History Paper 2 Questions and Answers - Kenya High Post Mock 2023 Exams

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  •  This paper consists of three sections A, B and C.
  • Answer all questions in section A, three from Section B and two from Section C.
  • Candidates should answer the questions in English


Section A (25 marks)
Answer all questions in this section

  1. State the scientific theory that explains the origin of human beings. (1 mark)
  2. Give one invention that revolutionized food preservation during the 19th century (1 mark)
  3. Identify one advantage of barter as a system of exchange in Trans-Saharan trade (1 mark)
  4. Give two advantages of using the steam engine in the transport industry in the 19thcentury. (2 marks)
  5. State two economic effects of the industrial revolution in North America (2 marks)
  6. State two factors which led to the growth of Meroe as an urban center. (2 marks)
  7. State how humanitarian factors influenced the Scramble for Africa. (1 mark)
  8. State one way in which the rise of dictators in Europe contributed to the outbreak of Second World War. (1 mark)
  9. State two factors which promote economic relations between nations. (2 marks)
  10. Name one financial institution established by African Union. (1 mark)
  11. Apart from political instability in Uganda during the reign of Idi Amin, state one other reason that led to the collapse of East African Community in 1977. (1 mark)
  12. Identify two English speaking member countries of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS). (2 marks)
  13. State two ways in which the Government of Tanzania nationalized resources following the Arusha Declaration. (2 marks)
  14. Give two types of Federal Courts in the United States of America. (2 marks)
  15. State one privilege which members of British Parliament enjoy. (1 mark)
  16. Name one type of elections held for the House of Commons in Britain. (1 mark)
  17. Identify two circumstances that may make the Vice President assume Presidency in India. (2 marks)

Section B (45 marks)
Answer any three questions from this section

    1. State five factors which contributed to the development of early agriculture in Egypt. (5 marks)
    2. Explain five solutions to food shortage in African countries. (10 marks)
    1. Identify five functions of the ancient City of Athens. (5 marks)
    2. Describe five challenges experienced in the city of Johannesburg. (10 marks)
    1. State five limitations of using early means of transport. (5 marks)
    2. Discuss five advantages of using internet as a source of information on history and government. (10 marks)
    1. State five factors that led to the decline of the Asante Empire by the 19th century. (5 marks)
    2. Describe the political organization of the Shona during the pre-colonial period. (10 marks)

Section C (30 marks)
Answer any two questions from this section

    1. State three benefits which the people of the four communes in Senegal enjoyed as a result of the application of the French policy of assimilation. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six effects of the use of indirect rule by the British in Northern Nigeria. (12 marks)
    1. Identify three levels of international relations in the world today. (3 marks)
    2. Explain six economic problems faced by the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) since independence. (12 marks)
    1. State three qualifications for election to the Council of States in India (3 marks)
    2. Explain six functions of the Prime Minister in Britain. (12 marks)


Answer all questions in this section

  1. Identify two theories that explain the origin of man. (2 marks)
    • Mythical/traditional theory
    • Creation theory
    • Evolution/scientific theory
  2. State two chemical methods of dating fossils. (2 marks)
    • Radio- carbon dating
    • Potassium argon method
  3. Define the term Agrarian revolution. (1 mark)
    • This refers to the radical changes in the agricultural sector.
  4. Why was trans-saharan trade initially referred to as “Silent trade”. (1 mark)
    • Because traders lacked a common language.
  5. State two sources of the British constitution. (2 marks)
    • Customs
    • Customs of parliament
    • Historical documents
    • precedents
  6. Mention one negative impact of the internet today. (1 mark)
    • Moral decay.
    • Addiction
  7. List two features of Roman roads by 1300 AD. (2 marks)
    • Hard and straight roads
    • The roads were built by digging a trench, 1.5metres deep which then would be packed with heavy stones or rocks.
    • Rough and fine concrete was added to the foundation, then layers of gravel, chalk and cement.
    • The road surface was slightly convex with deep trenches on the sides.
  8. Identify one theory that explains the origin of iron working in Africa. (1 mark)
    • One area theory. Iron working started in one area then spread to other areas.
    • Independent theory. Iron working started independently in all areas.
  9. Name two communes where assimilation in Senegal was practiced. (2 marks)
    • Dakar
    • Rufisque
    • Goree
    • St. louis
  10. Name the Lozi leader who collaborated with the British in the late 19th Century. (1 mark)
    • Lewanika
  11. State two reasons why the United States of America joined World War 1 (1914 -1918). (2 mark)
    • Pressure from citizens
    • The secret telegram message (the Zimmerman telegram)
    • Sinking of the Sussex ship.
    • U.S.A had business ties with Britain and France.
  12. Give the main reason for the formation of the league of nations. (1 mark)
    • To prevent occurrence of a Second World war.
  13. Name one African country that is a member of commonwealth but is not a former British colony. (1 mark)
    • Togo
    • Cameroon
    • Mozambique
  14. Name two permanent members of the United Nations Security council. (2 marks)
    • United States of America
    • Britain
    • France
    • Russia
    • Great China
  15. Name the pioneer founder of Non-Aligned movement. (1 mark)
    • Jawaharlal Nehru
  16. State one function of court of justice in the Common Market for East and Southern Africa (COMESA). (1 mark)
    • To solve disputes between member states.
  17. Name two major political parties in the United States of America. (2 marks)
    • Republican party
    • Democratic Party

