- Answer all the questions in this question paper.
- COMPREHENSION (20MARKS
Read the passage below and answer the question that follow.
America has a long tradition of creativity. The expression Yankee ingenuity is an acknowledgement of this trait present Americans with a novel problem, especially technological and they are likely to come up with the solution sooner rather than later.
That is the positive side. The downside is that in policy matters, Americans sometime come up with the solutions and then look for personal problems on which to test them. Washington D.C , perhaps more than any other city in the world, has many solutions seeking problems to lock onto.
If the solution are successful, domestically or internationally, you can expect any amount of excitement and chest thumping, which is another hallmark of the American character. Modesty is frowned upon as something for sissies or failures. Countries and people are ready paradigm of winners and losers. Woe unto you if are a ‘loser’. You will endure all manner of taunts and putdowns.
To escape this fate, most Americans-including those who are demonstrably poor, call themselves middle class, which probably they are when compared to the poor in other places. But poverty is relative to immediate environment not to some distant places.
One of the more recent American inventions is spinning not as in making clothes (the American textile industry has long being outsourced, notably from China another low wage country), but rather as in using words and other symbols amplified by the media to paint a picture of anything and everything in alight favorable to the presenter’s side.
This past week, the world witnessed, yet again this peculiar American habit of hype and more hype, in this instance, designed to drive the point home that America’s declared policy to force-feed democracy to recalcitrant societies has just scored a humongous victory. Following the Iraqi elections the turn out in particular, has been hailed as a stunning victory of American policy. Pitted against Iraqi Jihadists who are waging a relentless and ruthless insurgency, a scintilla of validation of America’s Iraqi policy was all that was all necessary to set off celebratory fireworks.
To those who recount narratives (the spinners), whose job it is to put a bright glass on things a clear picture of winners and losers are the Neanderthals; ‘’ thugs and assassins’’ in the words of the newly sworn in secretary of state Condeleeza Rice-the insurgents who threatened to wreak havoc on election day in Iraq but were thwarted.
The high turnout was read as a violation of many things that were most likely absent from the minds of those Iraqi voters who cast their ballots. Before it was even known whom they had voted for and why, the whole enterprise was turned into cause for chest thumping by some American politicians, prompting john Kerry the loser in the November presidential race, to warn against hyping the Iraqi election.
Who will listen to a loser? This is America! By the time Kerry spoke, the spinning was in full gear. It was another turning point, declared elated talking heads. Never mind that there have been numerous’’ turning points’’ in Iraqi’s tortured post-invasion experience. The winners were emerging.
A few voices have urged caution but they are drowned out by the self-congratulation that has engulfed just about every major media outlet here.
It is reminiscent of the chatter that followed Saddam Hussein’s capture. That was another turning point. The irony is that America has been through this before, in a different place, with almost the exact same headlines. In the late 1967, many American newspapers published flowery and upbeat stories on the elections held in South Vietnam at the height of the war. The turnout was nearly 83% despite Vietcong terror. The election was declared a success and a turning point that would lead to stabilization of the country and eventual defeat of the insurgents. Of course, nothing of the sort happened.
History does not invariably repeat itself. Sometimes it does. Whatever one might think of it, history does always serve up many lessons. One of them is that a dose of modesty is always in order when confronted with vast historical forces or when seeking to rearrange complex societies their go hundreds, if not thousands, of years back.
What may look like victory as first sight may turn out to be another opening to a complex and trying situation that control produce winners or losers. It looks like this what is emerging in Iraq. The millions who headed to the polls on the instruction of their electrical leaders (remember Grand Ayatollah Sistani declared it a religious duty to vote? May or may not have had a clear idea of what society were hoping to create. Their leaders probably do.
Iraqis voted and they are justifiably proud of it. However, this should not be made to look like a first in the Islamic world, as it is being painted in the media. Not too long ago, an Islamic party had won a clear and convincing victory in free and fair election in Algeria. It was never allowed to assume power. The international authorities desisted from calling the denial an affront to democratic practice. The man who cancelled the Algerian election results if feted in the very same quarter that now preach democracy.
Society’s broken tyranny, war, fragmentation and other ills are not served by putdowns of important segments within them.
The approach may produce winners in the short term but for more losers in the end. Moreover, here we are talking of those who could lose everything, including their lives, on a mass scale. A little modest may just be what is needed to get people across the divide talking. After all, in the end, we are all losers.
- What is the negative side of America’s long tradition of creativity? (2marks)
- “Woe unto you if you are a loser.” What does the author mean by this statement? (2marks)
- Identify and explain an instance of irony in this passage. (3marks)
- What is the author’s attitude towards the Americans? Give reason for your answer. (2marks)
- ‘…and the losers are Neanderthals;…’ Explain how the Neanderthals became losers according to this passage. (2marks)
- What according to the passage is referred to as spinning? (2marks)
- Identify one American policy discussed in this passage. (2marks)
- Explain the meaning of the following words as used in the passage. (5marks)
Read the following excerpt and answer the questions that follow.
