KCSE 2011 Agriculture Paper 1 Questions and Marking Scheme

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Agriculture Paper 1 (443/1)

SECTION A (30 marks)
Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

    1. Name two field management practices that are carried out to obtain optimum plant population in a crop field,(1 mark)
    2. Explain how each of the practices named in (a) above achieves optimum plant population.(1 mark)
  2. Give two examples for each of the following types of costs incurred in broiler production.
    1. variable costs;(1 mark)
    2. fixed costs.(1 mark)
  3. State four disadvantages of mono cropping in crop production.(2 marks)
  4. Give three reasons for early seedbed preparation.(1 marks)
  5. State two ways in which crop rotation controls weeds.(1 mark)
  6. Outline four qualities of a mother plant from which vegetative propagation materials should be obtained(2 marks)
  7. Give three factors that should be considered when choosing the type of labour to use on the farm.(12 marks)
  8. State the use of each of the following in farm accounting:
    1. balance sheet;(12 mark)
    2. inventory;(12 mark)
    3. cash book.
  9. State four functions of Agricultural Society of Kenya (A.S.K.).(2 marks)
  10. How does leaching lead to loss of soil fertility?(1/2 marks)
  11. Give two reasons for imposing quarantine on imported planting materials.(1 mark)
  12. State four ways of controlling bean anthracnose disease.(2 marks)
  13. List four post-harvest practices that are carried out in maize production.(2 marks)
  14. Name two types of non-competitive markets.(1 mark)
  15. Name four settlement schemes that the Kenyan government started as a result of the success of the Million Acre Scheme.(2 marks)
  16. Give a weed for each case, which has the following effect on cattle:
    1. poisoning;(1/2 mark)
    2. tainting milk when eaten before milking.(1/2 mark)
  17. Apart from training and extension services, state four other agricultural support services the Kenyan government provides to a maize farmer.(2 marks)
  18. State three methods of harvesting trees in agroforestry.(11/2 marks)
  19. Give three maintenance practices for trees in agroforestry.

SECTION B (20 marks)
Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. The diagram below illustrates a seed potato prepared for planting. Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow:
    1. Name the practice used in preparing the seed potato above for planting.(1 mark)
    2. Describe the procedure followed in preparing seed potatoes for planting.(3 marks)
  2. The diagrams below show a set up of an experiment to study an aspect of soil. The set up was left undisturbed for five hours. Study it and answer the questions that follow.
    1. What was the aim of the experiment?(1 mark)
    2. State one observation that was made in each of the flasks labelled C and D. (4 mark)
    3. Give a reason for each of your answers in (b) above.(1 mark)
  3. Below is a graphical representation of a law in agricultural economics. Study the graph carefully and answer the questions that follow:
    1. Identify the law illustrated by the graph.(1 mark)
    2. Explain how each additional unit of fertilizer input relates to the total output of maize in phases II and III.
      Phase II(1 mark)
      Phase III(1 mark)
    3. State the importance of the law identified in (i) above to the maize farmer.(1 mark)
  4. The following information was extracted from Makueni Farin Records for the financial year ending on 30th June 2009. Study it and prepare a profit and loss account for the farm.(3 marks)
    • Rent received     - Sh. 10,000
    • Egg sale     -   Sh. 60.000
    • Repair of tractor   -  Sh. 30,000
    • Opening valuation   -  Sh. 80,000
    • Interest on Bank loan  -  Sh. 20,000
    • Tax paid   -  Sh. 40,000
    • Closing valuation  -  Sh. 90,00
    • Purchase of farm inputs  -  Sh. 90,000
    • Debts receivable from farmers co-op society - Sh 100,000
    • Maize sales  -  Sh. 55,000
  5. The diagram below illustrates a grazing system. Study it carefully and answer the questions that follow
    1. Identify the grazing system illustrated above. (1/2marks)
    2. State five advantages of the grazing system illustrated above.(2 1/2marks)
  6. The diagram below is an illustration of a weed. Study it and answer the questions that follow.
    1. Identify the weed. (1/2marks)
    2. State two harmful effects of the weed illustrated above. (2marks)

SECTION C (40 marks)
Answer any two questions from this section in the spaces provided after question 28.

