# Geography Paper 2 Questions and Answers - Cekana Mock Exams 2023

INSTRUCTIONS

• This paper consists of TWO sections A and B
• Answer ALL questions in Section A. In section B answer QUESTION 6 and any other TWO.
• Answer all questions in English.

## QUESTIONS

SECTION A (25mks)
Answer all questions in this section

1.
1. Differentiate between forestry and agro forestry (2mks)
2. State three significance of forest products to Kenya (3mks)
2.
1. Give two ways in which fertility influence population (2mks)
2. State three consequences of high population growth rate (3mks)
3. The sketch map below shows the Great Lakes and ST. Lawrence Seaway. Use it to answer question a
1.  Name;

1. The lake marked J (1mk)
2. The river marked K (1mk)
3. the port marked L and M (2mks)
2.  Give two reasons why it is difficult to transport goods from Mombasa to Lagos by road (2mks)
4.
1. What is geothermal power? (2mks)
2.  Name two areas in Kenya which is potential for producing geothermal power (2mks)
5.
1. Give two causes of floods (2mks)
2. State three measures which can be undertaken to reduce the destruction caused by floods (3mks)

SECTION B
Answer question 6 and any other two questions in this section

1. The table below shows the value in terms of billions US Dollars of Kenya’s Import and Export between the year 2003 and 2008. Use it to answer the questions bellow
 Years Value in Billion US Dollars 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Imports 3.00 3.70 4.10 5.10 6.60 8.54 Exports 2.10 2.50 2.58 3.17 3.60 4.10 TOTAL 31.04 18.05

Years Value in Billion US Dollars
Value of Kenya’s Import and Export
1.
1. Calculate the balance of payment in the year 2008 (2mks)
2. Using a scale of 1cm to represent 0.5 billion, draw a simple comparative bar graph on the data above from the year 2005 to 2008 (8mks)
3. A part from comparative bar graph, name two other methods that can be used to represent the above data (2mks)
4. State two reasons why Kenya’s export is generally low (2mks)
2.
1. List three major imports to Kenya from Japan (3mks)
2. Explain four measures the Kenyan government is taking to reduce the unfavorable balance of trade (8mks)
2.
1.
1. State four characteristics of nomadic pastoralism (4mks)
2. Name three beef cattle breeds kept in Kenya (3mks)
2. Compare beef farming in Kenya and Argentina (8mks)
3. Explain three problems facing beef farming in Kenya (6mks)
4. State four measures that the government of Kenya has taken to improve beef farming (4mks)
3.
1. Distinguish between an urban settlement and rural settlement (2mks)
2. State two factors which influence the development of each the following patterns of settlement (2mks)
1. Dispersed settlement pattern (2mks)
2. Linear settlement pattern (2mks)
3. Explain four factors that influenced the location of Mombasa town (8mks)
4.
1. Outline four ways in which the port of Mombasa and Rotterdam differ (8mks)
2. State three benefits of urbanization (3mks)
4.
1.
1. What is domestic tourism (2mks)
2. Explain four factors which are hindering domestic tourism in Kenya (8mks)
2. State five reasons why domestic tourism should be encouraged in Kenya (5mks)
3. Explain three factors which have made Switzerland a major tourist destination in Europe (6mks)
4. State four problems associated with tourism in Kenya (4mks)
5. The map below shows some location of some minerals in East Africa

1. Name the minerals mined in the area marked J, K and L. (3mks)
2.
1. Identify two provinces where gold is mined in South Africa (2mks)
2. Describe the processing of gold from the time the ore is lifted to the surface (5mks)
3. Explain four contribution of gold to South Africa (8mks)
4. State three problems of diamond mining in South Africa (3mks)
5. Explain two effects of mining on the environment (4mks)

## MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A

1.
1. Differentiate between forestry and agro forestry (2mks)
Forestry is the practice /science of managing and using trees /forests and their associated resources while agro forestry is the growing of trees and crops in same area at the same time.
2. State three significance of forest products to Kenya (3mks)
• Firewood and charcoal used in cooking / tea factories.
• Indigenous hardwood used for fencing /furniture/construction
• Barks used in basket making
• Some woods for wooden utensils, stools, carving
• Sawdust used in block wood and plywood boards
• Trees are raw materials for pulps and paper industry
• Tannins from barks are used for treatment of hides and skins
• Some plants are medicinal
• Pine/ African cedar/wattle are raw materials for making matches
2.
1. Give two ways in which fertility influence population (2mks)
• High fertility rate leads to positive growth in population
• Low fertility rate leads to low population growth
2.  State three consequences of high population growth rate (3mks)
• High dependency ratio
• High unemployment rate
• Increased crime rates
• Increase demand of social amenities
• Increased demand for food
• Increased demand for agricultural land
• Reduction in revenue for development projects
3.
1. The sketch map below shows the Great Lakes and ST. Lawrence Seaway. Use it to answer question a
1. Superior (1mk)
2. R----Ottawa (1mk)
L—Buffalo (1mk)
M----Quebec (1mk)
2. Give two reasons why it is difficult to transport goods from Mombasa to Lagos by road (2mks)
• There are civic wars / banditry along the way e.g. D.R.C
• Tariffs charged at border points increase transport cost
• There are political differences and hostilities between some countries through which the highway passes
• There is long distance along the two parts which would take long time
• Some parts of the highway are impassable during the wet seasons
4.
1. What is geothermal power? (2mks)
Geothermal power is electricity which is generated from the earth’s internal heat that reaches the surface through geysers and hot springs
2. Name two areas in Kenya which is potential for producing geothermal power (2mks)
• Olkaria
• Eburu
• L. Bogoria
5.
1. Give two causes of floods (2mks)
• Excess water in the river channels
• Rise in the level of water in sea/ocean/lake due to increased rainfall
2. State three measures which can be undertaken to reduce the destruction caused by floods (3mks)
• Construction of dams across the river channels
• Re-aforestation
• Dredging river channels to increase depth
• Construction of dykes along the river channel

