I.R.E Paper 2 Questions and Answers - Kenya High Post Mock 2023 Exams

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Answer any five questions



    1. Discuss the rationale behind prohibition of abortion in Islam. (5marks)
    2. Give seven significances of the Islamic dress code. (7marks)
    3. Highlight effects of sexual perversion in the society. (8marks)
    1. Explain the importance of eddat . (8marks)
    2. Mention Seven forms of child Abuse prevalent in kenya. (7marks)
    3. Outline five illegitimate sources of earnings in Islam. (5marks)
    1. Describe five ways through which Muslims can assist in the eradication of corruption. (10marks)
    2. What roles can parents play to ensure proper upbringing of their children? (6marks)
    3. Identify four conditions to be fulfilled be the administration of the estate of the deceased Muslims. (4marks)
    1. Describe seven lessons that a Muslims youth can learn from the Ten Rules of Conduct of Imam Al Ghazali. (8marks)
    2. State the reforms brought by Uthman Dan Fodio under the Sokoto Caliphate. (6marks
    3. Identify the contributions of Sheikh Abdalla Swaleh Al-Farsy to the growth of Islam in East Africa. (6marks)
    1. Describe the lessons that Muslims can learn from the prophet’s Farewell speech. (8marks)
    2. Outline the Circumstances that led to the boycott of Banu Hashim. ( 6marks)
    3. State six achievements of Caliph Uthman (R.A). (6marks)
    1. Describe four achievements of Abdulmalik Bin Marwan of the Ummayyad dynasty. ( 8marks)
    2. Why is Abbasid era considered as the Golden Age of Islamic civilization. (7marks)
    3. Highlight the importance of the treaty Hudaibbiyya to Muslims. (5marks)



    1. Discuss the rationale behind prohibition of abortion in Islam. 5marks
      1.  it is considered to be murder of the unborn child which is against the teachings of Islam.
      2. It may lead to the death of the mother.
      3.  It may lead to health complications to the mother.
      4. Abortion may lead to psychological problems to the mother.
      5. It leads to lowering of one’s dignity in the society.
      6. It may affect one’s self esteem because of the stigma and guilt.
      7. It may lead to stigmatization in the society.
      8. It denies the unborn child right to live.
    2. Give seven significances of the Islamic dress code. 7marks
      1.  It encourages modesty among human beings.
      2. It takes into considerations the weather conditions.
      3. It enables one to observe some devotional acts like swalat and hajj.
      4.  It creates a clear distinction between and female
      5. It reduces the chances of sexual harassment’
      6.  It is an act of obedience to Allah.
    3. Highlight effects of sexual perversion in the society. 8marks
      1. Moral decadence in the society, because people engage in immoral acts such zinaa which is fulfilling one’s is legally manner.
      2. Sexual perversion neglects the noble objectives of sex to a mere gratification of physical desires.
      3. It reduces reproduction since sexual perverts may not play their role as spouses according to the Shariah.
      4.  It may lead to break up of family as the basic unit of the Muslim family.
      5.  It leads to break up of marriage as the basic unit of the Muslim family.
      6.  It leads to the spread of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) such as H.I.V/AIDS
      7.  It causes poverty in the society as resources are diverted from their proper use.
      8.  It reduces economic productivity since many parents spend working hours in pursuits of fulfilling their desire e.g watching pornography
      9. It increases the number of crimes in the society e.g. rape, incest e.tc
      10. Innocent children are abused to satisfy such perversion e.g. child prostitutions, pornography and paedophile.
      11.  One involved may end up ignoring their religious obligations.
      12. Children whose parents engage in immoral acts may suffer due to negligence.
        ( 8 ×1)
