History Paper 2 Questions and Answers - Royal Exam Series Post Mock Trial Exams 2022

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HISTORY & GOVERNMENT
PAPER 2

INSTRUCTIONS TO CANDIDATES

  • This paper consists of three sections A, B and C
  • Answer all the questions in section A, three questions from section B and two questions from section C
  • Candidates should answer the questions in English


Questions

SECTION A (25MARKS)
Answer all questions in this section

  1. Name one of the periods of History (1mk)
  2.  Identify the hominid that is associated with the invention of fire (1mk)
  3. Give two reasons that made Early human beings to live in groups during the stone age period (2mks)
  4. State two theories that explain the origin and spread of agriculture
  5. Give two reasons why the camel is referred to as “the ship of the desert” (2mks)
  6. What was the main item of trade from North Africa in the Trans-Saharan Trade.(1mk)
  7. Give two factors that enhanced the spread of iron working in Africa. (2mks)
  8. Give the main advantage of a cell phone (2mks)
  9. Name two communities that did not take part in the MajiMaji uprising of 1905 – 1907 in Tanganyika (2mks)
  10. Name the European power that colonized Zimbabwe (1mk)
  11. Name two communes in Senegal where assimilation was successful
  12. Give the main reason for the convening of the Berlin conference of 1880-1884 (1mk)
  13. Give the main function of international court of justice (1mk)
  14. List two founders of Pan-Africanism (2mks)
  15. Name any two weapons used during cold war (2mks)
  16. Name the European power that was blamed for the outbreak of the first world war (1mk)
  17. Name the international organization that took over from O.A.U. (1mk)

SECTION B (45 MARKS)
Answer any three questions from this section

  1.          
    1. Give five disadvantages of open field system of farming in Britain before Agrarian Revolution (5 marks)
    2. Explain five effects of Agrarian Revolution in the United States of America (USA). (10 marks)
  2.         
    1. Give five methods used to acquire slaves from West Africa during the Trans- Atlantic trade. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five social effects of the Trans-Atlantic slave trade. (10 marks)
  3.       
    1. Identify five factors for the growth of early urban centres in Africa. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five solutions to the challenges facing Johannesburg as a modern urban centre. (10 marks)
  4.            
    1. State five reasons for Kabaka Mutesa I collaboration with the British. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five reasons why the Shona and Ndebele were defeated during the Chimurenga war (1896-1897). (10 marks)

Section C (30 marks)
Answer any two questions from this section

  1.          
    1. Give three factors that led to the rise of the Shona Kingdom. (3 marks)
    2. Describe the political organization of the Asante kingdom in the 19th century. (12 marks)
  2.        
    1. Identify three roles of the Emirs in Northern Nigeria during the colonial period. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six reasons why the British used direct rule in Zimbabwe. (12 marks)
  3.          
    1. State the three permanent members of the council of the league of nations (3mks)
    2. Explain six achievements of Economic Community of West African states (ECOWAS)


Marking Scheme

  1. Name one of the periods of History (1mk)
    • Pre- History
    • History

  2. Identify the hominid that is associated with the invention of fire (1mk)
    • Homo erectus

  3. Give two reasons that made Early human beings to live in groups during the stone age period (2mks)
    • For companionship
    • For security
    • To share resources

  4. State two theories that explain the origin and spread of agriculture (2mks)
    •  Diffusion theory
    •  Independent theory

  5. Give two reasons why the camel is referred to as “the ship of the desert” (2mks)
    • Can service for long without food and water
    • Feet are adapted to desert conditions
    • Can carry extra food in the stomach
    • Stores fat in the hump

  6. What was the main item of trade from North Africa in the Trans-Saharan Trade (1mk)
    • Salt

  7. Give two factors that enhanced the spread of iron working in Africa (2mks)
    • Migration
    •  Trade
    • Warfare
    • Intermarriages

  8. Give the main advantage of a cell phone (2mks)
    • Its portable

  9. Name two communities that did not take part in the MajiMaji uprising of 1905 – 1907 in Tanganyika (2mk)
    • Hehe
    • Nyamwezi
    • Chagga

  10. Name the European power that colonized Zimbabwe (1mk)
    • Britain

  11. Name two communes in Senegal where assimilation was successful (2mks)
    • Dakar
    • Coree
    • St. Louis
    • Rutisque

  12. Give the main reason for the convening of the Berlin conference of 1884-1884 (1mk)
    • To peacefully divide Africa among European powers/ agree on the rules of partition of Africa

  13. Give the main function of international court of justice (1mk)
    • Settling disputes over international borders

  14. List two funders of Pan-Africanism (2mks)
    • Booker T. Washington
    • George Padmore
    • Marcus Garvey
    • W.E.B. Dubois

  15. Name any two weapons used during cold war (2mks)
    • Propaganda
    • Economic sanctions
    • Military assistance
    • Financial assistance

