It was a victory for Muslims from Allah, a victory they attained after years of suffering
      7. The Muslims could now be reunited with their relatives whom they had left in Makka.
      8. It led to conversion of many people to Islam.
      9. It demonstrated Islam as the religion of peace as the Prophet and Muslims conquered Makka without bloodshed and pardoned their enemies.
      10. Islam gained fame and respect from other nations.
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