    1. Explain the importance of eddat. 8marks
      1. It is an obligatory act for a woman following divorce or death of her husband / a form of worship.
      2. It is a show of respect to the deceased in the case of death.
      3. It is a time of reflection for the wife /husband
      4. It is a sign of sanctity of the institution of marriage.
      5. A proof that there is no pregnancy from the woman’s previous /late husband.
      6. To avoid unnecessary conflicts and disputes regarding the paternity of a child.
      7. In case of divorce, it accords the husband an opportunity to revoke where it is revocable.
        ( 8 ×1)
    2. mention seven forms of child abuse . 7marks
      1. Physical abuse e.g beatings ,burning,pulling ears
      2. Social abuse e.g discrimination on basis of age,gender,and disability
      3. Child labour
      4. Child prostitution
      5. Child sex /paedophile
      6. Denial of the right to education
      7. Denial of basic needs,e.g,food,shelter , clothing
      8. Inadequates legal framework to protect children
      9. Verbal abuse eg calling names ,insults and abuses
      10. Giving children drugs and alcohol
      11. Forced initiation rites e,g FGM
      12. Indecent touching ,fondling and other sexual gestures
      13. Child pornography. 7×1=7
    3. Outline five illegitimate sources of earning in Islam . 5marks
      1. Hoarding of goods
      2. Smuggling goods or black market
      3. Dealing in harmful and expired products
      4. Engaging in products that are haram.g narcotics, intoxicates , porks etc
      5. Selling items that are legal while one is certain tat they the used illegally, e.g, weapon and fruits (knowing that they will be used to kill or make alcohol)
      6. Mediation or brokerage of goods that are haram
      7. Rent or rates from properties leased to haram business e.g brothels, bars , casinos, night clubs e.t.c
      8. Utility that offers services that are haram, e.g, lodges, where adultery fornications and other prohibited activities are carried out.
      9. Child
      10. trafficking, slavery and conmanship and any other way that is suppressive to human dignity
      11. Acquiring property through fraud.
      12. Exploiting the weak, e.g widows, orphan, divorcees or physically impaired person
      13. Illegal farming like cultivation of bhang
      14. Acquiring money through usury.
    1. Describe five ways through which Muslims can assist in the eradication of corruption in the society.
      1. Muslims should neither accept nor give bribes. They should be beyond reproach as far as the issues of corruption are concerned
      2. By reporting those involved in the corruption to the relevant authority so as actions can be taken against them.
      3. For those in the authority, appointment should be on merits ,no one should be promoted unprocedrally and there should be no nepotism.
