History Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Royal Exam Series Post Mock Trial Exams 2022

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HISTORY & GOVERNMENT
PAPER 1

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

  • This paper consists of three sections A, B and C.
  • Answer all questions in section A, three from Section B and two from Section C.
  •  Answers to all the questions must be written legibly in the answer booklet provided.


Questions

Section A (25 marks)

  1. Give two examples of unwritten sources of information on history and government. (2 marks)
  2. Name two types of dwellings used by early man during the Old Stone Age period. (2 marks)
  3. Apart from Akamba, identify two Eastern Bantu communities which settled in Kenya during the pre-colonial period. (2 marks)
  4. Identify one way in which monsoon winds led to the development of trade between the coast and the outside world. (1 mark)
  5. Give one reason why Seyyid Said took direct control of the settlements along the coast of Kenya. (1 mark)
  6. Identify the main reason why suspected criminals are tried in a court of law.
  7. Name the document which contains the rights of a child in Kenya. (1 mark)
  8. Identify the main disadvantage of democracy. (1 mark)
  9. Identify the main reason why the Local Government was established in Kenya during the colonial period. (1 mark)
  10. Give two effects of the Wanga collaboration with the British during the establishment of colonial rule in Kenya. (2 marks)
  11. Give two ways through which the colonial government in Kenya used to control the migration of Africans to urban centres. (2 mark
  12. Give the main contribution of Christian missionaries in Kenya during the struggle for independence up to 1939. (1 mark)
  13. Identify the main voting system used in Kenya during the general elections. (1 mark)
  14. Outline two reasons that may lead to the removal of a County Governor from office in Kenya. (2 marks)
  15. Name the administrative head of the Kenyan parliament. (1 mark)
  16. State two ways in which the rule of law is applied in Kenya. (2 marks)
  17. State two ways in which harambee spirit promotes national unity in Kenya.

Section B (45 marks)

  1.          
    1. Give five reasons responsible for the migration of the River-Lake Nilotes into Kenya (5 marks)
    2. Describe the political organization of the Borana during the 19th century.
  2.               
    1. Identify five factors responsible for the development of the Indian Ocean trade. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five results of the Indian Ocean trade on the people of East Africa. (10 marks)
  3.       
    1. Identify five demands of the East African Association (EAA). (5 marks)
    2. Explain five roles of women in the struggle for independence in Kenya. (10 marks)
  4.       
    1. State five categories of land classified as Public Land in Kenya. (5 marks)
    2. Expain five functions of the national land commission in Kenya (10 marks)

Section C (30 marks)

  1.      
    1. State three ways in which one can lose citizenship by registration in Kenya. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six responsibilities of a Kenyan citizen. (12 mark)
  2.        
    1. Give the composition of the Cabinet in Kenya. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six solutions to the challenges facing the Judiciary in Kenya. (12 marks)
  3.    
    1. State three principles of Devolution in Kenya. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six roles of Commission on Revenue Allocation. (12 marks)


Marking Scheme

  1. Give two examples of unwritten sources of information on history and government. (2 marks)
    • Oral traditions/oral sources
    • Archaeology/paleontology
    • Genetics
    • Linguistics
    • Anthropology
      Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (1 mark)

  2. Name two types of dwellings used by early man during the Old Stone Age period. (2 marks)
    • Rock shelters
    • Tree trunks
    • In trees
    • In caves
    • In forests
      Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (1 mark)

  3. Apart from Akamba, identify two Eastern Bantu communities which settled in Kenya during the pre-colonial period. (2 marks)
    • The Aembu
    • The Ameru
    • The Agikuyu
    • The Mijikenda
    • Mbeere
    • Pokomo
    • Taita
      Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (1 mark)

  4. Identify one way in which monsoon winds led to the development of trade between the coast and the outside world. (1 mark)
    • They facilitated the movement of goods to and from the Kenyan Coast / dhows.
    • They facilitated the movement of traders who established themselves along the Kenyan coast.
      Any 1 point @ 1 mark each (1 mark)

