GEOGRAPHY PAPER 1 - 2019 LANJET JOINT MOCK EXAMINATION

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SECTION A.
(
ANSWER ALL THE QUESTIONS FROM THIS SECTION.)

  1.  
    1. What is a natural satellite?                                                               (2marks)
    2. Give two dates of the year when equinox occurs.                                    (2marks)
  1.  
    1. Differentiate between natural vegetation and secondary vegetation .      (2marks)
    2. State three ways in which rainfall influences the distribution of natural vegetation in Kenya.               (3marks)
  1.  
    1. List two land masses that formed from Laurasia according to the continental drift theory.(2marks
    2. State two effects of earth movements on the landscape.             (2marks)
  1. The diagram below shows some features of a karst scenery. Use it to answer question (a) and (b).   
     geo1 q4           
    1. Name the features marked X, Y and Z.                                           (3marks)
    2. How is the feature marked Z formed?                                           (3marks)
  1.  
    1. State three factors that affect the permanence of a lake.                        (3marks)
    2. Outline three sources of lake water                                               (3marks)

SECTION B.(answer question 6 and any other two questions.)

  1. Study the topographical map of TAITA HILLS provided and use it to answer the following questions.
    1.  
      1. What is the longitudinal extent of the area covered by the map?(2marks)
      2. Determine the bearing of a water tank at grid square 3927 from the water tank east of Kigala hill.     (2marks)
    2.  
      1. Citing evidence, give four economic activities carried out in the area covered by the map.  (4marks)
      2. Describe the distribution of natural vegetation in the area covered by the                  map.                                                                                                    (4marks)
    3. Citing evidence from the map, explain two factors that favour the establishment of Teita Sisal estates.       (4marks)
    4.  
      1. Using a vertical scale of 1cm to represent 50 m draw an accurate cross section from grid reference 300190 to grid reference 360190. On the cross section, mark and name:
        • A hill
        • A river valley
        • Main track (motorable)                         (7marks)
      2. Calculate the vertical exaggeration of the cross section.              (2marks)
  1.  
    1.  
      1. Differentiate between weather and climate.                      (2marks)
      2. List four factors that influence humidity of a place.         (4marks)
    2. Describe how convectional rainfall is formed.                              (6marks)
    3. Explain how the following factors influence climate.
      1. Altitude.                                                                                  (4marks)
      2. Distance from the sea                                                           (4marks)
    4. State the characteristics of mountain climate.                               (5marks)
  1.  
    1.  
      1. State four causes of vulcanicity.                                          (4marks)
      2. Give three examples of volcanic materials.                       (3marks)
    2. Describe how the following features are formed.
      1. Basic lava domes.                                                                  (5marks)
      2. Laccolith.                                                                                (5marks)
    3. Suppose you were to carry out a field study of a volcanic landscape.
      1. State four reasons why it is important to prepare awork schedule.    (4marks)
      2. State four advantages of using observation as a method of data collection.  (4marks)
  1.  
    1.  
      1. What is a river?                                                                     (2marks)
      2. Name four features formed due to river erosion.                        (4marks)
    2. Use the diagram below to answer question (i) and (ii)
      geo1 q9 qsnq
      1. What type of delta is represented by the diagram?          (1mark)
      2. Name the parts marked J, K and L.                                     (3marks)
    3.  With the aid of well labelled diagrams, describe how natural levees are formed.            (7marks)
    4. Explain four economic benefits of rivers.                                      (8marks)
  1.  
    1. List three types of glacier.                                                   (3marks)
    2. Explain four factors that influence the rate of glacial erosion.            (8marks)
    3. The diagram below shows some features formed due to glacial deposition in lowlands.
      1. Name the parts marked P, Q, R and S.                                (4marks)
      2. Describe how a hanging valley is formed.                         (6marks)
    4. Explain two negative effects of glaciated landscapes.                  (4marks)


MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A

  1.  
    1. What is a natural satellite?     (2marks)
      A natural satellite is a heavenly body that revolves/orbits round a planet.
    2. Give two dates of the year when equinox occurs.                                    (2marks)
      21st March
      23rd September
  1.  
    1. Differentiate between natural vegetation and secondary vegetation .                                                                                                                                       (2marks)
      Natural vegetation refers to plant cover that grows in the wild/on their own without influence by people or animals whereas secondary vegetation refers to plant cover that grows on its own after original vegetation has been interfered by people or animals.
    2. State three ways in which rainfall influences the distribution of natural vegetation in Kenya.          (3marks)
      Areas that receive high rainfall tend to have forests.
      Regions receiving moderate rainfall mainly have grasslands.
      Areas that receive low rainfall have scrub vegetation.
  1.  
    1. List two land masses that formed from Laurasia according to the continental drift theory.   (2marks)
      Eurasia
      North America
    2. State three effects of earth movements on the landscape.          (3marks)
      Horizontal/vertical earth movements leads to formation of Fold Mountains, Riftvalleys, Escarpments and fault blocks.
      Vertical movements result in Basins, Raised cliffs, submerged coasts and raised beaches.
      Occurrence of earthquakes in some areas.
      Development of faults on land
  1. The diagram below shows some features of a karst scenery. Use it to answer question (a) and (b).
    geo1 q4
    1. Name the parts marked X and Y.                                                     (3marks)
      X – Joined limestone rock.
      Y – Clint.
      Z – Grike.      
    2. How is the feature marked Z formed?                                           (3marks)
      Rain water containing weak carbonic acid falls on limestone rocks.
      Carbonation process occurs forming soluble calcium bicarbonate.
      Soluble calcium bicarbonate is removed in solution especially along joints and cracks within the limestone rock.
      This causes the joints to widen and with time forming irregular gullies called grikes
  1.  
    1. State three factors which influence the permanence of a lake.   (3marks)
      The depth of the depression/hollow.
      Availability of water throughout from various sources.
      The quantity of water leaving the depression through outlets or evaporation.
    2. Outlinethree sources of lake water.                                                (3marks)
      River water which flows from distant areas.
      Rain water which falls directly into the depression or from surrounding surface run off.
      Underground water which flows into the depression from springs.
      Melt water from ice and snow

                       

SECTION B.