Answer any THREE questions from this section

    1. State five stages of evolution of man. (5 marks)
      • Aegyptopithecus - An Early African Monkey
      • Dryopithecus Africanus (proconsul)
      •  Kenyapithecus (Ramapithecus)
      • Australopithecus (southern ape)
      •  Homo habilis
      • Homo erectus (“Upright Man”)
      • Homo sapiens (“Wise Man” thinking man)
      • Homo sapiens sapiens
    2. Describe the culture of man during the late stone age. (10 marks)
      • Man became a Very skilled toolmaker-they made tools known as microliths- (small piece of sharp stone tool). For example, a crescent or a lunate which had a straight sharp cutting edge and a curved blunted back. Their weapons include stone axes, knives, spears, harpoons, wooden bows, and sharp, stone tipped arrows, hooks, needles, and bone fish hooks. Neanderthals were the first to create the pointed tip on hunting spears and harpoons
      • Earlier sapiens used caves as their homes instead of building one. Later, they made permanent homes that looked like tents or tepees, out of tree branches, grass, mammoth bones, and animal skins. They used or made some sort of paint to use on their cave paintings.
      • Man domesticated plants and animals though he continued to hunt and gather.
        Man changed as from Nomadic lifestyle to settled stationary lifestyle; i.e sedentary
        Population also increased due to balanced diet and adequate food
      • Due to settled life and improved settlement, rules and laws were set up as a basis of government. Some people also specialized in leadership, religious activities as well as making of crafts.
      • Man’s language and religious beliefs developed as a result of depending on natural forces like rain. They began to ponder over issues like life and death. Evidence is found at Hyrax Hill and Njoro river Cave where human fossil remains were found buried with items such as tools and seeds or food. The practice of burying someone with his possessions implied a belief in life after death. Neanderthals were the first to bury their dead. They also seemed to have a conception of an afterlife as shown by the actual burial site at La Ferrassie, France, with seven tombs including a man, a woman and several children’s graves lying side by side.
      • Humans specialized in crafts such as basketry, pottery and later smelting
        Evidenced by this horse’ head carving to the right.
    1. Mention five economic activities of the Asante during the 19th Century. (5 marks)
      • Trading. Being located at the point of convergence of the trans-Atlantic trade routes, the Asante people participated in the trade providing gold, slaves and ivory in exchange for cotton, cloth, guns and gunpowder. They also provided middlemen and porters during the trade.
      • Crop farming. The Asante practiced agriculture, growing crops like yams, vegetables and fruits.
      • Livestock keeping. They also kept livestock like cattle.
      • Hunting and gathering. The community practiced gathering of Kola nuts and hunting for game meat from the forest to supplement their diet.
      • Iron working. They practiced iron working and made crafts such as baskets and pots
    2. Describe the political organization of the Shona during the pre-colonial era. (10 marks)
      • The emperor was the head of the state and government. Succession of authority was hereditary. Important emperors included Chikura, Nyatsimba, Mutota and Matope.
      • Religion played a role in government and united people. The emperor was a semi-divine religious leader, a military leader and the chief priest. He was the only one who could communicate with the spirits of the ancestors. It was believed that when Mwene Mutapa died, he became a Mudzimu and automatically qualified to be worshipped as a national ancestral spirit. The ancestral spirits (Vadzimu) communicated people’s problems to god. Religion also influenced laws. The priests were used as spies and link between the emperor and the people.
      • Another unifying factor in the kingdom was the royal fire. It was from the continuous fire that each vassal chief carried a flame to his chiefdom that he kept burning as a symbol of national unity. The empire was divided into provinces namely Guruhaswa, Mbire, Utere, Banua, and Manyika each headed by a lesser chief. The most important chiefs in the empire sent their sons, with tribute in form of cattle, gold, slaves and ivory, each year to pay homage to the Mwene Mutapa as goodwill ambassadors.
      • There was a standing army of warriors which was used for defence and expansion of the kingdom. Revenue from trade was used to run the army and sustain the empire. The position of importance held by Mwene Mutapa led to the creation of a complex Style of administration around him.
      • The government officials included the court steward, treasurer, commander-in-chief of the army and Mbokurumme (king’s sister-in-law). Others were the queen mother, the emperor’s sister and nine principal wives, the doorkeeper and the chief cook and head drummer. At the lower level were the lesser chiefs who paid tribute to the king by providing cattle, labour and agricultural produce.
    1. State five methods used by the British to acquire colonies in Africa. (5 marks)
      • Signing of treaties;
      • Military conquest/ Use of force.
      • Use of missionaries as frontrunners.
      • Treachery and Divide and rule policy
      • Use of company rule.
      • Luring/enticements.
      • Diplomatic skills.
      • A blend of diplomacy and force.
    2. Explain five effects of the partition of Africa. (10 marks)
      • Introduction of European administration minimized intertribal wars and civil strife.
      • It led to development of strong African leadership and beginning of state formation.
      • Colonial government structures inherited by most independent African states have continued to be models of governments in African countries.
      • Rise of African nationalism to fight colonialism led to the development of African political awareness.