  5. Give one reason why Seyyid Said took direct control of the settlements along the coast of Kenya. (1 mark)
    • To ensure revenue from taxes was remitted to Oman
    • To prevent the rulers/ governors of the coastal settlements form declaring themselves independent.
    • For maximum economic control
    • To control the Indian Ocean trade
      Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (1 mark)

  6. Identify the main reason why suspected criminals are tried in a court of law. (1 mark)
    • To allow suspected criminals the right to free and fair trial/be proved guilty or not.
      1 point @ 1 mark (1 mark)

  7. Name the document which contains the rights of a child in Kenya. (1 mark)
    • The Children’s act of 2001
      1 point @ 1 mark (1 mark)

  8. Identify the main disadvantage of democracy. (1 mark)
    • It promotes dictatorship by the majority.
      1 point @ 1 mark (1 mark)

  9. Identify the main reason why the Local Government was established in Kenya during the colonial period. (1 mark)
    • To link the central government with local communities
      1 point @ 1 mark (1 mark)

  10. Give two effects of the Wanga collaboration with the British during the establishment of colonial rule in Kenya. (2 marks)
    • He was made the paramount chief of the Wanga in 1909 thus gained prestige.
    • Some of his people were used as agents of the British administration and were deployed as chiefs to other areas of western Kenya.
    • Mumias was made the administrative center of British rule in Western Kenya.
    • The British assisted Mumia in acquiring more territories like Bunyala and Samia.
    • He gained material benefits like firearms and manufactured goods like clothes.
    • His people were converted to Christianity.
    • He was assisted by the British to subdue his enemies like the Luo of Ugenya and other Abaluyia clans.
    • The kingdom was used as a base to colonize communities in western Kenya
    • They lost their independence to the British
      Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (1 mark)

  11. Give two ways through which the colonial government in Kenya used to control the migration of Africans to urban centres. (2 marks)
    • Taking head count of those who were supposed to love in urban centers/reserves
    • Enacting strict rules about migrations into urban centers/ creation of African reserves
    • Ensuring that only those who had specific activities to undertake in the urban centers lived there
    • Introducing Kipande system
      Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)

  12. Give the main contribution of Christian missionaries in Kenya during the struggle for independence up to 1939. (1 mark)
    • They represented Africans in Legislative Council
      1 point @ 1 mark (1 mark)

  13. Identify the main voting system used in Kenya during the general elections. (1 mark)
    • Secret Ballot
      1 point @ 1 mark (1 mark)

  14. Outline two reasons that may lead to the removal of a County Governor from office in Kenya. (2 marks)
    • Gross violation of this Constitution or any other law
    • If one commits a crime under national or international law
    • Abuse of office or gross misconduct
    • Physical or mental incapacity
      Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)

  15. Name the administrative head of the Kenyan parliament. (1 mark)
    • The Clerk
      1 point @ 1 mark (1 mark)

  16. State two ways in which the rule of law is applied in Kenya. (2 marks)
    • By establishing an independent court system to try criminal and civil offences.
    • Ensuring that suspected criminals are tried in a court of law and if found guilty, they are sentenced.
    • By allowing those found guilty to appeal for retrial.
    • Entitling any accused person legal representation by an advocate of the high court.
    • By arresting criminals.
    • Subjecting all citizens in the country to be governed by the same law.
      Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)

  17. State two ways in which harambee spirit promotes national unity in Kenya.(2 marks)
    • It encouraged people to work together
    • It promotes cooperation
    • It promotes equity in the distribution of resources
    • It enhances interaction of the people
    • It promotes patriotism
      Any 2 points @ 1 mark each (2 marks)

  18.          
    1. Give five reasons responsible for the migration of the River-Lake Nilotes into Kenya (5 marks)
      • Due to drought/famine/natural calamities
      • Due to spirit of adventure.
      • Due to population pressure.
      • Due to internal conflicts/feuds.
      • Due to outbreak of diseases/epidemics.
      • They were searching for better fishing grounds.
      • Due to external attacks
      • Need for pasture and water for their livestock
        Any 5 points @ 1 mark each (5 marks)