  1. Study the topographical map of TAITA HILLS provided and use it to answer the following questions.
    1.  
      1. What is the longitudinal extent of the area covered by the map?(2marks)
        From 38017’E to 38030’E
      2. Determine the bearing of a water tank at grid square 3927 from the water tank east of Kigala hill.     (2marks)
        3050 (Accept 3040 0r 3060)
    2.  
      1. Citing evidence, give four economic activities carried out in the area covered by the map.                                                                            (4marks)
        • Crop farming due to presence of Teita sisal estates, agricultural office farmers training centre and seed farm.
        • Transport services due to presence of roads such as A23 and railway line.
        • Trade due to presence of shops.
        • Livestock rearing due to presence of several cattle dips.
        • Forestry due to presence of a forest office at Ronge forest.
      2. Describe the distribution of natural vegetation in the area covered by the map.     (4marks)
        • There are many thickets on the eastern parts.
        • There are forests called Ronge ,Choke and kinyeshamvua in the Northern parts
        • Some patches of Forests occur within some hills such as Vuria, Mgange and Weruga.
        • There is a Woodland at grid square 4213.
        • Scrub vegetation occurs in most parts of the area.
        • There are scattered trees all over the area covered the map.
    3. Citing evidence from the map, explain two factors that favour the establishment of Teita Sisal estates.         (4marks)
      • Presence of scrub in the eastern parts is a likely indicator that area receives low rainfall/high temperature which favours the growth of sisal.
      • Occurrence of gently sloping land due to widely spaced contours which encouraged the establishment of a large farm.
      • Availability of transport due to presence of road A23 and railway line that facilitates the movement of harvested sisal to the market.
      • Availability of labour due to clusters of settlement near Mwatunge hill for various farm operations such as harvesting.
    4.  
      1. Using a vertical scale of 1cm to represent 50 metres, draw an accurate cross section from grid reference 300190 to grid reference 360190.on the cross section, mark and name:
        geo1 q6 ms            
        1. A hill
        2. A river valley
        3. Main track (motorable7marks)
      2. Calculate the vertical exaggeration of the cross section.              (2marks)
                                VE = Vertical scale           = 1cm represents 50 M
                                       Horizontal scale                  1:50,000
                                       = 1:5,000
                                           1:50,000
                                       = 1X50,000
                                       5,000   1
                                       = 10   or 10 times
  1.  
    1.  
      1. Differentiate between weather and climate.                      (2marks)
        Weather is the state of the atmosphere of a given place over a short period of time while climate refers to the average weather conditionsof a given place observed over a long period of time such as 30 – 35 years.
      2. List four factors that influence humidity of a place.         (4marks)
        Temperature
        Atmospheric pressure
        Latitude
        Supply of moisture
    2. Describe how convectional rainfall is formed.                              (6marks)
      Convectional rainfall mainly is hot lowland regions.
      A large water body such as a lake or sea is heated through insolation causing evaporation to occur.
      Maximum heating of both the land and the water body occurs in the afternoon.
      Heated moist air above the water body rises as cooler drier air descends to replace it forming convection currents.
      As the warm moist air rises, pressure decreases causing it to expand leading to rapid cooling.
      The cooled moist air condenses at higher altitude forming dense cumulonimbus clouds.
      When the clouds are heavy, they release the water in large torrential drops as convectional rainfall mainly in the afternoon.
    3. Explain how the following factors influence climate.
      1. Altitude.                                                                                  (4marks)
        Temperature decreases with rise in height above sea level as heat loss is greater in high lands than in low lands.
        Atmospheric pressure decreases with rise in altitude as a column of air above a point shortens.
      2. Distance from the sea.                                                          (4marks)
        Some regions near the coast may receive high rainfall due to the effects of moist onshore prevailing winds throughout the year.
        Some regions very far in the interior receive dry winds as onshore winds loose moisture on the way thus very low rainfall.
        In temperate regions, coastlands are cooler during summer than interior regions due to the effects of cool sea breeze.
        During winter in temperate regions, some coastlands are warmer than interior areas due to the effects of warm onshore winds
    4. State the characteristics of mountain climate.                               (5marks)
      • Temperature decreases with rise in altitude
      • Rainfall increases with rise in altitude up to 3000 m then it starts to decrease.
      • Atmospheric pressure decreases with increasing altitude.
      • Rainfall is mainly relief/orographic.
      • Slopes on the windward side receive higher rainfall than leeward slopes.
      • Local winds such as anabatic and katabatic winds are common.
      • Small diurnal range of temperature as air is always cool.
      • In the temperate regions, slopes facing the tropics are warmer.
      • Highlands to the West of the Rift valley experience a single maxima rainfall regime.
  1.  
    1.  
      1. State four causes of vulcanicity.                                          (4marks)
        • High temperature in the interior which changes materials to molten form.
        • High pressure in the interior released during earth movements.
        • Faulting which creates lines of weakness such as vents and fissures.
        • Ground water which is heated by hot rocks to form steam.
      2. Give three examples of volcanic materials.                                    (3marks
        • Volcanic bombs.
        • Gases such as Hydrogen sulphide, Carbon (IV) Oxide and Sulphur (IV) Oxide.
    2. Describe how the following features are formed.
      1. Basic lava domes.                                                                  (5marks)
        • Intense pressure builds up in the interior of the earth.
        • Magma (fluid basic magma) is pushed through a single or multiple vents.
        • The basic lava flows out quietly over a wide area before it cools and solidifies.
        • Further eruptions of lava cover the old layers forming new ones.