  16. Name the European power that was blamed for the outbreak of the first world war (1mk)
    • Germany

  17. Name the international organization that took over from O.A.U (1mk)
    • African union

  18.          
    1. Give five disadvantages of open field system of farming in Britain before Agrarian Revolution (5 marks)
      • There was underutilization of land since it was left fallow
      • Cart tracks and paths that went through unfenced fields wasted land.
      • The practice of ploughing land and leaving it idle wasted time and labour.
      • Land pieces were scattered hence families had to travel long distances before reaching them thus wasted time
      • Common grazing led to the spread of diseases among animals.
      • It was difficult to practice selective breeding.
      • The existed strips limited the use of machines
      • Shortage of hay for winter compelled farmer to reduce some of their animals in autumn by slaughtering then preserve meat by salting
        Any 5 points @ 1 mark each (5 marks)

    2. Explain five effects of Agrarian Revolution in the United States of America (USA). (10 marks)
      • The introduction of new farm machines enabled farmers to put more land under cultivation
      • It encouraged agricultural research/scientific inventions which resulted into better crop varieties/animal breeds
      • There was improved transport infrastructure which speeded up the movement of farm produce
      • The use of machines in farms replaced human labour thus unemployment
      • Increased population growth
      • It led to expansion of agriculture related industries which processed/ packaged/ preserved farm produce
      • Increased food production led to expansion of trading activities
      • Use of fertilizers/hybrid seeds increased food production
      • It led to urbanization/growth of towns
      • Many parts of USA was opened up for farming and for settlement
      • It led to shipping of many slaves from Africa.
      • Diversification of agriculture was realized
      • Surplus food has been given out as food aid/humanitarian assistance
        Any 5 points @ 2 marks each (10 marks)

  19.               
    1. Give five methods used to acquire slaves from West Africa during the Trans- Atlantic trade. (5 marks)
      • Raids organized by chiefs
      • Sale of war captives
      • Leaders sold their subjects to enrich themselves/ Slaves were exchanged with European products
      • They were obtained through kidnappin
      • Social misfits were also sold
      • Through enticement or trickery
      • Selling of debtors/ panyarring
        Any 5 points @ 1 mark each (5 marks)

    2. Explain five social effects of the Trans-Atlantic slave trade. (10 marks)
      • It led to depopulation of West Africa as many people were taken as slaves
      • Slave raids and inter-tribal wars led to deaths of many people.
      • There was destruction of property like farms and houses due to slave raids.
      • There was increased warfare and conflicts as stronger kings attacked weak ones to obtain slaves
      • The system of capturing, sale, and shipment of slaves caused fear and untold suffering among many people.
      • It changed the role of African leaders as they abandoned their roles as guardians of the people to slave raiding.
      • It led to change in social roles as women became heads of their families owing to enslavement of many men.
      • The Africans developed a taste of western manufactured goods like clothes.
      • It led to the foundation of Liberia and Sierra Leone as settlements of freed slaves.
      • It led to the growth of mullato population resulting from intermarriages between Europeans and the Africans.
      • Some trading centres grew to towns
      • The trade exposed West Africa to many diseases like tuberculosis.
      • Some African cultures spread to the Americas
        Any 5 points @ 2 marks each (10 marks)

  20.                   
    1. Identify five factors for the growth of early urban centres in Africa. (5 marks)
      • Discovery of crop farming led to the development of farming centers which attracted population and later became towns
      • Trading activities between different communities led to the development of trading centres which later became towns.
      • Trading centres that were used for religious activities developed into towns.
      • Areas that had adequate security attracted population concentration and thus led to the development of towns.
      • Places that were used for administrative functions developed into towns
      • Places along the coast where ships stopped for supplies developed into towns.
      • Mining centres developed into settlements which became towns
      • Places where water for use was available attracted settlements and grew into towns.
      • Towns developed at cross roads
      • Development of centres of learning e.g. Alexandria
        Any 5 points @ 1 mark each (5 marks)

    2. Explain five solutions to the challenges facing Johannesburg as a modern urban centre. (10 marks)
      • Development of better housing estates to upgrade the slums.
      • Creation of more job opportunities to create employment.
      • Creation of aids awareness campaigns among the town dwellers.
      • Development of dual carriageways, underpasses and bypasses to ease congestion.
      • Better planning of the city has been adopted.
      • Partnership with the private sector has assisted in alleviating shortage of essential services like water, electricity, schools and hospitals.
        Any 5 points @ 2 marks each (10 marks)

