GEOGRAPHY PAPER 2 - 2020 KCSE PREDICTION SET 1 (QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS)

Share via Whatsapp

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

  • This paper has two sections; A and B.
  • Answer ALL the questions in section A.
  • In section B answer questions 6 and any other TWO questions.

SECTION A

Answer ALL the questions in this section.

  1.  
    1. State two factors that favour the growth of softwood forests in Kenya. (2mks)
    2. Explain how forests help to conserve water catchment area. (2mks)
  2. Give three reasons why it is important to study Geography. (3mks)
  3.  
    1. State two human factors that favour fishing. (2mks)
    2. Name three major fresh water fishing grounds in East Africa. (3mks)
  4.  
    1. Give three advantages of mechanization of agriculture. (3mks)
    2. State three consequences of high dependence on agriculture in the developing countries. (3mks)
  5.  
    1.  
      1. Why is it necessary to conserve water? (2mks)
      2. How does terracing help in water conservation? (2mks)
    2. State four effects of wind as an environmental hazard in Kenya. (4mks)

SECTION B

Answer question and any other TWO questions from this section.

  1. Study the photograph provided and use it to answer the questions below;
    (Secondary Geography form four Student’s Book Fourth Edition, page 43 Fig. 3.12)
    Webp.net compress image 6
    1. Name:
      1. The fishing method shown in the photograph. (1mk)
      2. Two examples of fish that may be caught using this method. (2mks)
    2. Describe how the fishing method shown in the photograph provided is used to fish. (5mks)
    3.  
      1. Give three methods used to preserve fish. (3mks)
      2. Explain how the following factors favour fishing.
        • Indented coastline. (2mks)
        • Ocean currents. (2mks)
    4.  
      1. Outline four ways in which marine fisheries in Kenya can be conserved. (4mks)
      2. Explain three problems experienced by fishermen while fishing in Lake Victoria. (6mks)
  2.  
    1. State three physical conditions that favour coffee growing in the central highlands of Kenya. (3mks)
    2. Describe the stages involved in coffee production from picking to marketing. (8mks)
    3. Explain four problems facing coffee farming in Brazil. (8mks)
    4. Your Geography class carried out a field study on a coffee farm.
      1. State four methods the class may have used to collect data. (4mks)
      2. During the field study, the class collected data on quantities of coffee produced in the farm in the last five years. State two methods the class may have used to present the data. (2mks)
  3.  
    1.  
      1. What is irrigation? (2mks)
      2. State two types of irrigation. (2mks)
      3. Outline three physical factors that influenced the location of Perkerra Irrigation Scheme. (3mks)
    2. Explain the following physical problems facing irrigation farming in Kenya;
      1. Excess amount of water. ( 2mks)
      2. Soil erosion. (2mks)
      3. Weeds.    (2mks)
    3.  
      1. Apart from afforestation and reafforestation name three other methods used to rehabilitate land. (3mks)
      2. Mention three factors that facilitated land reclamation in the Netherlands. (3mks)
    4. Give the differences in the methods of land reclamation in Kenya and the Netherlands under the following sub – headings;
      1. Methods of reclamation. (2mks)
      2. Reasons for reclamation. (2mks)
      3. Area of reclamation.          (2mks)
  1.  
    1.  
      1. List two characteristics of gold. (2mks)
      2. Why is gold the world’s most valuable mineral? (1mk)
    2.  
      1. Name the world’s leading country produce of gold. (1mk)
      2. Identify the main gold mining area in South Africa. (1mk)
      3. Describe how gold occurs in South Africa.           (3mks)
    3. Which is the most appropriate method of mining gold in South Africa, the reason for the   method. (2mks)
    4.  
      1. Describe how gold is processed in South Africa. (5mks)
      2. five significance of gold mining in South Africa. (10mks)
  2.  
    1. What is eco-tourism? (2mks)
    2.  
      1. Give four tourist attraction found at the coast of Kenya. (4mks)
      2. State five problems associated with tourism in Kenya.             (5mks)
    3. State four ways in which game reserves are of benefits to the communities living near them. (4mks)
    4. Explain the difference between tourism in Kenya and Switzerland. (10mks)