Mrs. Linde But how can this well-bred man be so tactless?
Nora: I don’t understand you at all
Mrs Linde Don’t prevaricate, Nora. Do you suppose I don’t guess who lent you
the two hundred and Fifty pounds?
Nora: Are you out of your senses? How can you think of such a thing ! A friend of ours
Who comes here every day! Do you realize what a horribly painful position that would be?
Mrs. Linde: Then it really isn’t he?
Nora: No, certainly not. It would never have entered into my head for a moment. Besides,
He had no money to lend then; he came into his money afterwards.
Mrs.Linde Well. I think that was lucky for you, my dear Nora.
Nora No, it would never have come into my head to ask Doctor Rank.
Although I am quite sure that if I had asked him-
Mrs. Linde But of course you won’t.
Nora Of course not I have no reason to think it could possibly be necessary.
But I am quite sure that if told Doctor Rank-
Mrs.Linde: Behind your husband’s back?
Nora I must make an end of it with the other one, and that will be behind his
back too. I must make an end of it with him.
Mrs.Linde: Yes. That is what I told you yesterday, but-
Nora (walking up and down) A man can put a thing like that straight much easier than a woman-
Mrs. Linde: One’s husband, yes.
Nora: Nonsense (Standing still) When you pay off a debt you get your bond back, don’t you?
Mrs. Linde: Yes, as a matter of course
Nora: And can tear it into a hundred thousand pieces, and burn it up-the nasty dirty paper!
Mrs. Linde: (Looks hard at her, lays down her sewing and gets up slowly) Nora, You
are concealing something from me
Nora: Do I look as if I were?
Mrs.Linde: Something has happened to you since yesterday morning. Nora, what is it?
- What happens immediately after this excerpt (3marks)
- Discuss any two concerns brought out in this excerpt (4marks)
- How is Mrs. Linde depicted in this excerpt. (4marks)
- But of course you won’t- (add a question tag). (1mark)
- Nora. No it would never have come into my head to ask Dr Rank. Although I am quite sure that if I had asked him………….
From elsewhere in the text, why is Nora so confident that Dr Rank would not fail her. (3marks)
- Identify any two stylistic features evident in the above excerpt (4marks)
- Which is the “ nasty dirty paper” referred to by Nora in this excerpt. (2marks)
- Give the meaning of the following words Phrases used. (4marks)
- Behind your husband back.
Read the following narrative and answer the questions that follows. (20marks)
A long time ago, there were two men who had been friends for many years. They were like brothers. Now , there came a time when they both wanted to get married. They decided would marry one woman with whom they had both fallen in love.
Between the two of them they had enough bride wealth to pay for the woman, because each of them had half the required bride price. The woman’s father accepted the bride wealth and gave permission for his daughter to get married to the two young men. The made an agreement among themselves and laid down conditions that were going to guide them in sharing this woman as a wife . One of the friends chose to have exclusive right to the woman’s from the waist to the legs while the other one chose from the waist upwards to the head.
Whenever the man who had chosen the upper part desired the woman, he called her into his house and had a pat on her and that was all. The other man who had chosen the lower parts took the woman to his house for the night.
This arrangement worked until the woman became pregnant.
‘’After delivery.’ The friend who owned the upper part said to the woman, ‘’I won’t allow you to breastfeed because the baby isn’t mine.’’
The woman objected loudly saying , “But the baby is mine and the breast are also mine so I’ll have to breast feed it.
‘’ No, and yes, the baby is yours and my friends, but the breasts happen to be yours and mine, so you and my friends should try to get milk for your baby from elsewhere. I don’t want you to feed it from your breasts,’’ The man was serious and the woman got very worried.
“Perhaps my friend who owns your upper part can pay me back the part of the bride wealth I paid for you then he can have you as his wife and you won’t have to be a wife to both of us,” the other husband offered. However, he knew very well that his friend had neither money, cattle nor anything else which he could refund to him as part of the bride wealth he had paid for their wife.
The matter was taken to the elders for discussion and settlement. After much consultations, it was decided that, that woman should be married to the man who owned the upper part of the body as the baby had to be fed. The friends disagreed and had their first serious quarrel.
The situation was critical, so the father of the baby conceded and allowed his friend to refund the share of the bride wealth he had paid. It was then agreed by the elders that the woman should be exclusively married to the man who owned the breasts. This development marked the end of the friendship between the two young men.
- Classify the above genre (2marks)
- Identify the typical features of oral narrative evident in the genre above. (4marks)
- What makes relationship between the two friends ironical? (2marks)
- Comment on the character traits of the two husbands. (4marks)
- Which is the most appropriate audience for the above oral narrative? (2marks)
- Highlight two social activities evident in the above oral narrative. (2marks)
- What is the attitude of this society towards women? (3marks)
- The situation was critical, so the father of the baby conceded and allowed his friend to refund the share of the bride wealth he had paid. (Begin: So……) (1mark)
- Use the correct form of the words in brackets to fill in the blank space. (3marks)
- Jane was……………………………………………………………...about taking up the job (decide)
- I told her that I was …………………………………………………………for her help. (gratitude)
- There is little evidence of ………………………………………………….(diligent)
- Underline the main clause in the following sentences. (2marks)
- I saw the woman who gave birth to twins.