SECTION B

1. The table below shows the value in terms of billions US Dollars of Kenya’s Import and Export between the year 2003 and 2008. Use it to answer the questions below
 Years Value in Billion US Dollars 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Imports 3.00 3.70 4.10 5.10 6.60 8.54 Exports 2.10 2.50 2.58 3.17 3.60 4.10 TOTAL 31.04 18.05

1.
1. Calculate the balance of payment in the year 2008 (2mks)
4.10-8.54 = \$ 4.44 billions (deficit)
2. Using a scale of 1cm to represent 0.5 billion, draw a simple comparative bar graph on the data above from the year 2005 to 2008 (8mks)
3. A part from comparative bar graph, name two other methods that can be used to represent the above data (2mks)
• Pie chart
• Proportional circles
• Divided rectangles
• Compound bar graphs
4. State two reasons why Kenya’s export is generally low (2mks)
• There are fixed quotas for some Kenyan exports at international markets
• Prices of some Kenyan goods are determined in the world market /externally determined
• International prices keep n changing from year to year affecting the exports.
• Some products Kenyan exports are inferior in quality
• Most Kenyan exports are in raw form fetching low prices
• Competition from other producing countries which export better similar goods
2.
1. List three major imports to Kenya from Japan (3mks)
• Watches /precision instruments
• Textile
• Automobile/vehicle parts
• Machinery/electronic appliances /electrical / Tvs /Radios
Musical instruments
2. Explain four measures the Kenyan government is taking to reduce the unfavorable balance of trade (8mks)
• The government is encouraging the development of Jua kali /SMEs which does not require the importation of expensive heavy machinery so that it can also export the products to the regional COMESA.
• The government is diversifying the agricultural export base on to enable the country to have a variety of exports
• The government is opening new markets in for East Asia/COMESA to increase the market base /avoid over dependence on traditional partners who dictate the market conditions
• The government is encouraging the production of high quality manufactured goods for export in order to earn more income.
• Through commercial attachees in various countries, the government is popularizing trade to increase earnings from both the invisible and visible trade.
• The government is restricting the importation of luxury items through heavy taxation.
• The government is establishing import substitution industries to reduce the importation of some goods /commodities
• The government is heavily investing in oil exploration /geothermal power production/use of solar energy /research on nuclear energy to reduce constant importation of petroleum.
• The government is popularizing tourism in new European and Asian countries to increase earnings from invisible trade.
2.
1.
1. State four characteristics of nomadic pastoralism (4mks)
• Land is communally owned
• Production is low
• Less/no scientific management is involved
• Large herds of animals are kept
• Pastoralists move seasonally with milk animals in search of pasture and water
• The animals are poor, weakened by diseases, unhealthy and of low value
• Diseases incidences are common, both human and animals are exposed to tropical diseases
• Cattles are kept as a sign of wealth, reared for the purpose of paying bride price and slaughter during cultural festivals
2. Name three beef cattle breeds kept in Kenya (3mks)
• Zebu
• Borana
• Hereford
• Charolais
• Galloway
• Shorthorn
• Aberdeen Angus
2. Compare beef farming in Kenya and Argentina (8mks)
• In both countries breeds kept are the same
• In both countries cattle are kept in ranches
• In Kenya beef farming is done in semi-arid areas while in Argentina it is kept all over the country
• In both countries some of the products are meant for export.
3. Explain three problems facing beef farming in Kenya (6mks)
• Shortage of water and pasture during dry seasons
• Pest and diseases such as tsetse fly and East Coast fever which kills the animals
• Poor transport in beef farming areas which affect the quality of products
• Keeping on large herds of cattle by most farmers lowers the quality of products
• Inadequate capital especially in remote areas
• Low purchasing power of the people in pastoral keeping areas
4. State four measures that the government of Kenya has taken to improve beef farming (4mks)
• Building cattle dips to control diseases and pests
• Employing extension officers to teach farmers on best ways of beef farming
• Construction of roads in areas to ease transportation of products
• Establishment of KMC to market their products
• It encourages the replacements of the couch grass with nutrition pasture to improve the quality of animals
• It has sunk bore holes/dug wells/ constructed dams to provide water for the animals
3.
1. Distinguish between an urban settlement and rural settlement (2mks)
An urban settlement consists of built-up areas in towns where people are mainly occupied with commercial and industrial activities while rural settlements consists of built-up areas in country side where people are mainly occupied with agricultural activities
2. State two factors which influence the development of each the following patterns of settlement (2mks)
1. Dispersed settlement pattern (2mks)
• Availability of land
• Security
• Availability of water
