History Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Cekana Mock Exams 2023

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  1. This paper consists of three sections, A,B and C
  2. Answer all the questions in section A, three questions from section B, and two questions from section C
  3. Answers to all the questions in section A must be written in the spaces provided after each question
  4. Answers to all the questions in section Band C must be written in the answer booklet provided after question 24
  5. Candidates should answer all the questions in English

Answer all questions from this section

  1. Give the relationship between History and Government. (1mark)
  2. Identify the main method used by Anthropologists to obtain information in History and Government (1mark)
  3. Give two reasons that made early Human beings to live in groups during the Stone Age period (2marks)
  4. State one ways in which the Sumerians in Mesopotamia reclaimed land for Agriculture. (1mark)
  5. Identify two traditional forms of water transport. (2marks)
  6. Give the main advantage of the mobile phone (1mark)
  7. State two factors that contributed to the decline Meroe as an early urban centre (2marks)
  8. Identify one type of spirit associated with the Shona kingdom (1mark)
  9. State two ways European nations maintained peace among themselves during the process of partitioning Africa (2marks)
  10. Name two treaties signed between Lobengula and the British during the process of colonization of Africa. (2marks)
  11. State two events that marked the end of the first world war (2marks)
  12. Give two economic benefits enjoyed by members of Commonwealth (2marks)
  13. Name the military alliance formed by capitalist nations during the cold war. (1mark)
  14. Give the main reason why the Pan African movement was formed at the beginning of the 20th century (1mark)
  15. Name one financial institution established by the African union. (1mark)
  16. State two aims of the Arusha declaration (2marks)
  17. Name one house of parliament in India. (1mark)


Answer any three questions from this section

    1. State three physical characteristics of homo-habilis (3marks)
    2. Describe six ways of life of early man during the Mesolithic period (12marks)
    1. State three port towns that developed in West Africa as a result of the Trans-Atlantic Slave trade(3marks)
    2. Explain six factors that led to the decline of the Trans-Saharan trade. (12marks)
    1. Outline Five challenges facing industrialization in Brazil. (5marks)
    2. Explain six positive effects of scientific inventions on Agriculture (10marks)
    1. Highlight five reforms that were introduced by the Germans in Tanganyika after the Majimaji rebellion. (5marks)
    2. Explain five disadvantages of Samori Toure’s second empire at Dabakala (10marks)

Answer any two questions from this section

    1. State three symbols of Royal Authority in Buganda Kingdom (3marks)
    2. Describe six aspects of the political organization of the Asante during the pre-colonial period(12marks)
    1. State three ways in which the rise of dictatorship in Europe contributed to the outbreak of world war II (3marks)
    2. Explain six political effects of World War I (12 marks)
    1. State five roles that the monarch plays in relation to the British Government (5marks
    2. Explain six merits of a federal system of government with references to the United States of America (USA) (12marks)


  1. The government is willingly accepted by the people (lxl= 1 mark)
  2. Pubungu Pakwach (lxl= 1 mark)
  3. Crop farming (lxl= 1 mark)
  4. To trade/for commerce (lxl= 1 mark)
    • Clothes/silk
    • Beads
    • Ironware/tools
    • Utensils/ glass/ porcelain bowls.
    • Swords/daggers (2x1=2 marks)
  6. The right to an order of habeas corpus (lxl= 1 mark)
    • Agricultural shows/ trade fairs.
    • Games and sports
    • Music and drama.
    • Commemoration of National days. (2x1=2 marks)
    • It created a coalition government.
    • It created the office/position of the Prime Minister.
    • It created the offices/positions of the two deputy prime ministers.
    • It increased the number of cabinet ministers. (2x1=2 marks)
    • If citizenship was acquired by fraud/falsehood
    • If the age of a child found in Kenya is discovered to have been more than 8 years when found
    • If the parentage/nationality of a child found in Kenya becomes known and reveals the child was a citizen of another country (2x1=2 marks)
    • A 16 km coastal strip was awarded to the Sultan of Zanzibar
    • The islands of Pemba, Pate, Zanzibar and Lamu were given to the Sultan of Zanzibar.
    • Witu and the territory between River Umba and River Ruvuma were given to the Germans.
    • The territory between River Umba and River Juba was given to the British (2 xl=2 marks)
  11. He was the first African to be nominated to the Legislative Council (Legco)/ he represented Africans in the Legco. (lxl= 1 mark)
    • The constitution increased the number of elected Africans in Legco by 6 (8 to 14)
    • It introduced multi- racial representation in the Legislative Council by 12 specially elected members
    • It increased the number of African Ministers from 1 to 2/ doubled the African representation in the Council of Ministers (2 xl=2 marks)
    • The African Independent Pentecostal church of Africa.
    • The African Orthodox church. (2x1=2 marks)
    • Senator
    • Woman Member/woman representative (2x1=2 marks)
  15. The Clerk of the Senate (lxl= 1 mark)
  16. It removed the legal barrier to formation of opposition parties in Kenya/ paved the way for multi-party democracy (lxl= 1 mark)
  17. Odhiambo Commission (lxl=lmk)


