Agriculture Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Bondo Joint Mocks Exams 2022

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Questions

Instructions to Candidates

  • Answer all the questions in section A and B.
  • Answer any two questions in section C.

SECTION A. (30 MARKS)
Answer ALL questions in this section in the spaces provided

  1. State four disadvantages of extensive farming. (2 marks)
  2. State four human factors that lead to low crop production. (2 marks)
  3. State four characteristics of soil that influence crops planted. (2 marks)
  4. State four factors that influence the number of secondary cultivation. (2 marks)
  5. Mention four reasons for ridging in crop production. (2 marks)
  6. State four practices that encourage minimum tillage. (2 marks)
  7.    
    1. Name three non-chemical methods of water treatment. (1½ marks)
    2. State four advantages of trickle irrigation. (2 marks)
  8. State four importance of organic matter in sandy soil. (2 marks)
  9. Name four types of records kept by a poultry farmer. (2 marks)
  10.      
    1. Name two forms in which nitrogen element is absorbed by plants. (1 mark)
    2. Name any two methods of harvesting agro forestry trees. (1 mark)
  11.  
    1. State four importance of nursery practice in vegetable crop production. (2 marks)
    2. Name three vegetative propagation material used to propagate pineapples. (1½ marks)
  12. State four effects of excessive application of nitrogen fertilizer on growing crops. (2marks)
  13. State four cultural ways of controlling nematodes in a field of bananas. (2 marks)
  14. Distinguish between Pricking out and Rogueing. (1 mark)

SECTION B: (20 MARKS.)
Answer ALL the questions in the spaces provided.

  1. The diagram below illustrates an investigation on property of soil samples labeled A, B, and C
    AGRp1q15
    1. If the levels of water drained in the diagram were observed after two hours, name the property of soil being investigated. (1 mark)
    2. What is the relationship between the soil property named in (a) above and the size of soil particles. (1 mark)
    3. Which soil sample would be suitable for growing paddy rice? (1 mark)
    4. Name the type of soil. (2 marks)
      A
      C
  2. Use the diagram below that show pruned plants after budding to answer the questions that follow
    AGRp1q16
    1. Which diagram shows the correct pruning cut? (1mark)
    2. Explain why the other cutting is wrong? (1 mark)
    3. State three importance of pruning coffee. (3 marks)
  3. Use the diagram below that show maize cob attacked by a disease. Study it and answer the questions that follow.
    AGRp1q17
    1. Identify the crop disease illustrated above. (1 mark)
    2. A part from maize name other two crops attacked by the same disease. (2 marks)
    3. State two control measure of the disease in (a) above. (2 marks)
  4. Below is a graph representing the law of diminishing return. Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow.
    AGRp1q18
    1. Explain what would happen to each of three zones marked I, II, and III in relation to fertilizer input to beans output. (3 marks)
    2. Which is the rational zone among three zones and why? (2 marks)

SECTION C: (40 MARKS).
Answer any TWO questions from this section in the spaces provided after question 21.

  1.      
    1. Describe five agencies involved in marketing of Agricultural products. (10 marks)
    2. Give six practices carried out in the field that control maize diseases. (6 marks)
    3. State four importance of irrigation. (4 marks)
  2.  
    1. Outline five farming activities which may encourage soil erosion. (5 marks)
    2.      
      1. Describe harvesting of cotton (5 marks)
      2. Explain the precaution during harvesting of sugarcane. (3 marks)
    3. Describe the production of carrots under the following sub – headings.
      1. Seedbed preparation (3 marks)
      2.  Field management (4 marks)
  3.   
    1. State seven factors that influence seed rate during planting. (7 marks)
    2. Outline five factors necessary for proper functioning of farmers’ co-operative societies in Kenya. (5 marks)
    3. Outline eight ways farmers can overcome risks and uncertainties in a farming business. (8 marks)