    1. Describe how water is treated to remove solid impurities.(5 marks)
    2. Give a reason for each of the farm records kept on a dairy farm.(5 marks)
    3. Describe the production of cabbages under the following sub-headings:
      1. seedbed preparation;(3 marks)
      2. transplanting of seedlings.(7 marks)
    1. Describe the effects of pests on maize in the field.(6 marks)
      1. Describe the procedure of harvesting pyrethrum.(4 marks)
      2. Explain the precautions that should be observed during the harvesting of pyrethrum.(3 marks)
    3. Describe the cultural methods of controlling soil erosion.(7 marks)
    1. Explain five ways in which biotic factors influence crop production in agriculture.(5 marks)
    2. Describe how the stem cuttings for propagating tea are prepared.(9 marks)
    3. Describe the properties of nitrogenous fertilizers. (6 marks)


    1. Field Management practices
      (2 x 1/2)(1 mark)
      1. Thinning - Removes the excess seedlings from the field. (1 x 1/2)
      2. Gapping: - Replaces seedlings/seeds that died/failed to germinate. (1 x 1/2)
    1. Variable costs
      Wages for casual labour
      Costs of feeds and water
      Costs of drugs/chemicals and treatment
      Cost of Electricity.
      (2 x 1/2)
    2. Fixed costs
      Land rent/house rent/depreciation of building
      Salaries of regular/permanent labour
      Depreciation of machinery
      Interest on borrowed loan
      Cost of equipment. (2 x 1/2)
  3. Disadvantages of monocropping
    High risk of total loss incase of crop failure.
    Under utilization of some soil nutrients
    Build up specific of crop pests/diseases/weeds.
    Only specific mineral nutrients are absorbed/exhaustion of certain minerals poison the soil and once exhausted the soil becomes infertile.
    Results in soil erosion in crops with poor ground coverage.
    Faster spread of pests and diseases
    leads to destruction of soil structure
    loss of soil fertility,
    (4 x 1/2)(2 marks)
  4. Reasons for early land preparation.
    Allows time for organic matter to decompose and form humus.
    Facilitates timely subsequent operations.
    Allows time for weeds to die/be dehydrated.
    Allows weathering of soil clods before subsequent operations.
    Minimises competition for labour
    Allows time for pests and diseases causing organisms to starve and die,
    Allows time for soil aeration/gaseous exchange
    Allows time for water infiltration.
    (3 x 1/2)
    (1 1/2 marks) 
  5. How crop rotation controls weeds.
    Crops associated with specific weeds are alternated with crops of different families to remove the appropriate host and break the life cycle of weeds.
    Alternating with cover crops smothers the weeds.
    (2 x 1/2)
  6. Qualities of a mother plant,
    Disease/pest resistant/tolerant.
    Healthy/free from pests/diseases.
    High yielding.
    Well adapted to the environment/local ecological conditions.
    Fast growth
    Early maturity.
    (4 x 12)(2 marks)
  7. Factors on choice of labour.
    Availability of the labour.
    Size of the enterprise/amount of work,
    Financial ability of the farmer/cost of the labour.
    Type of enterprise/type of work
    (3 x 1/2)
    (1 1/2 marks)
    1. Balance sheet
      Showing the financial position of the farm business at a particular period of the year/ shows values of assets and liabilities/shows net worthy/net deficit/shows solvency and insolvency/shows value. (1 x 1/2 )
      (1 1/2 marks)
    2. Inventory
      Recording all the assets owned by the farm business.
      (1 x 1/2) (1 1/2 marks)
    3. Cash book Recording all transactions involving receiving and paying out of cash on the farm business.
      (1 x 1/2)
      (1/2 marks)
  9. Functions of A.S.K
    Holding competitive agricultural shows/competitive trade fairs and exhibitions of livestock, crop and farm produce
    Encouraging breeding and importation of pure breeds and improvement of indigenous live stock.