      4. Through advocating for good governance, fairness in all dealings.
      5. Creating public awareness through mass media so as to enlighten the society on the ills of corruptions.
      6. Corruption as a topic taught in schools, this inculcates good morals hence they cannot engage in corruptions.
      7. Advocating for severe punishment for those engaged in corrupt deals so as to deter anyone engaging in the vice.
      8. Muslims should always be the first to speak and oppose injustice and corruption
    2. What roles can parents play to ensure proper upbringing their children. 6marks
      1. They inculcate discipline.
      2. They provide formal education
      3. They provide love for their children
      4. Be role model to their children
      5. Providing conducive environment
      6. Provide them with both religious and secular education
      7. Providing them with basic necessities
    3. Identify four conditions to be fulfilled before the administration of the estate of a deceased Muslim.
      1. Payments of debts
      2. Payment of funeral
      3. Execution of the will left by the deceased.
      4. Settlement of zakat which is due.
    1. Describe the lessons that Muslims can learn from the prophet’s Farewell speech. 8marks
      1. Adherences to the teachings of the Quran and Sunnah.
      2. All blood feuds were abolished
      3. Avoidance of all sins
      4. Brotherhood among Muslims was encouraged.
      5. Equality of all believers in the sight of Allah
      6. Fair treatment of servants,slaves
    2. Outline the circumstances that led to the Boycott of Banu Hashim . 6marks
      1. Failure of the Makkans to convince the newly converted Muslims to go back to their traditional religions.
      2. Failure by the Makkans to bring back the Muslims from Abbysinia.
      3. Islam was against the Makkans religions.
      4. Makkans were alarmed by the increasing number of Muslims
      5. The Makkan’s failure to stop the prophet from preaching Islam.
      6. Failure of Makkan’s to persuade Abu Twalib to stop his nephew from preaching Islam.
      7. The makkan’s was alarmed by the conversion Umar bin Khattab to Islam
      8. He Islam was rapidly spreading beyond makkan ,e.g, Abyssinia
        ( 6 ×1)
    3. State six achievements of Caliph Uthman. 6mark
      1. He expanded the Muslim empire up to the Far East and conquered part of Asia
      2. He standardized the Quran and gave a uniform reading after people differed in ways of recitation
      3. Although some people rebelled against him, he tried to do his best to maintain unity in Islam
      4. He expanded the Mosque of the prophet when it became small due to increase of Muslim population
      5. During his time, the Muslim naval fleet took control of Mediterranean Sea after defeating the Mighty Roman fleet
      6. He reproduced several copies of the Quran from the only which had left under the custody of Hafswa.
      7. He expanded the Mosque at Makkan in the years 26A.H and 29 A.H.
    1. Describe four achievements of Abdul Malik bin Marwan of the Umayyad Dynasty. 8marks
      1. He used state money to build mosques and also constructed roads and bridges.
      2. He expanded state the Islamic empire to North Africa
      3. He increased the number of units of postal services and made them more efficient
      4. He abandoned the use of Greek and Persian language among the government official. All records were to be kept in Arabic. which became the primary language, sine the Quran was written in Arabic.
      5. He encouraged poetry and rewarded poets with the intentions of using them to propagate his rule
      6. He also began minting the first coin with Islamic motifs and inscription on them
      7. Previously, the Caliphate had taken the Byzantine and Persain mints and produced coins based on their models.
      8. He ordered the diacriticalization of the Quran.
    2. Abbasid era considered as the Golden Age of Islamic civilization. 7marks
      1. The establishment of the Bait ul Hikma (House of Wisdom) opened access to knowledge and encouraged the scientific research. the House of Wisdom hosted both Muslim and non-Muslim. Scholars who sought to translate and gather knowledges of human history in one place, and in one language Arabic
      2. Growth and flourishing of literature .The best known fiction from the Islamic world is The book of one thousand and one night, a collection of folktales, legends and parables compiled during the Abbasid era. Writers like Abu Tammam and Abu Nuwas were closely connected to the Caliphal court in Baghdad during the early 9th century.
      3. Peace and tranquillity-The Abbabsid regime ushered in an era of peace and tranquillity in the region which led to prosperity and unprecedent development.
      4. Advancement in the field of medicine – The field of medicine made a lot of advancement during the Abassid era. During the 9th century, Baghdad contained over 800 doctors and great discoveries in the understanding of anatomy and diseases were made.
      5. Art and Music- It flourished during the Abbasid rule. The Caliphs supported and financed art and music making it to grow and develop.
      6. Technology -The Abbasids adopted paper making from China. The use of papers from China into Caliphate in the 8th century CE, arriving in al-Andulus (Islamic Spain) and then the rest of Europe in the 10th century.
      7. Development of Islamic Sciences- The four schools of thoughts developed and flourished during the reign of the Abbasid dynasty. Islamic services such as Fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) and Aqeedah flourished due to many debates held in the dynasty.
      8. Astronomy- A natural outgrowth from the Muslim development of advanced mathematics was worked in the astronomical field. Formulas and methods developed by Muslim mathematicians laid the foundation for the study of the stars. Astronomy was advanced by Al-Battani, who improved the precision of the earth axis
      9. Growth and development of knowledge of mathematics Muslim’s contribution to mathematics in the Golden Age was monumental. One of the great Mathematic of the time was Al Khawarizmi who composed the oldest work in geometry, arithmetic and Algebra.
      10. Growth and development of Agriculture-A number of practical innovations took place in the field of agriculture. improved methods of irrigation allowed more land to be cultivated and new types of mills and turbines were used to reduced the need of labour. Crops and farming were adopted from far -flung cultures. Rice, cotton and sugar were taken from India, citrus fruits from China and Sorghum from Africa.
