KCSE 2010 Agriculture Paper 2 Questions with Marking Scheme

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SECTION A (30 marks)
Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. Name causal agent of anaplasmosis disease in cattle. (½ mks)
  2. List four materials that can be used in constructing a Kenya Top Bar Hive. (2mks)
    1. Name two breeds of dairy cattle that originated from the Channel Islands. (1mk)
    2. Give the distinguishing colour for each of the following breeds of livestock:
      1. chinchilla rabbit; ( ½ marks)
      2. toggenburg goat. ( ½ mks)
  4. State four reasons for castration in pig production. (2mks)
  5. State four characteristics of roughage livestock feeds. (2mks)
  6. State two functions of the crop in poultry digestive system. (1mk)
  7. State four roles of worker bees in a colony. (2mks)
  8. Give four reasons for controlling livestock diseases. (2mks)
  9. State two control measures for fowl pox disease in poultry. (1mk)
  10. State one function for each of the following:
    1. shovel ( ½ mark)
    2. strip cup ( ½ mk)
  11. Give three reasons for carrying out maintenance practices on a mower. (1½ mks)
  12. Give three limitations of using solar power on the farm. (1½ mks)
  13. Why is it important to have a thermostat on a cooling system of a tractor engine?(1mk)
  14. Give two advantages of using a disc plough over a mouldboard plough in primary cultivation. (1mk)
  15. Name four tools that are used when laying concrete blocks during construction of a wall. (2mks)
  16. Why is it necessary to have guard rails in a farrowing pen? (1mk)
  17. Give two reasons for having a footbath in a cattle dip. (1mk)
  18. Distinguish between the following practices as used in livestock production:
    1. crutching and ringing in sheep management (2mks)
    2. cropping and harvesting in fish farming. (2mks)
  19. Give three ways in which infectious diseases can spread from one livestock to another within a farm. (1½ mks)

SECTION B (20 marks)
Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. The following illustrations show the behavior of chicks in a brooder. Study them carefully and answer the questions that follow.
    agri q18 uagydta
    insert diagram)
    1. Explain the cause of behavior observed in chicks for each of the illustrations labeled A, B and C. (3mks)
    2. Give a reason for making the brooder wall round in shape. (1mk)
  2. The diagram below shows the reproductive system of a cow. Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow.
    agri q21 jagydga
    1. Name the parts labeled F and H. (1mk)
    2. Give two functions of the part labeled G. (2mks)
    3. Give the role of the part labeled J. (1mk)
  3. Below are diagrams of internal parasites. Study them carefully and answer the questions that follow.
    agri q22 jygatyda
    1. Identify the parasites labeled K and L. (1mk)
    2. Name the developmental stage of the parasite labeled K in cattle muscles.( ½ mark)
    3. Outline the procedure of handling a heifer when administering a liquid deworming drug to control the parasites illustrated above. (2½ mks)
  4. Below is a diagram of a farm structure for storing grains. Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow:
    agri q23 ahfdyta
    1. Identify the farm structure illustrated above. (½ mark)
    2. State the function of the part labeled M. (½ mk)
    3. State two maintenance practices that should be carried out on the farm structure illustrated above in readiness for grain storage. (1mk)
  5. Below is a diagram of a knapsack sprayer. Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow:
    agri q24 jagudya
    1. Name the parts labeled N, P, Q and R. (2mks)
    2. State one function of the part labeled S. (1mk)
  6. The diagram below illustrates the general shape of a cattle breed. Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow:
    agri q5 zjguys
    1. Identify the type of breed illustrated by the above shape. (½ mk)
    2. Give an example of a breed in (a) above. (½ mk)
    3. State four physical characteristics of the type of breed identified in (a) above. (2mks)

SECTION C (40 marks)
Answer any two questions from this section in the spaces provided after question 28.