    Encouraging and assisting in official milk recording scheme.
    Organising the running of Young Farmers Clubs.
    Organising the National Ploughing Contest.
    Publishing the kenya Stud Book
    Publishing the monthly journal; "The Kenya Farmer”.
    Awarding bursaries for local and overseas studies/tours for its members.
    (4 x 1/2)
    (2 marks)
  10. Leaching: Washes dissolved mineral nutrients to the lower soil horizons beyond the reach of plant roots.
  11. Reasons for imposing quarantine
    To test them for purity to prevent entry of noxious/foreign weeds into the country.
    To test them for purity to prevent entry/spread of pests and diseases into the country.
    Quality control (2 x 1/2)
    (1 mark)
  12. Methods of controlling bean anthracrose disease.
    Use of certified seeds
    Use of appropriate fungicides/chemicals eg. dithioearbonate
    Crop rotation
    Use of resistant varieties eg. Banja 2, Mexican 142, K74, Wairimu
    Field hygiene/destruction of infected crop residues.
    (4 x 1/2 )
  13. Post harvest practices
    Processing (4x)
    (2 marks)
  14. Non-competitive markets
    Monopoly/monopolistic markets
    Oligopoly/Oligopolistic markets
    MonopoLy/monopsonistic markets.
    (2 x 6 )
    (1 mark)
  15. Settlement schemes
    Jet schemes
    Haraka schemes
    Shirika schemes
    Lari settlement scheme
    The squatter's settlement scheme
    Harambee schemes
    Ol-kalaou salient schemes.(2 marks)
    1. Poisonous
      Thorn apple/Datura stramonium
      Sodom apple/Solanum incanum
      (1 x 1/2)
    2. Taints milk when eaten
      Mexican marigold/(Tagetes minuta)
      (1 x 1/2)
      (1/2 mark)
  17. Agricultural support services
    Credit services
    Marketing services
    Agricultural machinery services/tractor hire services
    Agricultural research services
    Farm input supplies services.
    (4 x 2)
  18. Methods of harvesting trees
    Coppicing/cutting back
    Lopping/side pruning
    Felling trees.
    (3 x 1/2)
  19. Maintenance practices for trees
    Protection when young/seedlings
    Grafting/top working
    Weed control
    Pest/disease control
    (3 x 1/2)
    (1 1/2marks)
    1. Chitting/Sprouting
      (1 x 1)
    2. Procedure of chitting
      Arrange the setts/tubers in a store/chitting box with the rose-end facing upwards.
      Tubers are arranged 2-3 layers deep.
      Allow diffuse light through the store.
      Dust (spray)the setts/tubers with an appropriate insecticide/fungicides to control pests/aphids/ tubermoths/fungal infection.
      Sprinkle some water on tubers if the conditions are dry. (3 x 1) (3 marks)
    1. To demonstrate the presence of living organisms in the soil. (1 x 1)   (1 mark)
    2. Observation
      Flask C
      Lime water turns white/milky/white precipitate. (1 x 1/2)(2 mark)
      Flask D
      No observable change/lime water remains clear.(1/2 mark)
    3. Reasons for the answers in (b) above (1/2 mark)
    1. Paddocking/rotational grazing
      (1 x 1/2)
    2. Advantages
      Reduces build up of parasites and diseases/prevent spread of parasite and diseases.
      Allows pasture to regrow before being grazed again.
      Manure is evenly distributed in the field
      Excess pasture can be conserved
      Allows management practices on ungrazed portions e.g. reseeding, fertilizer application/weed control/irrigation/pests and disease control topping/cutting back.
      Ensures maximum utilization of pastures.