    3. Hightlight the importance of the treaty of Hudaibbiya to Muslims. 5marks
      1. Establishment of the prophet (p.b.u.h) as a great leader, always ready to reach compromise ,patiently and in the name of Allah.
      2. The treaty was a victory to the Muslim (Q 48 ;1-3)
      3. Muslims experience peace which had not been there for a long time as a result of the treaty
      4. Many people converted to Islam including Khalid bin Walid who had been a great enemy of Islam.
      5. The treaty assured Muslims access to their Holy City of Maccan
      6. With the assurance of peace , the prophet (p.b.u.h) was able to concentrate on his mission and was more able to sent out messages inviting people to Islam.
      7. As a result of this treaty, Muslims were able to conquer Mecca.
      8. It was a milestone in the history of Islam.
      9. It acted as an official recognition of the prophet (p.b.u.h) and Islam by the Quraishy who all along had refused to refused to him.
      10. Proved the prophet (p.b.u.h) as a good negotiator, commander and counsellor
    1. Describe seven lessons that a muslim youth can learn from The Ten Rules of Imam Al-Ghazali.
      1. A muslim youth should restrain themselves from selfish desires.
      2. A muslim youth must have good intentions, in all they do
      3. A muslim youth must uphold truth and work towards eradication of falsehood
      4. A muslim youth should always reflect upon his inner self as ameans of getting closer to Allah.
      5. A muslim youth should be active and responsible in their duties without undue delay.
      6. A muslim should be steadfast in ibadah e.g prayers as this is the only way a muslim can get closer to Allah
      7. A muslim youth should stick to the sunnah of the prophet (p.b.u.h) and shun away from all innovations.
      8. A muslim youth should strive at all given times to do good deeds and always seek the mercy of Allah to accept their deeds.
      9. A muslim youth should have the inner and outer knowledge of Allah.
      10. Muslim youths should place all dependence on Allah.
        (7 ×1)
    2. State the reforms brought by Uthman Dan Fodio under sokoto caliphate.
      1. He challenged the scholars of the time over extremism and wrote books showing danger of extremism to the society.
      2. He advocated that all the madhhabs are correct since they don’t disagree over the Qur’an and Hadith, they should therefore be respected.
      3. He declared in the caliphate that custom duties as sourse of revenue and banned the revenue officers from accepting gifts from their subjects.
      4. He advocated for women education and spoke about the culture that undermines the right of women.
      5. He warned the society against bidaa (innovations) which is against Islamic belifs and practices.
      6. He introduced the rival of Hisbah institutions whose function included checking the princes, quantity of goods, correct weight and measurement etc in the market.
      7. He advocated that Zakat should be administerd as per Islamic sharia and be spent in the same region from where it is collected.
      8. He fought the Hausa kinds and successfully ended their oppression.
        (6 ×1)
    3. Identify the contribution of Sheikh Abdalla Swaleh Al-Farsy to the growth of Islam in East Africa
      1. He advocated for equity in education. He challenged the government to raise the standards of the Muslims education to the level of other community education
      2. He advocated for the provision of Muslim teachers by government in the schools and made sure that teachers were well paid.
      3. He advocated for inclusion of Islamic Religious Education and Arabic in secondary schools in Kenya .
      4. He fought against the Qadiani sects which started preaching against Islam and practiced bidaa translated (innovations)
      5. He gave lectures and seminars in in mosques to train and educate Muslims on matters . Many young people flocked to his lectures.
      6. He propagated Islam on weekly magazine called Muongozo of Zanzibar, this enabled many to access Islam.
      7. He translated the Quran into Kiswahili , making it possible for Kiswahili speakers to read the Quran.
      8. He travelled widely in East African countries for the cause of Allah, to teach and spread Islam.
      9. He wrote extensively on Islam eg biography of the Prophet (P.B.U.H) and Imam Shafii.
      10. He wrote over 25 books through which Muslims knowledge was enriched.
        (7 ×1)
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