Answer three questions from this section in the answer booklet provided

      • They intermarried with their neighbours, such as Luhya, Kalenjin, Abagusii.
      • They influenced their neighbours to adopt their language and naming system/burial customs/ inter-borrowing of cultural practices
      • They assimilated other communities.
      • They displaced other communities
      • Their movement and settlement increased conflicts.
      • Their settlement in Western Kenya led to population increase. (5x1=5 marks)
      • They were organized in clan formed by families with common ancestry
      • Leadership and decision making was by the council of elders
      • Both had age set systems whereby age sets performed specific functions
      • The council of elders settled disputes and maintained law and order in the community
      • They had warriors who defended their communities from aggression
      • The family was the basis of the political organization and was headed by the father (5 x 2=10 marks)
      • The Maasai had been affected by natural calamities such as drought epidemics and locust invasion.
      • There occurred a severe famine which resulted in a high death toll in 1891 forcing them to seek food from British forts.
      • The emergence of the Nandi as a strong power had adverse implications on Maasai economic and military power as the Nandi raided their villages with impunity.
      • The Maasai had engaged in civil wars between the Purko and the Kwavi for half a century and were therefore weak by the time of the coming of the British.
      • Lenana hoped to get assistance from the British against his brother Sendeyo with whom he was engaged in a succession dispute/ Lenana wanted to consolidate his position of power
      • The Kedong massacre whereby Lenana was greatly awed by the British military might.
      • The Maasai wanted help to get back their women and children who had been left in the custody of the Agikuyu during the 1891 famine and whom the Agikuyu were refusing to surrender (5x1=5 marks)
      • Africans were pushed to infertile land / overcrowded reserves which were less productive for agriculture
      • They created a class for landless people / squatters who settled on settler farms in exchange for their labour
      • They alienated Africans from their lands thereby undermining farming activities
      • Africans were disposed of their land and therefore could not get title deeds which they could use to access credit / loans to develop their lands
      • Taxes were introduced which forced Africans to offer their labour on settler farms at the expenses of their own farms
      • African land tenure system was disrupted thereby undermining the traditional setup (5x 2=10 marks)
      • White highlands were reserved for the settlers in recognition of their contribution towards the economy of the colony
      • Asians were allowed to elect 5 representatives to the Legco but on a communal rather than common roll as they would have wished/Settlers retained their representation in the Legco, thus enjoying an upper hand.
      • Restriction on Asian immigration and racial segregation in all the residential areas were abolished
      • The interests of Africans were declared paramount to those of the immigrant races. The colonial office would continue exercising strict control over the affairs of the colony in order to safeguard the interests of Africans
      • A missionary was to be nominated to the Legco to represent African interests
      • There would be no advance towards self-government controlled by Europeans / all races were to participate in the government (5x1=5 marks)
      • They demanded for the release of detained/imprisoned African nationalists.
      • They networked with other Pan-Africanists to hasten the achievement of independence.
      • They aired/presented African grievances in international fora
      • They formed political parties/movements to demand for independence/rights of Africans.
      • They popularized Kenyatta thereby making him acceptable as a national leader.
      • They took part in the writing of the independence constitution/attended Lancaster House conference.
      • They enlightened/educated other Africans on the need to struggle for independence.
      • They advocated for an increase in African representation in the Legco. (5 x 2 = 10marks)
      • The philosophies have encouraged cooperation/unity/understanding among Kenyans
      • Through the philosophies education has been promoted by building schools colleges and universities
      • The philosophies have encouraged mutual social responsibility among Kenyans
      • The philosophies have helped improve medical services by constructing dispensaries health centres and hospitals
      • The plight of the disadvantaged people has been addressed by the philosophies through organizing Harambee to assist them
      • The philosophies have promoted spiritual well-being through building of churches/religious structures. (5x1= 5 marks)
      • The availability of modern sources of energy has enabled the establishment of more industries which process different products.
      • Availability of both skilled/ unskilled labour from the large population provides the work force required in industries.
      • Good transport and communication infrastructure has created a viable environment for industrial development as the products can be transported with ease.
      • The rich agricultural country provides raw materials required in the processing of various products.
      • The existence of mineral resources has given rise to industries which process them into finished products.
      • The existence of both natural and man-made forests has promoted the development of furniture industry in many parts of the country.
      • Availability of varied tourist attractions in the country has promoted tourism industry as many local and international tourists visit the countryside.
      • Availability of water resources rich in fish has given rise to fish processing industry in the country.
      • Government initiative through creation of ministries of trade/commerce/industry offering technical and financial aid/supportive government policy. (5 x 2 = 10 marks)