      • The Europeans gained fame, prestige and national glory by having colonial possessions.
      • it led to collapse of African traditional political systems and leadership.
      • Use of divide and rule promoted ethnic disunity that continues to trouble Africa many years after independence.
      • Boundary creation split apart many African communities. For example, the Somali are found both in Kenya and in Somalia, the Maasai in Kenya and Tanzania and the Ewe in Ghana and Togo.
      • Through the protection offered to missionaries, it stimulated the spread of Christianity to various parts of Africa.
      • It led to development of urban centres. Some towns grew as centres of administration e.g. Nairobi and Machakos. Others grew as railway terminus e.g. Kisumu.
      • African welfare was boosted. Some African benefited from western education and health facilities introduced by the Europeans.
      • European languages were introduced in Africa.
      • Negatively, it created landlessness as European settlers appropriated African land.
      • The Africans adopted some negative aspects of western culture.
      • Many Africans lost their lives through resistance.
      • There was construction of roads, railway and other forms of infrastructure, which helped to open up the interior.
      • Imperialization helped to widen market for African produce especially with the establishment of local industries.
      • Africans were exposed to European manufactured goods/ increase in essential commodities.
      • Partition speeded up the economic growth of European nations.
      • Negatively, forced labour and exploitation of African resources left many parts of Africa impoverished and underdeveloped.
      • Africans were exposed to heavy taxation and denial to participate in economic activities like farming and trade.
    1. Identify five causes for the rise of African nationalism. (5 marks)
      • The exposure of Africans to severe economic exploitation during the colonial period. e.g land alienation in the Kenya Highlands which was accompanied with forced labour where the labourers faced mistreatment.
      • Africans were fed up of heavy and harsh taxation by the Europeans. They were exposed to heavy taxation, ranging from hut tax to breast tax in Belgian Congo.
      • Africans were fed up with the gradual destruction of their culture by the whites.
      • Missionaries totally dismissed the age-old African traditions as being barbaric.
      • The introduction of racial discrimination to go hand in hand with colonialism. All the best social amenities in South Africa, Zimbabwe and Kenya were reserved for the whites. The Europeans equated the black colour with low intelligence, uncivilized and a backward race.
      • Colonialism interfered with African political institutions. The colonial rulers disregarded traditional rulers, appointing their own puppets in their place.
      • The Acquisition of western education by many Africans by 1945 enabled them to articulate their grievances more forcefully and to understand political developments outside Africa.
      • The return of the ex-servicemen after the second world war which exposed the myth of the white supremacy making Africans ready to fight them. Moreover, the colonial government failed to reward African ex-soldiers to embitter them more.
      • The change of government from Conservative to Labour Party in Britain in 1946 stimulated a new attitude in Britain towards decolonization. This motivated African nationalists.
      • The rise of nationalism in Asia, culminating into the granting of independence to India and Pakistan in 1947 aroused great confidence among Africans who worked closely with Asian nationalists like Jawaharlal Nehru, the India Prime Minister.
      • The rise of Pan-Africanism in Africa after the 1945 Manchester conference contributed to the new demands for political independence in Africa Many African élites attended the conference which served as a source of awakening.
      • The formation of the UNO and the pressure it exerted on the European powers to decolonize helped the Africans in their course.
      • The emergence of United States and the Soviet Union as super powers in the world contributed to the decolonization process. USA was keen to see Britain and France grant independence to their subjects in the world in order to secure new markets.
      • The signing of the Atlantic Charter in 1941 by Winston Churchill and Franklin Roosevelt which demanded that when the WW2 ended, all subject peoples should enjoy the right to self-determination.
    2. Discuss five Problems that faced FRELIMO in the war against Portuguese in Mozambique. (10 marks)
      • Africans experienced severe shortage of basic needs while in the forests. The government forces ensured that food and other supplies did not reach the fighters.
      • The attitude of the church in Mozambique made many African faithful reluctant to support the liberation war. The church termed FRELIMO a terrorist organization.
      • FRELIMO suffered internal divisions due to ideological differences and selfish ambitions among some of the nationalists. African elites like Reverend Uria Simango and Lazaro Kavandame saw FRELIMO as an instrument of acquiring assets for their own selfish benefits.
      • Competition from rival guerilla movements like Revolutionary Committee of Mozambique (COREMO) which broke away from FRELIMO in 1965 due to the later’s lean towards socialism.
      • The assassination of FRELIMO leader Eduardo Mondlane in Da es Salaam on 3rd February 1969 was a great blow to the nationalists.
      • The brutality employed by the Portuguese in dealing with FRELIMO sympathizers. For example at Wiriyamu, in December 1972, 400 civilians, protesting against the Portuguese administration, were massacred.
      • The apartheid regime in South Africa and the Unilateral Declaration of Independence regime in south Rhodesia combined forces to fight the nationalists in Mozambique since they were a threat to their countries.