MARKING SCHEME

  1.  
    1. State two factors that favour the growth of softwood forests in Kenya. (2mks)
      • Cool climate.
      • High rainfall/1000 – 1500mm
      • Rugged terrain/steep slopes/highlands
      • Fertile Volcanic soils
      • Large local market.
    2. Explain how forests help to conserve water catchment area. (2mks)
      • Forests increase the rate of percolation increasing underground water which is a source of rivers.
      • Forests create micro-climate through evapotranspiration increasing the amount of rainfall received in an area.
      • Forests check warm moist wind which rise, cool forming clouds hence rainfall.
  1. Give three reasons why it is important to study Geography. (3mks)
    • Provides knowledge about the immediate/wider environment.
    • It makes us to understand the earth on which we live.
    • It creates awareness about the country/rest of the world.
    • It promotes international understanding.
    • It promotes awareness on the sustainable use of resources.
    • It promotes development of skill/critical thinking.
    • It prepares one for career opportunities.
  1.  
    1. State two human factors that favour fishing. (2mks)
      • Ready market by high population since fish is a perishable.
      • Availability of labour since fish is labour intensive.
      • Adequate capital for hiring labour force, buying fishing equipment and preservation facilities.
      • Modern fishing equipments like refrigerated ships trawl nets, fish detecting equipment etc.
      • Transport and preservation facilities like roads, refrigerated lorries and ship being perishable.
    2. Name three major fresh water fishing grounds in East Africa. (3mks)
      • Victoria
      • Tanganyika
      • Turkana
      • Naivasha
      • Baringo
      • Kyoga
  1.  
    1. Give three advantages of mechanization of agriculture. (3mks)
      • Extensive use of land.
      • High yields/ high productivity.
      • Soil extensively opened up.
      • Surplus production of food.
      • Better seed method through intensive research.
      • Increases the Gross Domestic Product.
    2. State three consequences of high dependence on agriculture in the developing Countries. (3mks)
      • It leads to hunger in case of drought.
      • It leads to high dependence on genetically modified seeds.
      • High population trends that hinders expansion of agriculture.
  1.  
    1.  
      1. Why is it necessary to conserve water? (2mks)
        • To ensure that there is supply for the present and the future generations.
        • To maintain the hydrological cycle.
      2. How does terracing help in water conservation? (2mks)
        • By reducing surface run-off which ensures that rain water seeps slowly into the ground/infiltration and percolation.
    2. State four effects of wind as an environmental hazard in Kenya. (4mks)
      • Strong winds destroy trees/crops.
      • Winds blow off roofs of houses.
      • Winds cause strong sea storms and lead to boats capsizing.
      • Winds cause soil erosion.
      • Winds spread air borne diseases.
      • Winds spread bush fires.
  1. Study the photograph provided and use it to answer the questions below;
    1. Name:
      1. The fishing method shown in the photograph. (1mk)
        • Hand line/Hook and line
      2. Two examples of fish that may be caught using this method. (2mks)
        • Catfish
        • Eels
    2. Describe how the fishing method shown in the photograph provided is used to fish. (5mks)
      • A fishing line with a baited hook is put into the Lake/river.
      • The fish are attracted by the bait which they swallow together with the hook.
      • The line is pulled from the water together with the fish.
      • The fish is removed from the hook.
      • The hook is baited and put back into the water.
    3. Give three methods used to preserve fish. (3mks)
      • Sun drying.
    4. Explain how the following factors favour fishing.
      1. Indented coastline.    (2mks)
        • Provide secure breeding grounds for fish because the bays are sheltered from sea waves.
        • The sheltered bays provide suitable sites for building fishing ports/fish landing sites.
      2. Ocean currents.                     (2mks)
        • The meeting of cold and warm ocean currents causes upwelling of ocean water which brings plankton/fish food to the surface.
        • Cool waters provide ideal water temperature for survival of numerous species of fish/ growth of planktons.
