History Paper 1 Questions and Answers - Form 4 End Term 1 Exams 2022

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Answer all questions in this section

  1. Give the branch of History that deals with peoples culture (1mk)
  2. Identify two social practices introduced to the Bantu by the cushites (2mks)
  3. Mention the basic social unit among the Luo in pre-colonial Kenya (1mk)
  4. Identify two main items of trade from the interior of Kenya during the long distance trade? (2mks)
  5. Give the reason why Ludwig Krapf was unable to establish a misson station in Kitui (1mk)
  6. Mention two communities in Kenya whose ancestors settled in Mt. Elgon area before migration to the present homeland (2mks)
  7. Other than public bill name the other type of bill debated in the national assembly (1mk)
  8. Name two levels of government in Kenya today (2mks)
  9. State the chief executive officer incharge of the county (1mk)
  10. Name the First African in Kenya to serve in the Legislative council in colonial Kenya (1mk)
  11. Give importance of the Mace in parliament (1mk)
  12. Mention the constitutional commission that conducts and supervises elections in Kenya (1mk)
  13. Name two political activists assassinated in Kenya up to 1978 (2mks)
  14. Give two changes introduced by the Mackay Commission in education sector in Kenya (2mks)
  15. State two pillars of Nyayoism (2mks)
  16. Identify two principles of devolved government. (2mks)
  17. Define public revenue. (1mk)

Answer any three questions in this section

    1. State five economic activities of the Borana during the pre-colonial period (5mks)
    2. Describe the social organization of the Maasai (10mks)
    1. State three reasons for the coming of the Portuguese to the Kenyan coast in the 15th Century (3mks)
    2. Explain six factors that led to the development of plantation agriculture along East African Coast. (12mks)
    1. Identify three methods used by the British to establish their rule in Kenya (3mks)
    2. Explain six results of the Nandi resistance (12mks)
    1. State five reasons why the government of Kenya adopted the sessional paper No. 10 of 1965 (5mks)
    2. Discuss five ways in which the Harambee philosphy has promoted development of education in Kenya since independence (10mks)

SECTION C (30 Marks)
Answer Any Two Questions in this Section

    1. Give three internal factors that led to introduction of multi-party democracy in Kenya in the early 1990’s ( 3 mks)
    2. Describe six achievements of Multi-party democracy in Kenya (12mks)
    1. Give three superior courts in Kenya ( 3 mks)
    2. Explain six measures taken by the government to improve the correctional services in Kenya (12mks)
    1. Mention three national security organs (3mks)
    2. Explain six functions of the attorney general in Kenya (12mks)