• Many people owning individual plots
2. Linear settlement pattern (2mks)
• Presence of means of transport
• Presence of river to produce water
• A coastline or shore of the lake that provides favorable fishing grounds
3. Explain four factors that influenced the location of Mombasa town (8mks)
• Strategic location on the East Coast of Africa
• Island provided a good defensive site
• Flat land ideal for construction
• Coral limestone provided building stones
• Deep-water port Tudor creek provide a good well sheltered natural harbor
4.
1. Outline four ways in which the port of Mombasa and Rotterdam differ (8mks)
• Mombasa is on island while Rotterdam on the mainland
• Mombasa servers a developing agricultural hinterland while Rotterdam servers a developed, highly industrialized hinterland
• Mombasa is relatively small with limited expansion while Rotterdam is large and still expanding
• Mombasa handles small volume of goods while Rotterdam handles a very large volume of goods.
• Mombasa exports cargo including agricultural raw materials and unprocessed goods while Rotterdam exports mainly manufactured goods.
• Mombasa relies on road, railway, air and pipeline for transport while Rotterdam has additional canals and R.Rhine for transport.
• Mombasa is less mechanized while Rotterdam uses advanced technology to provide service at the port.
2. State three benefits of urbanization (3mks)
• Encourage national unity
• Creates employment opportunities
• Encourages provision of social amenities
• Provides market for agricultural and industrial goods
4.
1.
1. What is domestic tourism (2mks)
Domestic tourism is the practice of travelling from one’s home to other part of one’s country of residence to visit tourists attraction sites
2. Explain four factors which are hindering domestic tourism in Kenya (8mks)
• Poorly maintained roads to the tourist sites
• Negative attitudes as it is a waste of money and time
• High costs of accommodation in hotels and game lodges
• Low income leading to zero savings for domestic tourism (well explained points)
2. State five reasons why domestic tourism should be encouraged in Kenya (5mks)
• Utilize facilities during the low tourism season
• Create awareness among Kenyans about their country
• Provide opportunities for recreation
• Interaction between different communities to enhance national unity and integration
• Encourage circulation of money and increase domestic trade
3. Explain three factors which have made Switzerland a major tourist destination in Europe (6mks)
• Warm and sunny summers for swimming and sunbathing
• Cold winter for ice sports e.g skiing
• Varied scenery –snow Caped Mountains, cascading waterfalls, glaciated landscapes
• Central location in Europe
• Political neutral country
• Variety of foreign languages spoken
• Hospitality of the people (well explained points)
4. State four problems associated with tourism in Kenya (4mks)
• Poaching activity
• Use of illegal drugs
• Increase in crime/robbery
• Loss of social values
5.
1. Name the minerals mined in the area marked J, K and L. (3mks)
J----Limestone
K---Soda ash/Trona
L---Diamond
2.
1. Identify two provinces where gold is mined in South Africa (2mks)
• Orange free state
• Transvaal province
2. Describe the processing of gold from the time the ore is lifted to the surface (5mks)
• Crushing of the hard blanket into small chips that are then mixed with water and ground it as fine as flour or pulp to get gold
• Grounded pulp is placed in a solution of sodium cyanide
• The content is called potassium gold cyanide (contains amount of uranium)
• The solution is mixed with zinc causing the gold to precipitate out it is then fed in Sulphur acid tanks that dissolve the uranium
• Gold is melted out and formed into bars
3. Explain four contribution of gold to South Africa (8mks)
• It earns the country foreign exchange used to develop other sectors of the economy
• Offers employment to people who work in mines /factories hence raising their living standards
• Has lead to wide spread urbanization contributing to the formation of the Witwatersrand conurbation
• Process raw materials to manufacturing industries hence leading to industrial growth
• Has lead to development /improvement of roads /railways / communication/ banking/ infrastructure hence making places accessible /for quick flow of information /providing security to people’s income
• Earns the worker’s income hence improving their living standards
3. State three problems of diamond mining in South Africa (3mks)
• Continued mining has led to reduced diamond reserves as most mines are becoming depleted
• Labour competition with other sectors of the economy
• High cost of processing diamond
• Fluctuations of prices of diamond in the world market
• High cost of mining diamond
• Low mineral content in the area making its processing expensive
4. Explain two effects of mining on the environment (4mks)
• Causes pollution of the atmosphere leading to health hazards
• Lowers water table hence interfering with water availability
• Causes land dereliction making the land ugly/ interfere with natural beauty of the environment
• Causes soil erosion leaving the surface bare of nutrients /minerals to support agriculture
• Open pits after mining collects water
• Mining reduces land availability for settlement /agriculture

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