    1. Outline five advantages of artificial insemination in cattle management.(5mks)
    2. Describe ten signs of trypanosomiasis (Nagana) disease in livestock.(10mks)
    3. Explain five functions of water in nutrition. (5mks)
    1. State the function of any six parts of a zero grazing unit in dairy farming.(6mks)
    2. Explain how the power transmitted from a tractor engine is made available for use on the farm under the following subheadings:
      1. propeller shaft (2mks)
      2. power take off (P.T.O.) shaft (2mks)
      3. hydraulic system. (2mks)
    3. Explain eight ways in which ticks can be controlled on a livestock farm.(8mks)
    1. Describe ten physical characteristics a poultry farmer would use to identify poor layers from a flock of hens. (10mks)
      1. Outline three characteristics of clean milk. (3mks)
      2. Explain seven factors that affect milk composition in dairy farming. (7mks)


  1. Causal agent of anaplasmosis disease in cattle
    • Protozoa/anaplasma marginate/anaplasma spp. (1 x 1/2 = 1/2 mark)
  2. Materials used in constructing a Kenya Top Bar Hive (K.T.B.H)
    • Timber
    • Nails
    • Plain wire
    • Iron sheets (4 x 1/2 = 2 marks)
    1. Breeds of dairy cattle that originated from the channel islands:
      • Guernsey
      • Jersey (2 x 1/2 = 1 mark)
      1. Chinchilla rabbit
        • Grey/silvery (1 x 1/2 = 1/2 mark)
      2. Toggenburg
        • Brown with two white stripes running down the face (1 x 1/2 = 1/2 mark)
  4. Reasons for castration
    • Prevent uncontrolled mating/breeding
    • Improve the quality of meat
    • Promote faster growth/facilitate weigh gain
    • Make then docile
    • Control breeding diseases
    • Control inbreeding (4 x 1/2 = 2 marks)
  5. Characteristics of roughages
    • Bulky
    • High fibre content
    • Low nutrient content
    • Low digestibility
    • Mainly of plant origin (4 x 1/2 = 2 marks)
  6. Functions of the poultry digestive system.
    • Softening/moistening food
    • Temporary food storage (2 x 1/2 = 1 mark)
  7. Roles of worker bees kills.
    • Kills the drones after mating the queen
    • Scouting for a new home
    • collect nectar/water/gum/propolis/pollen
    • Make honey combs
    • Protect the colony
    • Clean the hive
    • Make honey and bees wax
    • Seal the stacks and services (4 x 1/2 = 2 marks)
  8. Reasons for controlling livestock diseases.
    • Reduces spread of livestock diseases/production of healthy young ones
    • Promote fast growth and early maturity - rej to maintain good health in livestock
    • Make them have long productive life.
    • Improve quality and safety of products
    • Improve quantity of products
    • Reduce cost of production. (4 x 1/2 = 2 marks)
  9. Control measures of fowl pox diseases in poultry.
    • Observe hygiene in poultry house
    • Regular vaccination
    • Slaughter and properly dispose carcass of affected birds - rej culling, killing atone(2 x 1/2 = 1mark)
    1. shovel
      • Mixing mortar/manure
      • Lifting soil/manure (1 x 1/2 = 1/2 mark)
    2. Strip cup
      1. To detect mastitis infection in milk. (1 x 1/2 = 1/2 mark)
  11. Reasons for maintenance practices.
    • For safety of the user/operator
    • Ensure efficiency of operations
    • Increases durability
    • Reduces costs on repairs and replacements
    • Avoid damage to the mower. (3 x 1/2 = 11/2 marks)
  12. Limitations of using solar power
    • Solar trapping devices are expensive
    • Power supply/trapping fluctuates depending on weather conditions
    • Solar trapping is limited to day light
    • Requires skilled labour to handle the devices (3 x 1/2 = 11/2 mark)
  13. Importance of thermostat
    • Prevents engine from over-heating
    • Maintains optimum engine temperature during operation (1 x 1 = 1 mark)
  14. Advantages of disc plough over a mould board plough
    • Discs roll over obstacles
    • Requires less draught power
    • Requires less maintenance costs
    • Works better on dry, hard and sticky soils (2 x 1/2 = 1mark)
  15. Tools used when laying concrete blocks during construction of a wall.
    • Plumb bob/plumb line
    • Mason’s trowel
    • Spirit level/pipe level
    • Wood float/steel float
    • Masons square
    • String/masons line/line (4 x 1/2 = 2 marks)
  16. Importance of guard rails in a farrowing pen.
    • Prevents sow from crushing piglets rej. trampling of piglets
    • Prevents sow from eating creep feeds (1 x 1 = 1 mark)
  17. Reasons for having foot bath in a cattle dip.
    • Clean the feet of animals
    • Control foot rot (2 x 1/2 = 1 mark)
    1. Crutching and ringing
      • Crutching is the cutting of wool around the external reproductive organs of a female sheep to facilitate mating
      • Ringing is the cutting of wool around the sheath of the penis in rams to facilitate mating. (Mark as a whole 2 marks)
    2. Cropping and harvesting
      • Cropping is the selective removal of fish of marketable size from the pond.