    5.  
      1. Outline four ways in which marine fisheries in Kenya can be conserved. (4mks)
        • To increase the fish number/restocking the over – fished areas by breeding fingerlings in fish farms and then release them into the sea.
        • Standardizing the size of nets to ensure that only the mature fish are caught.
        • Restricting the disposal of untreated waste into the sea to ensure that the water remains clean for survival of fish.
        • Enforcing the international conventions in order to protect the endangered fish species.
        • Licensing fishermen to control their numbers and ensure that there is no over – fishing.
        • Restricting fishing to specific seasons to allow for breeding and maturing of fish/ensuring natural regeneration of fish.
      2. Explain three problems experienced by fishermen while fishing in Lake Victoria. (6mks)
        • The occurrence of strong winds/thunder storms lead to high waving causing accidental drowning/destruction of fishing vessels and nets.
        • Most fishermen have poor fishing equipment/motor boat engines which are inefficient leading to low catch/delayed landing.
        • Fishermen have inappropriate storage/preservation facilities that cause losses of the landed catch/leads to low catch.
        • Presence of floating vegetation/water hyacinth that entangle and tear the fishing nets/hinder movement of fishing vessels.
        • Parts of the lake shores are swampy/marshy making the landing of the catch difficult.
        • Insecurity/theft of fish and fishing equipment discourages the fishermen.
  1.  
    1. State three physical conditions that favour coffee growing in the central highlands of Kenya. (3mks)
      • High/well distributed rainfall/1000 – 1500mm.
      • Deep fertile volcanic soils.
      • Cool climate throughout the year.
      • Land has gentle slopes that allow proper drainage.
    2. Describe the stages involved in coffee production from picking to marketing. (8mks)
      • The ripe/deep red berries are picked by hand.
      • The harvested berries are carried in baskets/sacks to the factory.
      • The berries are sorted out to remove the unripe/diseased.
      • The berries are graded into grade A and B.
      • The graded berries are weighed.
      • Berries go through a machine that removes the outer covering/pulp.
      • The beans are fermented into tanks for some time.
      • The beans are washed and then sun dried for about a week.
      • The husks are removed and the beans winnowed.
      • The beans are sorted out and graded according to size and quality.
      • The beans are roasted at temperatures of about 1000
      • The beans are ground into powder and packaged ready for sale.
        Sequence should be followed.
    3. Explain four problems facing coffee farming in Brazil. (8mks)
      • The wasteful techniques of growing the crop leads to soil exhaustion which makes the coffee yield per hectare low.
      • Unregulated cultivation leads to soil exhaustion.
      • Climatic hazards/frost destroy coffee plants/reducing the yields.
      • Unplanned planting leads to over production/surplus production which lowers the prices.
      • The fluctuation of coffee prices in the world market. Sometimes leads to low profits still competition from other coffee producing countries reduces Brazil’s dominance in the world coffee market.
    4. Your Geography class carried out a field study on a coffee farm.
      1. State four methods the class may have used to collect data. (4mks)
        • Administering questionnaires.
        • Interviewing/asking questions.
        • Taking photographs/video taping.
        • Taking measurement.
        • Collecting samples.
        • Content analysis.
      2. During the field study, the class collected data on quantities of coffee produced in the farm in the last five years. State two methods the class may have used to present the data. (2mks)
        • Drawing charts.
        • Drawing tables.
        • Drawing graphs.
  1.  
    1.  
      1. What is irrigation? (2mks)
        • It is the artificial method of supplying water to a region which receives inadequate rainfall or to ensure continuous crop production.
      2. State two types of irrigation. (2mks)
        • Overland/trickle/drip irrigation.
        • Overhead/sprinkle irrigation.
        • Canal/furrow irrigation.
        • Basin/flood irrigation.