Marking Scheme

  1. Social History (1 x 1 = 1mk)
    • A taboo against eating fish
    • Age - set systems
    • Circumcision (2 x 1 = 1 mk)
  3. Family (1 x 1 = 1mk)
    • Ivory
    • Slaves (2 x 1 = 2mks)
  5. The Akamba became unfriendly when chief Kivoi was killed (1 x 1 = 1mk)
    •  Abagusi
    • Abaluhyia
    • Abakuria
      NB Luo Abasuba not in the list as they came later (2 x 1 = 2mks)
  7. Private bill (1 x 1 = 1mk)
    • National
    • County (2 x 1 = 2mks)
  9. Governor (1 x 1 = 1mk)
  10. Eliud Mathu (1 x 1 = 1mk)
  11.  Its a symbol of Authority (1 x 1 = 1mk)
  12. Independent Electoral and Boundaries Commission
    NB Reject Abbreviation (1 x 1 = 1mk)
    • Pio Gama Pinto
    • Jm Kariuki
    • Tom Mboya (2 x 1 = 2mk)
    • Introduction of 8-4-4- system
    • Establishement of second Public Univeristy (Moi University
    • Vocational subjects e.g Art Craft, Music, Agric and Home science be given more emphasis in the curriculum
    • Peace
    • Love
    • Unity (2 x 1 = 2mk
    • Based on democratic principles and separation of powers
    • Gender balance in powers therein representative bodies
    • Have reliable sources of revenue to enable them deliver (2 x 1 = 2mks)
  17. Funds raised by Government for expenditure (1 x 1 = 1mk)
      • Trading
      • Livestock keeping
      • Hunting and gathering
      • Craft industries
      • Fishing
      • Cultivation of food crops
      • Iron working (5 x 1 = 5mks)
      • The basic social unit was the family made up of father, wife /wives and children
      • Several related families formed a clan
      • The Maasai were organized into age groups /age sets made up of people who were circumcised at the same time
      • They believed in one supreme God called Enkai
        NB: Must state Enkai to score full mark
      • Had a religious leader called Laibon who mediated between the community and Enkai
      • They offered sacrifices to God in sacred places and other cermonies eg Eunoto
      • The believed in ancestral spirits
      • To find a sea route to India
      • Wanted to spread Christianity/reduce the muslim influence
      • Take part in coastal trade
      • To control strategic points on the East African Coast from other European rivals
      • Desire for exploration/ Adventure (Any 3x 1=`3mks )
      • Adequate rainfall and suitable climate
      • Existance of fertile soils
      • Presence of settlers from Oman and Zanzibar willing to invest in plantation agriculture
      • Availability of labour form slaves
      • Availability of large tracks of land suitable for large scale agriculture
      • There was market for crops in countries like Zanzibar and Arabia
      • Signing of treaties/collaboration
      • Use of military attacks against unfriendly communities /use of force
      • Administrative stations/operational bases
      • Treachery/offering of gifts
      • Use of missionaries to pacify Africans through preaching (3x 1=3mks )
      • The land belonging to the Nandi was allienated
      • The Nandi lost therin independence
      • The Nandi were resettled in reserves
      • The Nandi were forced to live as squatters on European farms
      • Loss of life during raids
      • Destruction of property
      • The Nandi lost their military superiority
      • The Nandi warriors were conscripted into the colonial security forces (6 x 2=12mks)
      •  Encourage various forms of property ownership
      • Ensure equal opportunities for all citizens
      • Promote democracy
      •  Ensure that resources are used to benefit the society and its members
      • Promote freedom of conscience and human dignity
      • Promote freedom from diseases, ignorance and poverty (5 x 1=5mks )
      •  Raising school fees for the needy through harambees
      • Construction of schools through harambees
      • Development projects like building domitories and buying school buses through harambee
      • Some private schools have been built through harambee
      • Students from Kenya have been able to pursue education outside the country through Harambee
      •  Alleged rigging of the 1988 electrons/discontent ith the queing system
      • KANU’s failure to accomodate peoples divergent views
      • Pressure from the church/civil society /lawyers intellectuals /rampant corruption
      • Recommodations of the Saitoti review committee ( 3 x 1=3mks )
      • It enhances checks and balances as opposition parties point out government excesses
      • Opened up democratic space as people air their views without fear of intimidation
      • Mobilized more people to take place in democratic processes
      • Facilitated provision of civic education to the people empowering them to make informed decisions
      • Promoted members of different ethnic groups join political parties of their choice
      • Creation of many political parties has provided training grounds for political leaders
      • Has enabled provision of atlernative, approach to the management of government affairs
      • Opposition debates issues the government may be silent on (6x 2=12mks)
      •  High court
      • Court of appeal
      • Supreme court (3 x 1=3mks)
      • Introduction of community service for petty offenders to decongest prisons
      • Improving the living conditions for prisoners by providing medical services, clothing, beddings & diet
      • Release of petty offenders
      • Allocating more funds to facilitate the corrected services
      • Employment and training of more personnel in charge of prisoners
      • Construction of better houses for the warders
      • Better remuneration for the prison staff (6 x 2=12mks)
      • Kenya Defence forces
      • National intelligence services
      • National Police service (3x 1=3mks)
      • Principal legal advisor to the government
      • Represent national government in court or any other legal proceeding
      • Promotes and upholds the rule of law
      • Defends public interest
      • Appears as a friend of the court in any civil proceeding to which government is not party
      • Takes part in drafting public bills 
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