Describe the adaptations of the nervous system to its functions - KCSE Biology Essays

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The central nervous system consists of the brain; and the spinal cord; and nerve fibres; that serve the sensory organs ; and the effector organs and glands; the brain is a collection of millions/billions/109 neurones; that form the biggest ganglion;

It is highly convoluted; to provide a large surface area for impulse reception, processing and transmission;

The brain and the spinal cord are protected by the meninges; the brain and the spinal cord have spaces/canals and ventricles; filled with a cerebrospinal fluid; which acts as a bridge/supply medium for oxygen and nutrients; and the removal of metabolic waste;

The brain has centres for the storage; retrieval and processing of impulses; the cerebrum processes and stores information; the cerebellum; sends impulses to joints and muscles; to correct balance; the medulla oblongata sends impulses to the cardiovascular; and breathing/ventilation systems; to regulate them;

The brain has the hypothalamus that secretes a neurosecretion to influence a pituitary gland that secretes hormones; involved in reproduction; and homeostatic functions; the hypothalamus; detects changes in temperature; and osmotic pressure; and sends impulses to relevant effector organs for their regulation; the thalamus; receives majority of the impulses and channels them to the relevant areas of the brain;

Both the brain and the spinal cord have regions of the grey matter; that enable very rapid processing/transmission of impulses;

The nervous system has neurones (relay/intermediate, motor and sensory); that transmit impulses at a very rapid note/speed (100 ms-1) to and from the central nervous system to effect suitable responses;

There exists in the central nervous system an electrochemical gradient/concentration gradient; that allows for the generation of electrical impulses;

They have numerous mitochondria; for generating energy for the function of the sodium pump; which enables polarization and repolarisation; during impulse transmission and refractory/recovery periods;

The spinal cord has no integration/association functions and is therefore suited for reflex actions; needed in emergencies; the spinal cord is long; and connects nerve fibres of the peripheral nerves with the brain for storage of information; the spinal cord has a dorsal root for sensory fibres/neurones; and a ventral root; for motor neurones/fibres;

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