      3. Outline three physical factors that influenced the location of Perkerra Irrigation Scheme. (3mks)
        • Presence of R. Perkerra for constant supply of water for irrigation to the scheme.
        • Gentle sloping land that facilitates easy flow of water to the fields’ gravity/for mechanization.
        • Fertile loamy soils on which variety of crops can be grown/reduces use of fertilizers.
        • Semi arid conditions of the area which necessitated the use of irrigation for food production.
        • Extensive area of land for large scale cultivation of crops.
    2. Explain the following physical problems facing irrigation farming in Kenya;
      1. Excess amount of water. ( 2mks)
        • If the amount of water going into the field is uncontrolled properly the land becomes flooded and the crops may be ruined lowering the yields.
      2. Soil erosion. (2mks)
        • Flooding of the fields leads to sheet erosion.
        • Hot, dry places where overhead irrigation is practiced, the high rate of evaporation leads to increased accumulation of salts in the top soil.
        • Leaching of nutrients from the topsoil occurs when water is seeping through leading to low yields.
      3. Weeds.                   (2mks)
        • Permanent flooding of the canals encourages aquatic weeds to grow, leading to reduced water flow.
        • Water distribution to the farms is interfered with by the weeds.
    3.  
      1. Apart from afforestation and reafforestation name three other methods used to rehabilitate land. (3mks)
        • Bush fallowing.
        • Grass strips and cover crops.
        • Application of manure and fertilizer.
        • Controlled grazing.
        • Filling quarries.
        • Drainage trenches.
        • Planting drought resistant crops.
      2. Mention three factors that facilitated land reclamation in the Netherlands. (3mks)
        • Shortage of land for settlement, farming, roads, industrial construction and development of town.
        • Frequent floods.
        • Need to shorten the coastline using dykes and dams.
        • Creation of fresh water lakes e.g L. Ijssel to provide water for domestic and industrial use.
        • An improved drainage system due to poor drainage.
        • Increased salinity along the coast.
    4. Give the differences in the methods of land reclamation in Kenya and the Netherlands under the following sub – headings;
      1. Methods of reclamation. (2mks)
        • In Kenya many methods are used i.e. irrigation, tsetse fly control, afforestation and reafforestation while in the Netherlands few methods are used i.e. canals, dams and dykes are used.
      2. Reasons for reclamation. (2mks)
        • In Kenya is due to low rainfall, swampy conditions and tsetse fly infestation while in Netherlands sea water.
      3. Area of reclamation.        (2mks)
        • In Kenya area reclaimed is less in acreage/small scale while in Netherlands was a large acreage/large scale.
  1.  
    1.  
      1. List two characteristics of gold. (2mks)
        • Gold is shiny.
        • Gold is yellow in colour.
        • Gold is a metal.
        • Gold is rustless.
        • Gold is soft and hardens when it is mixed with other metals.
      2. Why is gold the world’s most valuable mineral? (1mk)
        • It is widely used on the basis of world currencies and making jewellery.
    2.  
      1. Name the world’s leading country produce of gold. (1mk)
        • South Africa
      2. Identify the main gold mining area in South Africa. (1mk)
        • Witwatersrand
      3. Describe how gold occurs in South Africa.           (3mks)
        • Gold occurs as small grains in a hard rock.
        • Gold bearing rock is found deep below the surface of the earth.
    3. Which is the most appropriate method of mining gold in South Africa, the reason for the   method. (2mks)
      • Underground mining.
      • Reason: Gold bearing rock is found deep below the surface of the earth.
    4.  
      1. Describe how gold is processed in South Africa. (5mks)
        • The ore is crushed into fine powder.
        • The fine powder is stirred in a solution of sodium cyanide to dissolve the particles of gold.
        • The cyanide solution is then mixed with Zinc dust to make the gold precipitate.
        • The gold is then melted and molded into bars.
        • During the purifying process uranium which occurs in association with the gold is also extracted.
      2. Explain five significance of gold mining in South Africa. (10mks)