    2. Describe the political organization of the Borana during the 19th century. (10 marks)
      • The family was the smallest political unit
      • They had a decentralized system of government under clan elders
      • They lived in a camp and the senior most married man was recognized as its head and enforced rules and settled disputes within the family.
      • They were grouped into clans made up of related families
      • The clans were governed by the council of elders.
      • The council of elders maintained law and order in the clan and enforced rules
      • They were divided into two groups/halves/kinship called moieties for effective administration.
      • They were further subdivided into sub moieties which were then divided into clans.
      • Each half/kinship was administered by a leader called Kallu.
      • Kallu’s positions were hereditary and they settled major inter clan disputes.
      • They administered with the help of the council of elders.
      • They had a warrior class defended the community
        Any 5 points @ 2 marks each (10 marks)

  19.                       
    1. Identify five factors responsible for the development of the Indian Ocean trade. (5 marks)
      • Availability of items of trade at the coast and those from other countries
      • There was high demand of trade items by people at the coast and those from other countries.
      • Accessibility of the Kenyan coast by sea.
      • Presence of enterprising merchants in both the East African coast and the outside world like the Arabs.
      • Existence of local trade along the East African Coast formed a base
      • Improvements in water transport especially the building of strong sailing ships/ship building.
      • Existence of monsoon winds facilitated the movement of sailing ships
      • Presence of natural harbours at the coast where ships could dock with ease.
      • Relative political stability at the Kenyan coast.
        Any 5 points @ 1 mark each (5 marks)

    2. Explain five results of the Indian Ocean trade on the people of East Africa. (10 marks)
      • It led to development/growth of towns/city states along the coast
      • Many foreigners settled in the East African coast thereby increasing their population in the region
      • Islamic code of law/sharia was introduced which was used to govern the city states/people
      • Islamic religion widely spread in the region as many people were converted into it
      • Arabic/Persian architecture was introduced which were reflected in the design of houses/mosques built in the region
      • Islamic education was introduced where Islamic schools/Madrassa were constructed
      • There was intermarriage between the early visitors and the coastal inhabitants resulting in a new breed of people called Waswahili
      • Kiswahili language emerged which was a combination of Bantu and Arabic languages
      • There was introduction of new crops like rice, cloves, millet, and fruits which became the staple food of the coastal people.
      • Islamic dressing styles were introduced where men wore long robes (kanzu) and women wore veils (buibui)
      • There was the growth of wealthy merchants who lived in splendor
      • There emerged a new structure of administration controlled by the sultans
      • It led to conflict between communities as the demand for slaves increased resulting in insecurity
      • Decline of local industries
      • Exposure of the region led to colonization
        Any 5 points @ 2 marks each (10 marks)

  20.                 
    1. Identify five demands of the East African Association (EAA). (5 marks)
      • They demanded for the return of alienated land.
      • They wanted the colonial government to abolish hut and poll taxes.
      • They demanded for the abolition of the Kipande.
      • They demanded for better working and living conditions.
      • They demanded that election to the Legislative council be on a common roll.
      • They demanded the abolition of forced labour.
      • They demanded for more education for Africans.
      • They demanded an end to compulsory destocking.
      • They demanded for revocation of colonial status.
        Any 5 points @ 1 mark each (5 marks)

    2. Explain five roles of women in the struggle for independence in Kenya. (10 marks)
      • They raised funds for supporting political activities.
      • They provided moral support to the freedom fighters to go on with the struggle.
      • They demanded for the release of detained freedom fighters like Harry Thuku.
      • They took part in the struggle where some were even leaders like Field Marshal Muthoni, Nduta wa Kore and Mekatilili.
      • They supplied food and arms to the freedom fighters in their hideouts.
      • They acted as spies for the freedom fighters.
      • They administered oaths of secrecy.
      • They kept their homes intact as men continued with the struggle.
      • They endured pain and suffering inflicted by the colonial government for the sake of liberation e.g. rape
        Any 5 points @ 2 marks each (10 marks)