    1. The weed
      Wild oat/Avena fatua/Avena sterilis/Athena
      (1 x 1/2 )
      (1/2 marks)
    2. Harmful effects
      Competes with crops for nutrients/light/space/water
      Acts as an alternate host for pests/diseases
      Lowers quality of produce/gets mixed up with the produce
      Increase cost of production
      Lower yields/quality
      Increase cost of production
      Lower yields/quantity(2 x 1)
      (2 marks)
    1. Water treatment to remove solid impurities.
      At intake, water is passed through a series of sieves with different sizes of holes to trap large solid parties e.g. leaves, grass, sticks, polythene, stones.
      Aluminium sulphate (alum) is added to water in the mixing chamber to coagulate solid particles suspended in water.
      Water is passed to a large circular coagulation tank where coagulated solid particles settle.
      Water is then passed through a filtration tank where all the remaining solid particles are removed.
      The layers of sand and gravel in the filtration tank allow water to seep through very slowly and leave all the solid particles behind.
      (5 x 1)
      (5 marks)
    2. Farm records that should be kept by a dairy farmer
      Feed records:- They show the type of feeds and quantities given to animals at a given time.
      Breeding records:- Show details of breeding patterns for various animals on thefarm/date of service/ pregnancy diagnosis/expected calving date/ sex of the calf/ the sire used.
      Labour records:- Show details of human resources/efforts on the farm/the number of workers/their grades/salaries/responsibilities/performance on the farm.
      Health records:- Show incidences of disease/animals attacked/treatment given/ response to treatment/control measures taken/cost of treatment.
      Milk production records:- Show the total milk yield from the heard and individual COWS.
      The quality of milk in terms of butter fat content is also shown for each cow on the farm.
      Milk marketing records:- Show the quantity of milk sold/the price per litre/kilogram.
      Also show the revenue earned from milk per given period of time/day/month/year.
      Inventory records:- Show all the assets/buildings/ machinery/land/ livestock any consumable good owned by the farmer on the farm.
      (5 x 1)
      (5 marks)
    3. Cabbage Production
      1. Seedbed preparation
        Land should be prepared early when dry.
        Primary cultivation should be done.
        Secondary cultivation should be done.
        Land is prepared to medium tilth
        Holes are dug at a depth of 10 cm
        Spacing of 0.9 cm x 0.6 cm for large varieties or 0.6 m x 0.6 m/60 cm x 60 cm for smaller varieties should be done.
        (3 x 1)
        (3 marks)
      2. Transplanting of seedlings
        Transplant at beginning of the long rains/when soil has enough moisture.
        Nursery is first watered so that seedlings can be lifted with ease.
        Only healthy and vigorous seedlings should be selected.
        Lift the seedlings with a lump of soil attached to the roots/lift seedlings with garden trowel.
        Add about 15 gm/1 teaspoonful of phosphatic fertilizer to the planting hole/well rotten manure.
        Place and mix well with the soil.
        Place seedlings in planting holes at the same depth it was in the nursery. mix with soil.
        Firm the soil around the base of seedlings
        Water the seedlings as appropriate/if necessary
        Apply mulch around seedling/erect shade if necessary.
        Transplant the seedlings carefully,
        Transplanting should be done on a cloudy day or late in the evening when it is not too hot.
        Place and firm the soil around the base of the seedling.
        Seedlings are transplanted at 4-6 weeks of age/at 4-6 leaves stage/at height of 10-20 cm.
        ( 7 X 1)
        (7 marks)
    1. Effects of pests on maize in the field.
      Some pests transmit crop diseases e.g. leaf hoppers.
      Some pests eat the growing points causing retarded growth e.g. livestock, stalk borers/wild animals,cutworms.
      Some pests attack the fruits lowering their quality/quantity e.g. birds, bollworms Some pests eat the foliage/leaves reducing the surface area for photosynthesis.
      Some pests damage crop roots/stems causing wilting and death to the plants e.g. termites, rodents/wild pigs/stalk borer.
      Some pests pierce and suck sap from the plant depriving the plant of food e.g. aphids. Some pests injure and cause wounds on the plant exposing it to secondary infections.
      Some pests unearth germinating seeds reducing plant population hence lowering quantity eg. monkeys, rodents,chicken.
