English Paper 2 Questions and Answers - Lainaku II Joint Mock Examination 2023

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Instruction to students

  • Answer all the questions
  • Candidates must answer all the questions in English.
  1. Read the passage and answer all the questions that follow. (20 marks)
    When in early 1970s ultrasound confronted me with the sight of the embryo in a womb, I simply lost my faith in abortion on demand. I did not hold onto my old convictions. The change was in its way a clean and surgical conversion. I am by nature one that works out the conflicting data, weighs the opposing argument with great care, makes a decision and then acts upon it with no lingering backward glances.

    By 1984 however, I had begun to ask myself more questions about abortion: What actually goes on in an abortion? I had done many but abortion is a blind procedure. The doctor does not see what he is doing. He puts an instrument into a uterus and he turns on a mortar and a suction machine goes on and something is vacuumed out; it ends up as little pile of meat in a gauze bag. I wanted to know what happened, so in 1984 I said to a friend of mine who was doing fifteen or maybe twenty abortions a day:‘ Look ,do me a favour,Jay .Next Saturday when you are doing all these abortions put an ultra sound on the mother and tape it on me.”

    He did, and when he looked at the tapes with me in the editing studio, he was so affected that he never did another abortion. Although I had not performed an abortion in five years, I was shaken to the very roots of my soul by what I saw. The tapes were shockingly amazing. Some of the tapes weren’t of very good quality but I selected one that was of better quality than the others and began to show it at pro- life gatherings around the country.(I had my first contact with pro-life movement in 1981 when the then president of the National Right to Life Committee, Carolyn Gerster, had gotten in touch with me).

    At the time, I was speaking at a pro-life meetings around the country in weekends, and the response to the tape was so intense and dramatic that finally I was approached by a man named Don Smith, who wanted to make my tape into a film. I agreed that it would be a good idea. That is how The Silent Scream, which was to generate so many furore, came to be made. We showed it for the first time in Fort Lauderdale, Florida, on January3, 1985. The reaction was instantaneous. Everybody was up in arms because The Silent Scream represented an enormous threat to the abortion forces, and because it escalated the war (it is not really a debate- we don’t debate with each, we scream at one another). For the first time, we had the technology, and they had nothing.

    The Silent Scream depicted a twelve- week- foetus being torn to pieces in the uterus by the combination of suction and crushing instrumentation by the abortionist. It was so powerful that pro choicers trotted out their heaviest hitters to denounce the tape. They very cleverly deflected the impact of the film into an academic cul- de- suc: a dispute regarding whether the foetus feels pain during an abortion. The impetus for the debate came from an on – the- record musing by the then President, Ronald Reagan, as to how much pain the foetus feels during an abortion.
    (Source: The Hand of God: A journey from death to life by the Abortion doctor who changed his mind- Bernard N. Nathanson, MD)
    1. Based on your understanding of the entire passage, comment on the nature of the writer’s ‘old convictions’. (2 marks)
    2. Explain why it was easy for doctors such as the writer to carry out abortions prior to introduction of ultrasound technology? (2 marks)
    3. What are the names that are commonly used to refer to the two opposing groups mentioned in the passage. ( 2 marks)
    4. Briefly describe, in your own words, how those who supported abortion tried to undermine the impact of ‘The Silent Scream’. (2 marks)
    5. “ I was shaken to the very roots of my soul by what I saw’’. Rewrite this sentence beginning: (What…) (1 mark)
    6. Make notes on the way abortion is carried out according to this passage. (4 marks)
    7. Identify and illustrate the use of parenthesis in the passage, give two examples. (2 marks)
    8. Provide one example from the passage to illustrate the need for leaders to weigh their words carefully. ( 2 marks)
    9. Explain the meaning of the following words as used in the passage. ( 3 marks)
      1. convictions
      2. escalated
      3. impetus
  2. Read the extract below and answer the questions that follow.
    Helmer: You blind, foolish woman!
    Nora: I must try and get some sense, Torvald.
    Helmer: To desert your home, your husband and your children! And you don’t consider what people will say!
    Nora: I cannot consider that at all. I only know that it is necessary for me.
    Helmer: It’s shocking. This is how you would neglect your most sacred duties.
    Nora: What do you consider my most sacred duties?
    Helmer: Do I need to tell you that? Are they not your duties to your husband and your children?
    Nora: I have other duties just as sacred.
    Helmer: That you have not. What duties could those be?
    Nora: Duties to myself.
    Helmer: Before all else, you are a wife and a mother.
    Nora: I don’t believe that any longer. I believe that before all else I am a reasonable human being, just as you are – or, at all events, that I must try and become one. I know quite well, Torvald, that most people would think you right, and that views of that kind are to be found in books; but I can no longer content myself with what most people say, or with what is found in books. I must think over things for myself and get to understand them.
    Helmer: Can you not understand your place in your own home? Have you not a reliable guide in such matters as that? – have you no religion?
    Nora: I am afraid, Torvald, I do not exactly know what religion is.
    Helmer: What are you saying?
    Nora: I know nothing but what the clergyman said, when I went to be confirmed. He told us that religion was this, and that, and the other. When I am away from all this, and am alone, I will look into that matter too. I will see if what the clergyman said is true, or at all events if it is true from me.
    Helmer: This is unheard of in a girl of your age! But if religion cannot lead you aright, let me try and awaken your conscience. I suppose you have some moral sense? Or – answer me – am I to think you have none?
    Nora: I assure you, Torvald, that is not an easy question to answer. I really don’t know. The things perplexes me altogether. I only know that you and I look at it in quite a different light. I am learning, too, that the law is quite another thing from what I supposed; but I find it impossible to convince myself that the law is right. According to it a woman has no right to spare her old dying father, or to save her husband’s life. I can’t believe that.
    Helmer: You talk like a child. You don’t understand the conditions of the world in which you live.
    1. Place the excerpt in its immediate context (4 Marks)
    2. Contrast the character traits of Nora and Helmer in this excerpt (4 Marks)
    3. Discuss two themes evident in this excerpt. (4 Marks)
    4. Identify and illustrate one style used in this excerpt. (2 Marks)
    5. From elsewhere in this play, mention how Nora spares her old dying father and saves her husband’s life. (4 Marks)
    6. Identify Nora’s tone in this extract. (2 Marks)
    7. “You talk like a child.” Which other two characters treat Nora as a child? (2 Marks)
    8. Give the meaning of the following words as used in this excerpt. (3 Marks)
      1. Perplexes
      2. Content
      3. Conscience
  3. Read the poem given below and answer the questions that follow.
    The outcome? Conflicting rumours
    As to what faction murdered
    The one man who, had he survived
    Might have ruled us without corruption.
    Not that it matters now:
    We’re busy collecting the dead.
    Counting them, hard though it is
    To be sure what side they were on
    What’s left of their bodies and faces
    Tells of no need but for burial
    And mutilation was practiced
    By right, left and centre alike.
    As for the children and women
    Who knows what they wanted
    Apart from the usual things?

