State the economic importance of members of Monera and Fungi and for each economic importance name a suitable or appropriate organism - KCSE Biology Essays

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Fungi:

Yeast is used in the production of alcohol; and raising dough in baking; production of vitamins B2 and B12 and for beer brewing;

Some mushrooms are used as food; Saprophytic fungi such as Mucor spp/Rhizopus spp cause food spoilage; are also used in retting of natural fibres such as flax; and in the curing of tea and tobacco;

The fungi also decompose organic matter helping to clean the environment and recycle materials.

Saprophytic fungi are also used to make silage; compost; and digesting sewage in sewage treatment plants;

Penicillium spp is used for the manufacture of antibiotics;

Fungi is used for making ghee and cheese in dairies;

Parasitic fungi such as Phytophthora spp infest crops e.g. potatoes and tomatoes and destroy them/cause blight;

Some fungi such as Aspergillus spp produce food poisons and is also used in the synthesis of enzyme amylase;

Mycorrizae fungi enable trees e.g. pinus to absorb water and mineral salts more efficiently in silviculture/man-made forests;

Some fungi such as and Tinus spp cause diseases such as yeast infections (Candidiasis, ‘Athlete’s foot’) and ‘ringworms’ respectively;

Candida spp is used in making enriched food/single-celled proteins used in animal feeds/silage;

Gibberella spp is used in the synthesis of Gibberellins for plant growth; it also causes poor crop growth through bolting of plants e.g. rice and wheat;


Bacteria:

Some bacteria e.g. Vibrio spp cause disease to humans and other animals (any one disease);

Clostridium spp and Bacillus spp bacteria are used in retting of flax;

Lactobacillus spp are important in the manufacture of yoghurt/silage; and lactic acid;

Some bacteria e.g. Streptomyces are used in making antibiotics (Streptomycin);

Organic acids such as acetic and ethanoic acids are made using Acetobacter spp of bacteria;

Some bacteria like the soil bacteria (Bacillus spp) make enzymes used in detergents;

Escherichia coli (E. coli)/colon bacteria contaminates drinking water and may cause diseases;

Bacteria such as Bacillus spp and are used in making hormones such as insulin through genetic engineering/modification;

All saprophytic bacteria such as E. coli/Bacillus spp/Pseudomonas spp are used in the production of methane/biogas;

Rhizobium spp of bacteria helps in nitrogen fixation making soils fertile;


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