      (6 x 1)  
      (6 marks)
      1. Procedure of harvesting pyrethrum
        Pick flowers selectively.
        Pick flowers with horizontal petals (ray florets) with 2-3 rows of disc florets open.
        Use forefingers and the thumb.
        Pick by twisting the heads so that no stem is left attached.
        Put the picked flowers in woven basket.
        (4 x 1)
        (4 marks)
      2. Precautions observed during harvesting of pyrethrum.
        Picking starts 3-4 months after planting to maintain quality.
        Picked flowers are put in woven baskets to allow ventilation and avoid fermentation of flowers.
        Wet flowers should not be picked because they heat up and ferment
        Picked flowers should not be compacted to avoid heating up and fermenting.
        A suitable picking interval 14 - 21 days is maintained to avoid harvesting over blown flowers.
        Break the flower stalks to maintain quality.
        (3 x 1)
        (3 marks)
    3. Cultural Methods
      Contour farming; Cultivation and planting done across the slope helps in holding water thereby increasing infiltration and reducing runoff
      Mulching covers the soil thereby reducing splash erosion/reduce speed of runoff.
      Strip cropping: alternating strips of crops that give good soil cover with those that give little soil cover controls movement of soil particles thereby helping in control of erosion.
      Vegetated waterways; vegetation in waterways slows down run off/traps eroded soil particles thereby preventing further erosion.
      Afforestation/reafforestation; trees protect soil from splash erosion by atomising raindrops/encourage water infiltration/protect soil from winds which could detach and remove soil particles,
      Inter cropping crops which do not cover soil with crops that have good ground cover should be planted together to prevent splash erosion/surface runoff,
      Minimum tillage so as to maintain good soil structure/have a seed bed with rough surface such that soil particles are not easily detached/encourage water percolation.
      Cover cropping; establishing a crop that spreads over the surface of soil thereby protecting soil from effects of raindrops.
      Grass strips/filter strips are left between cultivated/cropped strips of land to reduced speed of water and filter out eroded soil.
      (7 x 1)
      (7 marks)
    1. Biotic factors that influences crop production.
      • Nitrogen fixing bacteria: - convert atmospheric nitrogen to nitrates for plant uptake.
      • Pollinators:- transfer pollen grains from the anther of a flower to the stigma of the same flower or different flower.
      • Decomposers:- organisms which breakdown organic plant and animal remains to release nutrients for plants/aerate soil.
      • Pests:- attack crops by eating plant parts, piercing and sacking sap and introduce/spread disease causing micro-organisms.
      • Pathogens:- they cause crop diseases.
      • Predators:- reduce pest population.
      • Weeds:- complete for nutrients, space, light, moisture/suppress growth/spread vests and diseases.
        (5 x 1)
        (5 marks)
    2. Preparation of stem cutting
      • Select shoots from mother plants that are high yielding/healthy
      • Select healthy and vigorously growing shoots;
      • That have grown unchecked for 6 months.
      • Obtain cuttings from the middle part of the shoots.
      • Using a sharp knife make cutting 2.5 - 4 cm long; with a single leaf.
      • Make the a cut close to the axial bud/leaf.
      • The cut/slant should face away from the bud.
      • Put the cuttings in water before planting to prevent dehydration.
      • The cutting should have a single leaf/bud.
      • Make a slauting out
      • Cutting should be 2.5 - 4 cm long.
        (9 x 1)
        (9 marks)
    3. Properties of N Fertilizers.
      • Highly soluble in soil water therefore should be applied in an already established crop.
      • Have short residual effect thus should be applied frequently.
      • They have a scorching effect/burning effect therefore should not come into contact with the plants.
      • The fertilizers are hygroscopic/absorb moisture from atmosphere therefore it should be stored under dry conditions.
      • The fertilizers are corrosive therefore they should not be handled with bare hands/stored in easily corroded containers.
      • They are easily leached therefore they should be applied to a vigorously growing crop/already established crop.
      • The fertilizers are volatile therefore they should be applied on moist soils.
        (6 x 1)
        (6 marks)
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