Marking Scheme

  1. Four disadvantages of extensive farming
    • Law output
    • Land is underutilized
    • Done where land is not limited
    • Can//not use land to get loans
    • Low profit per unit area
    • Poor quality produce
    • No land improvement
    • High spread of pests and diseases
  2.  Four human factors that lead to low crop production
    • Low level of education
    • Poor health
    • Poor economy
    •  Lack of market force
    • Poor government policy
    • Cultural and religious belief
  3. Four characteristics of soil that influence crops planted
    • Nutrients available
    • Soil PH
    • Drainage
    • Water holding capacity
    • Air movement
    • Soil depth
      (4×2=2mks)
  4. Four factors that influence the number of secondary cultivation
    • Size of planting material
    • Land topography
    • Soil moisture
    • Condition of soil ciods 
    • Capital available
    • Population of weeds 
      (4×2=2mks)
  5. Four reasons for ridging
    • Encourage tuber expansion
    • Control soil erosion
    • Improve drainage
    • For easy harvesting tuber crops
  6. Four practices that encourage minimum tillage
    • Use of herbicides
    • Mulching
    • Cover cropping
    • Slashing/uprooting/ grazing animals on weeds
  7.  
    1. Three non chemical methods of water treatment
      • Filtration
      • Boiling
      • Sedimentation
      • Geration
    2. Four advantages of trickle irrigation
      • Require little water
      • Use water under low pressure
      • Discourage fungal diseases
      • Control weeds between rows
      • Can be used to apply soluble fertilizer
        (4x1/2= 2mks)
  8. Four importance of organic matter in sandy soil
    • Increase water holding capacity
    • Improve soil fertility after decomposition
    • Provide food and shelter to micro-organisms when fresh Improve soil structure after decomposition
    • Butter soil pits after decomposition
    • Reduce the toxicity of plant poison due to chemical and fertilizer application after decomposition
    • Pack color of humus increase soil temperature that make crops grow faster (4 x  1/2= 2mks)
  9. Four types of records kept by a poultry farmer
    • Egg production
    • Inventory
    • Feeding
    • Health
    • Marketing Labour
      (4 x 1/2= 2mks) 
  10.    
    1. Two forms nitrogen element is absorbed by plants
      • Nitrate ions (NO-3)
      • Ammonium ions (NH+4)
        (2x1/2= 1mk)
    2. Two methods of harvesting Agro forestry trees
      • Pruning
      • Lopping
      • Pollarding
      • Coppicing
  11.      
    1. Four importance of nursery practice
      • Production of many seedlings in a small area
      • Easy to carry management practices
      • Easy to provide the best condition for growing of crops
      • Facilitating the planting of small seeds into strong seedlings
      • Easy to select healthy seedlings for transplanting
      • Facilitating planting of already established seedlings
      • Excess seedlings can be sold
        (4x)/2= 2mks)
    2. Three vegetative propagation material of pineapples
      • Crown
      • Slip
      • Suckers
  12. Four effects of excessive application of nitrogen fertilizer on growing maize
    • Lodging excessive / succulence weakening of stems
    • Scorching / burning of leaves
    • Delayed maturity
    • Excessive foliage growth
    • Encourage causes blossom end rot 
  13. Four cultural ways of controlling nematodes in a field of bananas
    • Plant resistant tourant varieties
    • Remove and burn infected plants / held hygiene
    • Crop rotation
    • Plant Mexican marigold in the field
    • Trim roots of suckers before planting 
  14. Pricking out and Rogueing
    • Pricking out is uprooting some seedlings in an overcrowded nursery and planting them in a second nursery bed while rogueing is uprooting and destroying infected plants with a disease (mark as a whole lmk)
  15.       
    1. Soil porosity / water holding capacity (1mk)
    2. The smaller the size of the particles the greater the force of holding capacity (lmk)
    3. Sample C
    4.  
      • A Sandy soil
      • C Clay soil
  16.     
      • A-Too close to the bud
      • B- Sloping wrong way
    1. 3 importance of pruning coffee
      • Remove diseased and unwanted parts
      • Cropping
      • Facilitate picking
      • Easy penetration of chemical spray
      • Remove micro-climate for disease coming microorganisms e. g CBD (3mks)
  17.    
    1. Smut (1mk)
    2. Any cereal crop and sugarcane (2mks) 
    3. Two control measure
      • Hot water treatment
      • Use certified seeds
      • Crop rotation Field hygiene (2mks)
  18.         
    1. Zone 1: An input of fertilizer results in an increased output in bean production
      Zone 2: Any increase in input results in a decreased output of beans till it reaches a maximum le decreased output reaches zero
      Zone 3: Any further increase in fertilizer input results in a negative output of beans I e decline (3mks)
    2. Zone 2 because the output reaches maximum (2mks)
  19.        
    1. Intenerant traders / middumen: buy produce from farmers and resell
      • Processors or manufacturing companies: Buy produce to process
      • Wholesalers: Buy produce in bulky from farmers or processors and resell
      • Brokers or commission agents: Act on behalf of other businessmen for a fee or commission Co-operative societies and union: Buy farmers produce locally
