Introduction to Agriculture: Systems of farming - Form 1 Agriculture Notes

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What is Farming System?

-Farming system is the organisation of the farm and all the enterprises in relationship to each other.

  • Extensive farming
  • Intensive farming
  • Small scale farming
  • Large scale farming

Extensive system:- Involves farming in large piece of land using very little input to produce the desired products.

Small scale farming:- Farming system which involves growing of crops and raising of livestock in small pieces of land for maximum yield per unit area, through use of high levels of labour and capital by application of modern farming technologies

Intensive farming system:-Farming system which involves the commercial production of large quantities of crops and livestock on large farm.

Large scale:- Farming system which involves growing of crops and rearing of animals on large piece of land applying modern farming technologies.

The most important resources determining a farming system are:

  • Land
  • Capital
  • Labour
  • Management
  • Time

Most farmers in Kenya utilises these resources to organise four farming systems

 



Intensive Farming System

Intensive farming:-(deep litter chicken rearing system) This involves the growing of crops and raising of livestock on small pieces of land for maximum yields and requires high capital , high labour investment and low labour per unit area.

Advantages of Intensive Farming

  • There is maximum utilization of land
  • Can be practiced in densely populated area
  • Results in high income and high net revenue for the farmer
  • Gives high yield and high quality produce per unit area
  • Easier to supervise as it is confined in a small area

Disadvantages of Intensive Farming

  • High initial capital is required
  • High labour costs are incurred
  • Requires a high level of skills and management
  • Pests and disease attack can result to high losses
  • In effective management leads to big loses.


Small Scale Farming System

-Livestock rearing
-Goat rearing in Small scale unit

Advantages of Small Scale Farming

  • Low capital investment
  • Low labour requirement and unprofitable
  • Maximum land usage.

Disadvantages of Small Scale Farming

  • Require planning and farm management skills.
  • More organized and predictable
  • Marketing of produce is difficult
  • Production is usually low


Large Scale Farming

- Tea plantation

Advantages of Large Scale Farming

  • It results in high yields
  • Economics of scale results to increased profits
  • Creates employment while mechanization is not possible.
  • Promotes foreign exchange earning for the country

Disadvantages of Large Scale Farming

  • High capital investment required
  • A lot of labour input required
  • High level management is needed for Realizing good profit
  • Heavy losses can result in the event of pest diseases out breaks


Extensive Farming System

- Involves farming in large piece of land using very little input to produce the desired products.

Advantage of Extensive System

  • The owner usually posses the land title deed which can be used to secure loans.
  • The owner can lent part of the land to get income
  • Very little inputs required

Disadvantage of Extensive System

  • Output per unit area is low
  • Tenants cannot plant perennial crops
  • Sometimes land may remains idle
  • Difficult to supervise
  • Incase of outbreak, difficult to control diseases and pests


Extensive Nomadic Pastoralism

Movement of livestock in search for pasture in a large area

Advantages of Extensive Nomadic Pastoralism

  • Require less labour input
  • Huge capital investment
  • Does not require high level of management skills
  • Proper use of marginal land

Disadvantages of Extensive Nomadic Pastoralism

  • Require large area of land
  • Incase of outbreak, difficult to control diseases and pests.

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