    Food is scarce now, and men are scarce
    Whole villages burnt to the ground
    New cities in disrepair.
    Their war is over. Somebody must have won.
    Somebody will have won. When peace is declared.
    1. According to the poem what are the consequences of war? ( 4 Marks)
    2. Identify two stylistic devices the poet employed and state their effectiveness. (6 Marks)
    3. What is the poet’s attitude towards war? (2 Marks)
    4. What meanings do the following lines convey?
      1. Food is scarce now, and men are scarce. (2 Marks)
      2. Whole villages burnt to the ground. (2 Marks)
    5. From the poem, why would you say that war is a no win situation? (2 marks)
    6. What is the mood of the poem? (2 Marks)
    1. Rewrite the following sentences according to the instructions given without changing the meaning. (3 marks)
      1. Maria said the young men had stolen her sweet potatoes. (Rewrite beginning with: Maria accused…)
      2. It required a lot of planning and great courage to introduce free primary education in Kenya. (Begin: The…)
      3. The judges declared that Cheptoo had won. (To end with: … winner)
    2. Use the correct form of the word in brackets in each of the sentences below (3 marks)
      1. The movie introduction was ……………………………(a spectacle)
      2. Maimuna is an ………………………………………… girl. (adventure)
      3. His punishment will be ……………………………….. to the others. (deter)
    3. Supply a question tag to the following sentences. (2Marks)
      1. I am tall.
      2. Get out.
    4. Use a preposition to complete the following sentences (2marks)
      1. The buffalo charged .........................Lilian
      2. The thief was oblivious....................... the trap
    5. Use a phrasal verb to replace the underlined words (3marks)
      1. The young man resembles his father.
      2. I cannot understand what he is saying.
      3. The meeting was cancelled at the last minute.
    6. Explain two different meanings of the following sentence. (2 marks)
      1. The chicken is ready to eat.