        • This forms a broad dome with gentle slopes resembling a shield called a Basic lava dome.
      2. Laccolith.                                                                                (5marks)
        • Pressure builds up underneath the earth surface.
        • Highly viscous magma is pushed through lines of weakness such as cracks.
        • Due to low pressure, the magma fails to reach the earth surface.
        • The magma spreads between bedding planes pushing them upwards.
        • The high viscosity of magma causes it to cool slightly faster thus forming a dome shape.
        • The dome shaped mass of solidified magma is called a laccolith.
    3. Suppose you were to carry out a field study of a volcanic landscape.
      1. State four reasons why it is important to prepare a work schedule.                                                                                                                             (4marks)
        • To reduce the tendency to waste time.
        • To remain within the scope of the field study.
        • Helps in the general planning for the field study.
        • Ensures that no important area is forgotten.
        • It provides a basis of evaluating the success of the field study while it is still in progress.
      2. State four advantages of using observation as a method of data collection.                                                                               (4marks)
        • Observation provides first hand data.
        • One collects only what is relevant for the study.
        • It saves time as data is collected in one place.
        • Observation improves visual memory.
        • The method provides reliable data
  1.  
    1.  
      1. What is a river?                                                                     (2marks)
        A river is a natural and large mass of water that is flowing in a                               channel
      2. List four features formed due to river erosion.                (4marks)
        • Stream cut valleys(V and U – shaped valleys
        • Waterfalls/Cascades
        • Rapids/Cataracts
        • Gorges
        • Interlocking spurs
        • Bluffs/River cliffs
    2. Use the diagram below to answer question (i) and (ii)
      geo1 q9 qsnq
      1. What type of delta is represented by the diagram?          (1mark)
        Arcuate delta
      2. Name the parts marked J, K and L.                                     (3marks)
        1. J – Bar
        2. K – Lagoon
        3. L - Flood plain
    3. With the aid of well labelled diagrams, describe how natural levees ar formed.                                                                                               (7marks)
      geo1 q9d qsns
      • Levees are formed at the old stage/plain stage of the river.
      • During floods, active deposition occurs along the bank of the river due to faster flow on the river bed thus no deposition on the bed.
      • When the river is not in floods, deposition takes place on the river bed since the river flows slowly. This raises the river bed.
      • With time and after repeated floods, the river will be found flowing between raised banks called Levees and above the general level of the flood plain due to a raised river bed.
    4. Explain four economic benefits of rivers.                                      (8marks)
      • Some rivers such as River Nile provide water for domestic and industrial purposes.
      • Some rivers such as River Nyamindi provide water for irrigating dry lands which improves agricultural productivity.
      • Some river valleys and their flood plains contain valuable minerals as alluvial deposits which are exploited and sold eg. Orange River and R Morun.
      • Some rivers deposit rich and fertile alluvial soils within their flood plains and deltas forming vital arable land eg.Tana and Nile deltas
      • Some rivers form fresh water fisheries which provide food to people eg.R. Mississippi, skeener Colorado and Fraser.
      • Some rivers are navigable along most parts thus offering cheap inland transport e.g. R St Lawrence and R. Rhine.
      • Some rivers have scenic waterfalls , rapids and gorges thus attracting many tourists who bring foreign exchange and income to a country/region e.g. Victoria Falls
      • Some rivers have submerged mouths that form deep rias which favour the development of ports.
      • Dams are constructed along some sections of key rivers mainly to generate hydroelectric power. EgAkosombo along River Volta
  1.  
    1.  
      1. List three types of glacier.                                                    (3marks)
        • Cirque glacier.
        • Valley glacier.
        • Piedmont glacier.
      2. Explain four factors that influence the rate of glacial erosion.                                                                                                                            (8marks)
        • The speed of the glacier. A fast flowing glacier has a greater energy to erode while a slow moving glacier erodes less.
        • Thickness of the glacier. The thicker the ice, the heavier it is thus greater scrapping by abrasion.
        • Nature of underlying rock. Well jointed rocks have cracks which facilitate plucking while soft rocks are easily eroded by abrasion than hard rocks.
        • Amount of load carried by glacier.The more debris carried within a glacier, the more effective abrasion process will be.
    2. The diagram below shows some features formed due to glacial deposition                in lowlands.
      geo1 q10 qsns
      1. Name the parts marked P, Q, R and S.                                (4marks)       
        • P-Terminal moraine.
        • Q-Erratic.
        • R-Outwash plain.
        • S-Kettle lakes
      2. Describe how a hanging valley is formed.                         (6marks)
        • Initially there exists a V-Shaped river valley and a tributary valley.
        • Both river and tributary valley were occupied by ice during glaciation.
        • More ice accumulated in the main river valley than the smaller tributary valley.
        • The two valleys were widened and deepened by plucking and abrasion.
        • The main valley was eroded more thus became very deep and wider than the tributary valley.
        • When ice melted, the tributary valley was left at a higher level than the main glacial trough thus called a hanging valley
    3. Explain two negative effects of glaciated landscapes.                   (4marks)
      • Some boulder clay deposits create a marshy landscape due to poor drainage which hinders agriculture.
      • Moraine deposits result in the formations of numerous lakes which reduce arable land e.g within the Canadian shields.
      • Infertile sands may be deposited within some outwash plains which make the land unsuitable for agriculture.
      • Glaciation results in a rugged landscape which causes difficulties in settlement and construction of transport lines such as roads and railways.

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