        • It is exported earning the country foreign exchange. Used for paying foreign debts.
        • It offers employment in mines, research, and transport sector earning income thus raising their standards of living.
        • It has led to widespread of urbanization forming Witwatersrand conurbation.
        • It has led to a broad market for other industries i.e engineering, foot wear, electrical and construction industries.
        • It has led to improvement of social amenities i.e roads, schools and hospitals giving service to people.
  2.  
    1. What is eco-tourism? (2mks)
      • It is the development and management of tourism while conserving the environment.
    2.  
      1. Give four tourist attraction found at the coast of Kenya. (4mks)
        • Marine parks.
        • Historical sites
        • Sandy beaches/coral reefs/coastal scenery/Indian ocean.
        • Sunny/warm climate.
        • Traditional culture.
        • Water sports/beach sports.
      2. State five problems associated with tourism in Kenya. (5mks)
        • It has led to increase in drug abuse.
        • A number of youths especially at the Coast have dropped out of school to become tent guides/beach boys/sex workers/curio sellers.
        • It has led to the spread of diseases such as S.T.Is.
        • It has led to pollution of environment/National parks/game reserves.
        • It has led to increase in crime/insecurity.
        • It has encouraged poaching/ illegal collection of marine resources.
        • It has led to international terrorism/piracy.
        • It has led to erosion of some social values/culture.
    3. State four ways in which game reserves are of benefits to the communities living near them. (4mks)
      • The game reserves offer employment opportunities to the communities living near them.
      • The management of the game reserves provides social amenities to the communities.
      • The communities are allowed to graze their animals in the game reserves.
      • Access roads to the game reserves benefit the communities.
      • The income earned from the game reserves by the local authorities is used to provide services to the communities.
      • Sometimes members of the community are given meat when animals have been culled.
      • Educational Institutions located near the game reserves have easy access to educational tours.
      • There is increased market by the tourists for local products.
    4. Explain the difference between tourism in Kenya and Switzerland. (10mks)
      Kenya
      • Tropical climate which is warm and sunny most of the year for sun bathing.
      • Varied and beautiful coastal Scenery/Rift Valley/Volcanic Mountains etc.
      • Being far from Europe gets fewer tourists.
      • Reports on insecurity scare away potential tourists.
      • Poorly maintained transport network making it difficult to access some tourist sites.
      • Few international languages hence communication with the tourists is sometime limited.
      • Training of personnel in tourism industry is advanced providing quality services.
      • Kenya has coastal beaches.
      • Animals are found in the habitats.

      Switzerland
      • Temperate climate with cold winters which encourages winter sports.
      • Varied scenery consisting of snow- capped mountains glaciated landscape.
      • Centrally located in Europe get more tourists.
      • Reports of peaceful atmosphere in Switzerland encourage more tourists.
      • Transport network is more efficient.
      • Diversity of languages spoken makes it possible for tourists to communicate with ease.
      • Training of personnel in tourism industry is more advanced, providing higher quality services.
      • It has lakeside beaches.
      • Animals are found in zoos.

Download GEOGRAPHY PAPER 2 - 2020 KCSE PREDICTION SET 1 (QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS).


Tap Here to Download for 50/-




Why download?

  • ✔ To read offline at any time.
  • ✔ To Print at your convenience
  • ✔ Share Easily with Friends / Students


Join our whatsapp group for latest updates
Get on WhatsApp Download as PDF
.
Subscribe now

access all the content at an affordable rate
or
Buy any individual paper or notes as a pdf via MPESA
and get it sent to you via WhatsApp

 

What does our community say about us?

Join our community on:

  • easyelimu app
  • Telegram
  • facebook page
  • twitter page
  • Pinterest