    1. The writer believed in abortion on demand before he saw an embryo in the womb through an ultrasound. (He lost faith in abortion since then)√2
    2. Because one could not see what he or she was doing/Abortion was a blind procedure. √2
      • Pro-Life.√1
      • Pro- Choice.√1
    4. Pro- choicers tried to undermine the impact of the silent Scream by disputing whether the foetus feels pain during abortion. √2
    5. What I saw shook me to the very roots of my soul. √1
      • he puts an instrument into a uterus
      • he turns on a motor and a suction machine goes on
      • Something is vacuumed out
      • It ends up as a little pile of meat in a gauze bag.      (4 x1) 1 mark each
        Must be in note form if not, deduct 50% at each of the points
    7. (It’s not really a debate- we don’t debate with each, we scream at one another). (I had my first contact with pro-life movement in 1981 when the then president of the National Right to Life Committee, Carolyn Gerster, had gotten in touch with me). .√2
    8. Because the words of the then President of Reagan, musing about how much pain in the foetus feels during an abortion ,lent impetus to the pro- choicers voice.√2
      1.  Beliefs/opinions/views
      2. Intensified/ magnified/ heightened/worsened
      3. Momentum/ drive/impulsion/propulsion 
    1. Before
      • Nora agrees with Helmer that she is not fit to bring up their children and that she must undertake the task of educating herself. ✔ she informs Helmer of her plans to leave the following day ✔
      • Nora tells Helmer that she was going to see if she could make out who was right between the world and herself ✔ Helmer accuses Nora of being ill, delirious and out of her mind✔
      • Nora is non-conformist as she questions the society and religion while Helmer is a conformist who abides and does not question religion and society norms.
      • Nora is composed while Helmer is temperamental. Helmer shouts and abuses Nora but Nora remains calm.
        (Any other well illustrated contrast)
      • Place of women✔ “…….. are they not your duties to your husband and children?” ✔
      • Feminism/Female empowerment✔ “…… I believe that before all else I am a reasonable human being just as you are …”✔
      • Marriage – There are duties expected of a wife to her husband.
      • Change – Nora realizes that she has sacred duties to herself.
                      − Nora would like to question religion and not just take what the clergyman said.
      • Religion - Nora does not just want to take what the clergyman said while Helmer considers religion to be a reliable guide to a woman’s position (Any other well illustrated theme) score for any 2 well illustrated themes.
    4. Irony – Helmer thinks that Nora doesn’t understand her role in her own home yet she does.
    5. Torvald’s life was in danger ✔as he was ill and to save him, the doctors said that the only way was for him to live in the south. Nora therefore forged her father’s signature ✔ as he was gravely ill then and she did not want✔ to trouble him as a guarantee to enable her obtain ✔two hundred and fifty pounds from Krogstad to take her husband to the South thus saving his life.
    6. Nora is skeptical/ doubtful. − She questions everything that Helmer tells her as he tries to convince her not to leave. She questions her place as a woman, religion and even the law.
      • Mrs Linde – Thinks Nora doesn’t know much about the world i.e. its trouble and burdens of life.
      • Nora’s father – Nora tells us that her father called her his doll’s child and played with her. Did not allow her to put across her opinion.
      • Perplexes – confuses
      • Content – satisfy
      • Conscience – moral sense/ value.
      • Death√ = 1 mark
      • Mutilation √ = 1 mark
      • Famine / hunger √ = 1 mark
      • Destruction of villages and cities √ = 1 mark   4 x 1 = 4 Marks
      1. Rhetorical questions √
        “The outcome? 1 mark
        “Apart from the usual things ? √ 1 mark
        Effect: they provoke the readers mind/ make the reader think/ ponder on war more deeply. 1 mark 
        Mark 1 mk identification
        1 mk illustration 
        I mk effect  (3 marks)
      2. Alliteration √
        Who knows what ……….” √
        “Somebody will have won ……..” √ mark as in (i) above: Total 3 marks
        Effect: makes the poem rhythmical (musical), interesting and memorable Total 6 marks
    3. Contemptuous √
      Illustration: “We are busy collecting the dead” √
      Disapproving there are loses of lives from all the sides engaged in the war
      Accept any other well illustrated attitude.
      Any 1 x 2 = 2 marks
      1. There is hunger / famine for the few people who survived the war and shortfall of labour supply√ 1mk
      2. Homesteads have been completely destroyed / lack of shelter √ 1mk
    5. Good leaders like those who are not, also perish √/
      People from both sides lose their lives √    (1point x 2 = 2 marks)
    6. Sad / melancholic/ mood of sorrow √ 1mk
      Illustration: We are busy collecting the dead. √ 1mk (Consider any other relevant illustration)
  3. Grammar.
      1. Maria accused the young men of stealing her sweet potatoes.
      2. The introduction of free primary education in Kenya required a lot of planning and great courage.
      3. The judges declared Cheptoo the winner.
      1. spectacular
      2. adventurous
      3. deterrent
      1. aren’t I?
      2. will you?
        (The candidate must rewrite the sentences)
      1. at
      2. of
      1. takes after
      2. make out
      3. called off
      1. The chicken is cooked and can be eaten
      2. The chicken can be fed.
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