Answer any TWO questions from this section

    1. State three ways used to ease the Cold War 1945 – 1990. (3 marks)
      • The death of Stalin and the flexibility of Stalin’s successor, Nikita Khrushchev.
      • The willingness of David Dwight Eisenhower, Truman’s successor, to reach compromise with the Soviet Union over a number of issues.
      • The signing of the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START)
      • The introduction of reforms in Russia by Mikhail Gorbachev.
      • The collapse of the Communist rule in Europe.
      • The successful re-unification of Germany under Helmut Kohl in 1990.
      • The dissolution of the Warsaw Pact.
      • The collapse of the Soviet Union in 1990.
    2. Discuss the challenges that affect the running of the United Nations Organization. (12 marks)
      •  National sovereignty. Many countries disregard the UNO resolutions in favour of their sovereignty/interests.
      •  It is unable to stop aggressions and conflicts between individual countries when super powers are involved.
      • Lacks sufficient funds to carry out its work efficiently. E.g it has not always been able to send enough peacekeeping forces due to lack of sufficient funds.
      • It lacks an effective machinery to affect its decisions. It also lacks a standing army to implement and effect its resolutions.
      •  The permanent members with veto powers often adopt policies that promote their own national interests at the expense of the collective interests of most countries in the world.
      • Divided Loyalty/Loyalty to other organizations. UNO members are also members of other organizations; the interests of these organizations are not in accord with those of the UNO.
      • Ideological disputes among member states have hampered the work of UNO in promoting world peace. This was manifested in the cold war period.
      • The arms race. The UNO has found it difficult to achieve world peace because of the arms race in different parts of the world. The arms race generates and sustains conflict rather than peace.
      • Differences in economic development levels of member states militate against cooperation.
      • The increased occurrence of natural disasters such as famine, floods and epidemics has created an unexpected demand for economic resources.
    1. Identify three principles of the Arusha declaration of 1967. (3 marks)
      • Self-reliance
      • Nationalization of the main means of production
      • Ujamaa/socialism policy
      •  Human equality/non-discrimination
    2. Explain the political challenges facing the Democratic Republic of Congo. (12 marks)
      • There was general lack of preparedness of the people for independence. Foreigners controlled even the army and the police.
      • The assassination of Patrice Lumumba in 1961, which plunged the country into the Congo crisis.
      •  Political instability/military coup d’état. In November 1965, Mobutu organized a military coup. In 1997, Kabila ousted Mobutu
      • Ethnic differences/tribal clashes/civil wars, which split the country into two parts at independence. One controlled by Lumumba and another controlled by Kasavubu.
      • The problem of Secession. Secessionist movement of the Katanga region (Shaba) led by Tsombe and Kasai under Kilonji seceded.
      • Foreign interference/intrigues. Belgium constantly interfered and intervened in
      • Zaire’s internal matters. France and Britain also began to interfere from 1977 during the cold war period.
      • Mutinies in the army were common.
    1. Highlight three ways of becoming a member of British parliament. (3 marks)
      • Elections.
      • Nominations
      • Inheritance.
      • By Virtue of office. E.g. members of the House of Lords maintain their par
    2. Explain the functions of the president in India. (12 marks)
      • He/she dissolves/calls elections of the lower house of parliament/Lok Sabha/House of the people.
      • The president assents/vetoes bills that have been passed by parliament;
      • The president is the commander in-chief of the armed forces;
      • The president appoints state governors/attorney general/supreme court judges;
      • The president declares a state of emergency when national security is threatened.
      •  The president appoints the prime minister on advice of parliament/He calls the leader of the winning party to form government.
      • He/she is a symbol of national unity.
      •  He establishes special councils to arbitrate on inter- state disputes.
      • He nominates 12 members to the Council of state/Upper House/Rajja Sabha.
      • He is the leader of political party that nominates him for election.
      • He pardons offenders.
      • He makes regulations for certain union territories.
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