      • Harvesting is the removal of all the fish from the pond. (Mark as a whole 2 marks)
  19. Ways in which infectious diseases can spread
    • through vectors
    • through ingestion of contaminated food and water/through food and water
    • Through contact
    • Through inhalation of contaminated air/through air. (3 x 1/2 = 11/2 marks)
    1. Causes of chicks’ behaviour in the illustrations A, B and C
      • A Presence of draught makes the chicks to crowd on one side of the brooder
      • B Cold/inadequate heat makes the chicks to crowd around the heat source
      • C High/Excess heat makes the chicks to move away from the heat source (3 x 1 = 3 marks)
    2. Reasons for making brooder wall round in shape
      • To discourage overcrowding of chicks at the corners to avoid suffocation. (1 x 1 = 1 mark)
      • F - Cervix
      • H - Oviduct/Fallopian tube (2 x 1/2 = 1 mark)
    2. Presence of part labelled G
      • Produces ova/female gametes
      • Products hormones that control ovulation cycle/estrogen cycle 2 x 1 = 2 marks
    3. Role of J
      • Allows implantation of the zygote and development of the foetus.
      • Contracts to expel foetus
      • Implantation of the foetus (1 x 1 = 1 mark)
      • K - Beef tapeworm/Taenia saginata/Taenia spp rej tapeworm
      • L - Roundworm/Ascaris lumbricodes/Ascaris spp (2 x 1/2 = 1 mark)
    2. Bladder worm/Embryo Cyst/Cystococus cellulase/cyst (1 x 1/2 = 1/2 mark)
    3. Procedure of handling a heifer when administering a liquid deworming drug.
      • Restrain the heifer in a crush
      • Hold it by the nostrils and lift up its head
      • Open its mouth
      • Release the drug into the mouth as far back as possible/place the drenching gun/bottle on the mouth
        (Mark until the procedure is broken 21/2 marks
        5 x 1/2 = 21/2 marks)
    1. Granary/modern store/crib (1 x 1/2 = 1./2 mark)
    2. Function of M
      • Prevents entry of rodents into the store.
      • To keep off vermins (1 x 1/2 = 1/2 mark)
    3. Maintenance practices on the structure
      • repair and replace worn out parts
      • Cleaning
      • Fumigating/dusting with appropriate pesticides. (2 x 1/2 = 1 mark)
      • N - Tank
      • P - delivery note rej. hose pipe/hose alone
      • Q - trigger
      • R - Lance
    2. Function of S
      • Breaks the liquid chemical into desired size of droplets/spray form/fume droplets/jets (1 x 1 = 1 mark)
    1. Dairy breed (1 x 1/2 = 1/2 mark)
    2. Friesian/Jersey/Guernsey/Ayrshire (1 x 1/2 = 1/2 mark)
    3. Physical characteristics of dairy cattle
      • Wedge/triangular shaped
      • Straight topline
      • Large and well developed udders teats
      • Prominent milk veins
      • Lean bodies/thinly fleshed waters
      • Large stomach
      • small head and long neck
      • Well set wide hind quarters
      • Prominent/visible pin bones
      • Long thin legs
    1. Advantages of artificial insemination
      • Controls breeding diseases/parasites
      • Controls breeding
      • Is a quicker method of obtaining a proven bull
      • Is easy and cheap to transport semen to far areas
      • Semen from a superior bull can be used to serve many cows
      • Farmers who cannot afford to buy a superior bull can access the service at a low cost
      • Bulls that cannot serve naturally due to physically injuries/defects can be utilized.
      • Prevents injuries to cows by heavy bulls
      • Danger of injury/damage by aggressive bulls is eliminated
      • Semen can be stored for a long period even after the death of the bull
      • Saves the cost of rearing a bull
      • Controls in breeding
      • It is a useful research tool. (5 x 1 = 5 marks)
    2. Signs of Trypanosomiasis (Nagana) disease in livestock
      • General body weakness/dullness
      • Reduced milk production
      • Swollen lymph nodes
      • Rough coat and cracked skin where there is no hair
      • Running eyes/lachrimation which can result in blindness/sunken eyes
      • Diarrhoea
      • Emaciation/loss of weight
      • Loss of hair toward the tail end
      • Abortion in pregnant females
      • High fever/temperature
      • Anaemia
      • Loss of appetite
      • Swollen parts of the belly (10 x 1 = 10 marks)
    3. Functions of water
      • Component of body cells and many body fluids e.g blood
      • Used in biochemical reactions in the body e.g digestion
      • Regulates body temperature through sweating and evaporation
      • Excretion of metabolic wastes from the body
      • Formation of products e.g milk, eggs etc
      • Makes cells turgid to maintain their shape.