      • Marketing boards: Buy produce from farmers (state 1mk, explanation 1mk)
    2. Six practices that control maize diseases
      • Crop rotation: Break life cycle of disease causing organisms
      • Rogueing: Prevent spreading
      • Plant disease free plants: Prevent introduction of pathogens
      • Close seasons: Break life cycle of pathogens
      • Early planting / timely: Crops establish faster before attack
      • Weed control: Prevent them harboring some pathogens
      • Use resistant varieties: Prevent attack by pathogens
      • Chemical application: Kill pathogens
      • Clean equipments: Reduce contamination with disease causing organisms
      • Quarantine: Prevent introduction of pathogen on farm
      • Destroy crop residues: Minimize spread
        Control vectors: Minimize spread of pathogens
    3. Importance of irrigation
      • Enables crop production during dry seasons
      • Enable to reclaim and land for production
      • Supplement rainfall for crop production
      • Sustain proper growth of crops which require plenty of water e g rice
      • Create favorable temperature for proper plant growth
      • Facilitate supply of fertilizer in irrigation water / fertilization
      • Make possible to grow crops in special structure I e green houses
      • Increase crop yield
      • Maximize utilization of resources where land is ferble but no water
      • Source of employment in areas where it is used extensively
      • Promote crop production for export
      • Control pests like moles and aphids
  20.    
    1. Five farming activities which may encourage soil erosion
      • Continuous cropping
      • Burning of vegetation
      • Ploughing along the slope
      • Deforestation
      • Proper plant nutrition:
      • Ploughing along the river banks
      • Cultivating when soil is too dry
      • Overgrazing / overstocking
      • Flooding / over irrigation
      • Over cultivation / pulverizing the soil (5mks)
    2.         
      1.  
        • Procedure of harvesting cotton
        • Start 4 month after planting
        • Have two containers Done when balls are dry
        • Pick as soon as first ball open
        • Sorting is done as you harvest grade AR (Safi) and BR (fifi)
        • Avoid contamination / avoid sisal bags (Smks)
      2. Precautions during harvesting sugarcane
        • Bunt cane should be cut immediately after burning
        • Cut cane be delivered to factory within the first 24 hours
        • Cut cane at ground level (3mks)
    3. Describe the production of carrots under the following sub-headings
      1. Seedbed preparation
        • Prepare during dry season
        • Clear vegetation
        • Plough / dig deeply to eradicate all seeds
        • Harrow to a moderate filth / fine / appropriate filth
      2. Field management
        • Thinning
        • Weed control
        • Top dressing
        • Spray appropriate pesticides to control pests
        • Spray appropriate fungicide to control diseases
        • Water during dry seasons (4mks)
  21.       
    1. Seven factors that influence seed rate
      • Intended use of the crop: Fodder more seeds
      • Germination percentage: How germination more seeds
      • Method of planting: Broadcasting more seeds
      • Number of seeds per hole: Two or more require more seeds
      • Soil fertility: Fertile soil more seeds
      • Size of crop: Tall spreading crops less seeds
      • Spacing: Close spacing more seeds
      • Seed purity: Impure seeds more seeds
      • Crop stand: Pure stand more seeds (state & explanation 7mks) 
    2. Five factors necessary for proper functioning of farmers co-operative societies
      • Availability of adequate funds, capital invue for members
      • Training of personnel or availability of advisory services on managerial skills
      • Loyalty on the part of all farmers co-operators and officials to support their organization
      • Proper and accurate record keeping and accountability for all operations
      • Efficiency with which produce from farms are marketed
      • Honesty on the part of personnel with regard to the handling of cooperative finances
      • Timely payment of farmers dues (5mks)
    3. Eight ways farmers can overcome risks and uncertainties
      • Diversification / growing a variety of crops or having various enterprises: If one fails he can rely on the other
      • Taking insurance policy: Incase of failure the enterprises are covered
      • Inventory marketing / strategizing farming: keeping farm products and selling at time when prices are favorable
      • Flexible enterprises: Engaging in enterprises that can be stopped or started early as conditions change
      • Rationing of inputs: Using just sufficient inputs such that in case of losses the costs are toohigh
      • Using more certain husbandry practices: Use  practices that the farmer is sure of and has used in the past
      • Contracting: Making arrangement with marketing agencies in advance that change in prices after the arrangement do not change the price of farmers produce
      • Selecting more certain enterprises: Select enterprises that have done well in the area / tried through research
      • Adopting modern methods of production: I e irrigation, planting resistant varieties (8mks)

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