Answer two questions from this section in the answer booklet provided

      • Making of suggestions/proposals by a government ministry about the need of the new law.
      • The Attorney General prepares a draft bill based on the proposals
      • The bill is discussed and approved by the Cabinet.
      • It’s published in Kenya Gazette to create awareness about the proposed new law.
      • The two Speakers of parliament agree on the appropriate house where to table the bill. The bill is then taken to parliament (5x1= 5 marks)
      • Consider and determine resolution by the National Assembly to remove the president or deputy president from office through impeachment
      • Represent and protect the interest of the counties and their government
      • Initiate bills concerning counties and their governments
      • Participate in law making processes by considering bills concerning counties and county governments
      • Determine the allocation of the national revenue devolved to the counties, among all the counties
      • Supervising the expenditure of the national revenue which is devolved to the counties
        (5x2=10 marks)
      • The president
      • The Deputy President
      • The cabinet Secretaries/cabinet
      • The Public Service
      • The Attorney General (5x1=5 marks
      • Inadequate personnel/few judicial officers leading to backlog of cases
      • Alleged corruption in the courts resulting in unfair rulings makes the public to lose faith in the judicial processes
      • Low levels of public awareness on their rights/legal procedures making it difficult for many people to access justice
      • High legal fees charged limit people’s access to justice/expensive lawyers
      • Inadequate equipment/automation of legal services delays the delivery of services
      • Inadequate funds to finance its services frustrates operations of the judiciary
      • Interferences of the judicial process by the Executive and influential personalities (5x2 =10 marks)
      • There is mutual respect in the performance of their functions and exercise of power
      • They assist, support and consult as appropriate, and implement the legislation of the other level of government
      • Parliament sets out legislation to ensure county governments have adequate support to be able to function/to establish procedures for resolving disputes between the two levels of government
      • They liaise for the purpose of exchanging information and coordinating their policies so as to enhance capacity
      • In case of conflict between national legislation/policy and county legislation, National legislation/policy prevails, except in certain circumstances
      • They cooperate in the performance of functions and may set up joint authority
      • The national government has the power to intervene in a county government if it is unable to perform its functions/national government through the president may suspend a county government (5x1 =5mks)
      • Through the establishment of the Ethics and Ant-Corruption Commission to investigate and recommend prosecution of persons who misuse county funds
      • Through budgeting of funds to ensure funds are used for intended purpose only
      • Through establishing the position of the Controller of Budget who reports to National assembly concerning the implementation of the County budget
      • Through establishing the position of Auditor —General who audits the usage of all public funds and reports to parliament
      • Through open tendering in procurement and disposal of public goods and services by the county government
      • Cabinet secretary for Finance may temporarily stop the transfer of funds to a county government in case of misuse of funds
      • County Governor is the accounting officer of the funds of county government
      • Funds borrowed by a county government must be approved by and guaranteed by the national government
      • Parliament passes legislation to ensure expenditure control and transparency in county government finances (5x2=10 marks)


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