  21.                 
    1. State five categories of land classified as Public Land in Kenya.(5 marks)
      • Land used or occupied by the state organ.
      • Land transferred to the state by sale, surrender or reversion.
      • Land which no individual or community ownership can be established.
      • Land where minerals or mineral oils have been discovered.
      • All government forests, game reserves, water catchment areas, national parks and national sanctuaries.
      • All roads and thoroughfares provided by the Act of parliament.
      • All rivers, lakes and water bodies defined by an act of parliament.
      • The territorial sea, the exclusive zone and the sea bed.
      • The continental shelf.
      • All land between the high and lower water-marks.

  22.                   
    1. State three ways in which one can lose citizenship by registration in Kenya. (3 marks)
      • If one receives a jail term for a period of three years or more within five years from the period of registration
      • If one has been convicted of treason or an offence with a penalty of at least seven years of imprisonment or more, any time after registration
      • If citizenship was obtained through fraud or corruption.
      • If one associates with a Kenyan enemy or gives out secrets to an enemy or assists the enemy in any way.
        Any 3 points @ 1 mark each (3 marks)

    2. Explain six responsibilities of a Kenyan citizen. (12 marks)
      • To contribute to positive development of the country through hard work regardless of the job one is doing
      • Participate in all democratic processes in the country like elections and referendum.
      • Contribute positively ones’ views on issues affecting the community like taking part in debates.
      • Report law breakers and those intending to break the law.
      • Be mindful of other peoples’ welfare law like assisting the disabled, the aged, children and the less fortunate in the society.
      • Ensure proper utilization of public and private facilities and property
      • Maintain high moral and ethical standards in the society.
      • Respecting the rights and freedoms of other citizens.
      • Should be loyal and patriotic towards his or her country.
      • Being accountable and transparent especially public servants and other citizens in dealing with issues.
      • Maintaining high level of integrity in the society like avoiding vices like corruption.
      • Paying taxes to the government so that it can generate revenue for development
      • Respecting elected leaders and supporting them in initiating development projects.
        Any 6 points @ 2 marks each (12 marks)
  23.            
    1. Give the composition of the Cabinet in Kenya. (3 marks)
      • The President
      • The Deputy President
      • Attorney General
      • The Cabinet Secretaries
        Any 3 points @ 1 mark each (3 marks)

    2. Explain six solutions to the challenges facing the Judiciary in Kenya. (12 marks)
      • Employment of more personnel like judges and magistrates to help clear the backlog of cases.
      • Improving the terms of service and remunerations of judges and magistrates.
      • Increasing the funding to the Judiciary to enable it acquire modern equipment, and build more courts.
      • Educating the public to make them aware of their legal rights and court procedures.
      • Making courts more independent and free from external interference.
      • Lowering court fees to make them affordable to ordinary citizens.
      • Reviewing the Penal Code to make it relevant and responsive to changing circumstances.
      • Making courts corruption free zones by creating awareness on the ills of corruption.
        Any 6 points @ 2 marks each (12 marks)
  24.                
    1. State three principles of Devolution in Kenya. (3 marks)
      • It is based on democratic principles.
      • It is founded on the doctrine of separation of powers.
      • Have a reliable source of revenue to enable it govern and deliver services effectively.
      • Ensure gender balance in their representative bodies.
        Any 3 points @ 1 mark each (3 marks)

    2. Explain six roles of Commission on Revenue Allocation. (12 marks)
      • Making recommendations on equitable sharing of revenue raised by the National Government.
      • Revenue sharing between National and County governments.
      • Sharing revenue among the County governments.
      • Making recommendations on other matters concerning financing and financial management by County governments.
      • Define and enhance the revenue sources of the County and the National governments.
      • Encourage fiscal responsibility to ensure accountability for funds through appropriate financial procedures.
      • Determine, publish, and regularly review the criteria by which to identify the marginalized areas.
      • Submits its recommendations to the Senate, the National Assembly, the National Executive, County Assembly and the County Executives for approval.
        Any 6 points @ 2 marks each (12 marks)

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