- If you work hard you will pass your examinations
- Use the most appropriate choice to fill in the blank spaces. (2marks)
- Mr Kantai sent two students …………………….(I, me) and John out of his class.
- Kemunto introduced Wafula and ………………to his father(her,she)
- Underline the gerund in the following sentence. (1mark)
Diana is studying but swimming is her hobby.
- Rewrite the following sentences as instructed. (3marks)
- He was obviously angry with you. (Begin His…)
- He did not apply for the job. He did not get it (Begin: Had……
- James wondered how the accused will clear their names. (Rewrite in direct speech)
- Explain the difference between the following sentences. (2marks)
Has the donkey eaten Mary?
Has the donkey eaten, Mary?
- Rephrase the phrasal verb underlined with one word similar in meaning. (2marks)
- The project has really eaten into my savings.
- He had his dog put down because it was in a lot of paint from its tumors.
- In policy matter, Americans sometimes come up with solutions and then look for problems on which to test them.(2marks)
- You are doomed to suffer ‘because you have no say and will get no respect from the winners(2marks)
- Not so long ago, Islamic party won a clear and convincing victory in free and fair election in Algeria but it was never allowed to as assume power. The man called election is fated in same quarters that now preach democracy. (3marks)
- Contemptuous: towards the Americans he says chest thumping is a hall mark of American character they like hyping about perceived victories from on modesty. (3marks)
- Neanderthals are the insurgents who threatened to wreak havoc on election dayin Iraq but they were thwarted and elections went on with a high turnout. (2marks)
- Spinning refers to using words and other symbols amplified by the media to paint a picture of anything and everything1 in a light favor arable to the presenter’s side. (2marks)
- To force-feed democracy to recalcitrant societies. (2marks)
- Originality of design
- Distinguished characteristics
- Surrounded/covered something complexly
- Very big
- Torvalds comes home. Nora tells Christine to go to the children for Torvald cannot bear dress making going on. Nora tells Helmer she has been missing him. Nora tells Christine that Ann will help her.
Torvald thinks the dressmaker has been around
- Friendship: Nara and Mrs Linde share intimate feelings. (From their talk)
- Materialism: Nora thinks of a rich admirer who leaves money to her Mrs linde believes the story yet such a man doesn’t exist.
- Inquisitive: She inquire so much from Nora about the riches or Rank.
- Materialistic: She is concerned with Nora’s imagination about a rich man. The imagination are mere imagination yet they raise a fuss.
- But of course you won’t, will you?
- Dr Rank ia a close Family friend to the Helmers . Nora and Rank
Are so close as compared to Helmer and we find Rank sharing secrets with Nora. (Treats her as his confidant)
- Dramatic irony: Readers know there is nothing like a rich admirer but only mere imaginations yet Mrs Linde does not. Mrs Linde thinks Rank gave a loan to Nora yet the reader knows it is Krogstad who is lent Money
Humour: It is comical when Mrs Linde believes that Nora has an old rich admirer who will leave money to Nora after his death. Mr Linde raising a fuss.
- The bond from Krostad which Nora signed forging her father’s signature. (2marks)
- Lack skills
- Without him knowing
- The above narrative is dilemma story it involves making critical decisions in life. The woman is in a critical situation where she needs to make a critical decision on how handle the baby.
- Opening formula-A long time ago
- Moral lesson - We should be very careful when making decisions. The two friends made an decision and regretted later
- Closing formula- This development marked the end of the friendship between the two young men
- It is ironical that the two husbands were great friends to the level of marrying one wife but they fall out immediately the baby is born. It shows that jealousy plays out between the two relationships.
- Both of them are naïve –agreed to marry and share one wife thinking that their friendship would withstand.
Both of them are foolish-They make uninformed decision of marrying one wife without looking into the challenges that may arise in the fore days.
(Any two don’t split)
- The youth :to sharpen their ability to make critical decisions
- Dowry payment-the two friends had enough bride wealth to pay for the woman
Marriage the two friends married the same woman
- Contemptuous - This society looks down upon women. They have been objectified. One woman can be married by two men and her body shared out in parts
- So critical was the situation that the father of the baby conceded and allowed his friend to refund the share of the bride wealth he had paid.
- Decisive / indecisive
- I saw the Woman
- You will pass your examinations
- His anger was obvious on you
- Had he applied for the job , he would have gotten it
- James wondered ,’’ How will the accused clear their name?
‘’How will the accused clear their names’’ James wondered.
- (The speaker is asking if the donkey has eaten/swallowed Mary
- The speaker is confirming from Mary if the donkey has eaten /been fed.