  21.                 
    1. State five reasons for Kabaka Mutesa I collaboration with the British. (5 marks)
      • He wanted British protection against Khedive Ismail’s threat to annex Buganda kingdom
      • He wanted protection against Bunyoro who were Bugandas’ traditional enemie
      • He was influenced by Christian missionaries to collaborate with the British
      • He wanted his people to obtain western education and civilization from the British.
      • He wanted to obtain economic gains by trading with the British
      • Early explores like H.M. Stanley convinced him to collaborate
      • He wanted technical experts to teach his people new skills
      • The threat from Khartoum slavers/Khartoumers who were pushing southwards from Sudan while looking for slaves.
      • There were succession disputes over Bugandas’ throne
      • Threat from armed Arab traders from the coast.
      • Buganda was an open society to foreigners and was willing to accept new and constructive ideas from them.
        Any 5 points @ 1 mark each (5 marks)

    2. Explain five reasons why the Shona and Ndebele were defeated during the Chimurenga war (1896-1897). (10 marks)
      • The British received reinforcements from South Africa and Botswana.
      • There was disunity among the Africans as they fought the company from different fronts/ Some African communities also supported the British against the Ndebele and the Shona.
      • The British had superior weapons than the Africans who were ill equipped and depended on their confidence in the mediums (priests).
      • The British had large, well trained and more organized soldiers than the Africans.
      • Arrest and execution of African cult leaders like Nehanda, demoralized the Africans.
      • Cecil Rhodes was determined to suppress the resistance and establish effective occupation
      • The failure of the Mwari cult to protect the people/the magic failed to protect them against enemy bullets thus they lost hope.
      • The Ndebele economy had been weakened by drought and famine thus could not sustain the resistance. The people had also been weakened by diseases.
      • By the time of resistance, the Indunas lacked military practice as their regiments had been broken earlier.
      • There was lack of unity among the Ndebele social classes.
        Any 6 points @ 2 marks each (12 marks)

  22.                  
    1. Give three factors that led to the rise of the Shona Kingdom. (3 marks)
      • Able leaders like Nyatsimba Mutota who was a military leader
      • Participation in long distance trade made her acquire weapons for defence/wealth for the kingdom
      • Good climate/fertile soils made them have enough food
      • Had strong military for defence and expansion
      • Availability of minerals like gold and iron brought wealth to the kingdom
        Any 3 points @ 1 mark (3 marks)

    2. Describe the political organization of the Asante kingdom in the 19th century. (12 marks)
      • The empire was a centralized state divided into three divisions namely the nucleus/Kumasi states, States outside Kumasi/Amatoo, and conquered states/ provincial Asante.
      • The overall ruler of the empire was the Asantehene.
      • The office of the Asantehene was hereditary.
      • The Asantehene was the commander- in- chief of the armed forces.
      • Kumasi was under direct control of the Asantehene.
      • The conquered states were ruled by their kings but treated as provinces of the Asante.
      • The Asantehene appointed representatives in each conquered state.
      • The Asantehene ruled with the assistance of a confederacy of kings/Omanhene who took oath of allegiance to ensure loyalty to the Asantehene/the Omanhene represented the king in the provinces.
      • The conquered states and the Omanhene were allowed some autonomy

  23.                
    1. Identify three roles of the Emirs in Northern Nigeria during the colonial period.
      • They collected taxes
      • They tried cases/settled disputes
      • They maintained law and order.
      • They recruited labour for public works
      • They eliminated practices which were not acceptable to the British.
        Any 3 points @ 1 mark each (3 marks)

    2. Explain six reasons why the British used direct rule in Zimbabwe. (12 marks)
      • They desired to control the economy of Zimbabwe so as to maximize profits.
      • The local political institutions based on the Indunas had been destroyed during the British occupation of Zimbabwe
      • The existence of the British South Africa company (BSAC) personnel on the spot who were familiar with the area as well as the British system of administration.
      • They wanted to ensure complete control of the Africans to avoid any resistance.
      • The British South Africa Company had enough finance to pay the administrators.
      • The 1896 - 1897 Shona - Ndebele uprising shook European confidence in local administrators.
      • The British aimed at establishing Zimbabwe as a British dominion settlement.
      • The British found the Zimbabweans uncooperative.
      • Zimbabweans had no centralized system of administration but autonomous independent chiefdoms that had clear and distinct traditions.
        Any 6 points @ 2 marks each (12 marks)

  24.                    
    1. State the three permanent members of the council of the league of nations (3mks)
      • Britain
      • France
      • Italy
      • U.S.A.
      • Japan
        (3x1=3mks)

    2. Explain six achievements of Economic Community of West African states (ECOWAS) (12mks)
      • It has helped to restore and foster peace in several member states
      • Provision of wider market for goods from member states
      • Growth in economy due to reduced and removal of trade tariffs with respect to member states
      • Expansion of transport, economy and infrastructure
      • Has promotes free movement of citizen from one county to another
      • Standardization of education system in the region e.g. joint syllabus for West African States
      • It has enhanced cultural exchange among the member states
      • ECOWAS has set up a developed fund to assist member states

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