      • Transportation of nutrients from one part of the body to another (5 x 1 = 5 marks)
    1. Use of the various parts of a zero grazing unit in dairy farming.
      • Milk recording room - weighing and milking records
      • Milking stall - rearing calf to weaning
      • Calf pen - rearing calf up to weaning
      • Sleeping cubicles - provide shelter and warmth
      • Loofing area - dunging, feeding, exercise and sunning
      • Feed and water troughs - feeding and watering the animals
      • Feed preparation room - preparing feed rations and cropping fodder rej. chaff cutter region
      • Store - storing/keeping dairy equipment/feeds
      • Manure storage areas storing measure
        Parts is tied to the function
        6 x 1 = 6 marks
    2. How power transmitted from a tractor engine is made available for use on a farm.
      1. Propeller shaft
        • connects gear box to the differential which has wheel axles
        • Wheel axles rotate to move the tractor and push or pull trailed implements.
          (2 x 1 = 2 marks)
      2. Power take Off (P.T.O) shaft
        • Rotates at the same speed as the crankshaft.
        • Its connected to machines e.g mowers, sprayers, shelters etc to perform farm operations (2 x 1 = 2 marks)
      3. Hydraulic system
        • Is attached to the three-point linkage or attached on hydraulic mechanism trailer.
        • the three point linkage operates (raises/lowers) the mounted implements during farm operations or for off loading (2 x 1 = 2 marks)
    3. Ways in which ticks can be controlled
      • Burning infested pastures to kill developmental stages. (1/2 mark for stating)
      • Rotational grazing to starve and kill developmental stages. (1/2 mark)
      • hand picking and killing the ticks.
      • Fencing off pasture land and farm to keep away infested animals/double feeding re. fencing al
      • Ploughing pasture land to burry and kill developmental stages.
      • Top dressing pasture using lime to kill the ticks.
      • Spraying using acaricides/had dressing/dipping to kill ticks.
      • Use of natural enemies - eat the
      • self licking - dislodges ticks from the body. (8 x 1 = 8 marks)
    1. Characteristics of a poor layer.
      • Combs and wattles - small/shrivelled/shrunken. dry scaly and place.
      • eyes - dull and pale yellow.
      • Beak - yellowish in colour.
      • Abdomen/breast - hard and full
      • Vent - round, dry and less active
      • Space between keen and pelvic bone - small and fits only one or two fingers
      • Plummage - preened & glossy (smooth) beautiful
      • Moulting - early morning
      • Shants/feet - Yellowish n colour
      • Broodiness - Is common/early moulting
      • Temperature - easy and dull
        Mark as whole
        Accept - poor layer is inactive. (10 x 1 = 10 marks)
        • Free from disease causing micro-organisms/pathogens
        • Free from hair, dirt or dust.
        • Free from bad odours and tastes/has good flavours.
        • Chemical composition within expected standards. (3 x 1 = 3 marks)
      2. Factors influencing milk composition
        • Age of animal 
          Butter fat in milk becomes less as an animal grows old thus young animals produce milk with higher BF than older animals.
        • Breed differences rej. species of the animal
          Different breeds of cattle produce milk with differing percentage composition e.g Jersey produce higher BF than Friesian.
        • Type of food eaten by an animal
          Roughage feeds produce link with higher fats, lactose and protein compared to grains.
        • Diseases
          Diseases such as mastitis reduce the lactose composition in milk because bacteria attack milk sugars.
        • Physiological condition of the animal.
          Sick/extremely emaciated animals register low percentage of BF/during late pregnancy cows produce milk with low BF content.
        • Stage of lactation
          The BF content in milk is highest at the middle phase of the lactation period and lowers towards end of lactation.
        • Completeness of milking
          Milk drawn last from udder during contains high BF content/last drop milk has BF content produce in the milk.
        • Season of the year - accept environmental condition
          BF content increases during cold seasons.
        • Time of milking
          Milk produced in the morning has a lower BF content than milk produced in the evening
          1/2 factor method
          1/2 mk explanation (7 x 1 = 7 marks)

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