KCSE 2011 Agriculture Paper 2 Questions and Marking Scheme

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Agriculture Paper 2 (443/2)

SECTION A (30 marks)
Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. State four maintenance practices for a disc plough.(2 marks)
  2. Name three methods that are used in selection of breeding stock in livestock production. (1 1/2 marks)
  3. State four advantages of using animals instead of tractors as a source of power on the farm,(2 marks)
  4. Name one livestock disease that is transmitted by each of the following parasites:
    1. blue ticks;(1/2 mark)
    2. brown ear ticks;(1/2 mark)
    3. tsetse flies.( 1/2 mark)
  5. State four methods of controlling round worms (Ascaris sp) in livestock.(2 marks)
  6. Give the meaning of the following terms as used in livestock health:
    1. disease;(1 mark)
    2. vaccination.(1 mark)
  7. State three maintenance practices for a tractor battery.(1 1/2marks)
  8. Name the type of breed into which each of the following breeds of cattle are classified:
    1. Aberdeen Angus;(1/2 mark)
    2. Guernsey;(1/2 mark
    3. Sahiwal;(1/2 mark)
    4. Red poll.(1/2 mark)
  9. Give two ways in which proper nutrition helps to control livestock diseases.(1 mark)
  10. List four categories of livestock diseases.(2 marks)
  11. Name two breeding systems that can increase the frequency of high milk production genes in indigenous cattle.(1 mark)
  12. Name two bloodless methods of castration in lambs.(1 mark)
  13. Give the meaning of the following terms as used in livestock breeding:
    1. recessive gene;(1 mark)
    2. epistasis.(1 mark)
  14. State four signs that indicate that a doe is about to kindle.(2 marks)
  15. Name two developmental stages of a liverfluke (Fasciola sp.) which occur in the fresh water snail (Limnaea sp).(1 mark)
  16. Name the strokes in a four stroke cycle engine.(2 marks)
  17. State four signs of mite attack in poultry.(2 marks)
  18. State three advantages of natural feeding in calf rearing.(1 1/2 marks)

SECTION B (20 marks)
Answer all the questions in this section in the spaces provided.

  1. A dairy farmer is required to prepare 100 kg of dairy meal containing 20% Digestible Crude Protein (D.C.P.). Using the Pearson's Square Method, calculate the quantity of soya bean (40% D.C.P.) and rice (16% D.C.P.) the farmer requires for the dairy meal. (4 marks)
  2. Below is an illustration of a camel. Study it and answer the questions that follow.
    1. Identify the camel species illustrated above.(1/2 mark)
    2. Name three products that farmers obtain from the camel species illustrated above.(11/2 marks)
    3. Give two reasons why the camel species illustrated above is able to survive in its natural habitat.(2 marks)
  3. The diagram below represents farm tools and equipment. Study them and answer the questions that follow.
    1. Identify the tool / equipment labelled J, K and M.
    2. State one use for each of the tool / equipment labelled K and L.
    3. Give two maintenance practices for the equipment labelled K.
  4. The illustration below shows a practice carried out to prevent mastitis infection in a dairy cow.
    1. Identify the practice. (1/2 mark)
    2. At what stage is the practice carried out?(1/2 mark)
    3. State two other practices that are carried out on the udder to prevent mastitis infection.(2 marks
  5. The diagram below shows the digestive system of cattle. Study it and answer the questions that follow.
    1. Name the parts labelled N, P and Q.(1 mark
    2. State one function for each of the parts labelled S and T.(1 mark)
    3. Give one enzyme produced by each of the parts labelled R and S.

SECTION C (40 marks)
Answer any two questions from this section in the spaces provided after question 26.

    1. Explain the factors considered when culling livestock,(5 marks)
    2. Describe poultry management under the following sub-headings:
      1. causes of stress;(8 marks)
      2. control measures for cannibalism.(7 marks)
    1. Describe the feeding practices in artificial rearing of a dairy calf,(10 marks)
    2. Describe Newcastle disease under the following sub-headings:
      1. causal organism;(1 mark)
      2. signs of infection;(7 marks)
      3. control measures.(2 marks)
    1. Describe the uses of fences on the farm.(10 marks)
    2. Give five harmful effects of liver flukes in sheep rearing.(5 marks)
    3. State the differences between a diesel engine and a petrol engine.(5 marks)


  1. Maintenance practices for a disc plough.
    • cleaning after use
    • painting the frame
    • greasing the moving parts.
    • repair/replace broken/worn out parts.
    • oiling the metal parts on long storage.
    • proper storage.
      (4x 1/2 = 2 marks)
  2. Selection of breeding stock.
    • Progeny testing
    • Mass selection.
    • Contemporary comparison.
      (3 x 1/2= 1 1/2marks)
  3. Advantages of using animal power.
    • Animals are cheap to acquire.
    • Require less skilled labour.
    • Can be used on small holdings.
    • Are appropriate in very steep areas.
      (4 x 1/2= 2 marks)
    1. Blue ticks - Anaplasmosis.
    2. Brown ear ticks - E.C.F
    3. Tsetse flies - Trypanosomiasis (nagana)
      (3 x 1/2 = 1 1/2 marks)
  5. Control methods for roundworms.
    • Use of antihelmintics/drenching
    • Proper disposal of faeces/hygiene
    • Rotational grazing
    • Ploughing/burning of pasture.
      (4 x 1/2 = 2 marks)
    • Disease: Any deviation or alteration in the state of animal body or its organs which interferes with proper performance of its functions.
    • Vaccination: Is the administration of a weakened or killed disease causing agent into the animal to induce production antibodies for immunity against the disease.
      (2 x 1 = 2 marks)
  7. Maintenance practices for a battery.
    • Topping with distilled water to maintain correct level of electrolyte.
    • Cleaning the terminals and smearing them with grease to prevent corrosion.
    • Tightly fix the battery in a box to prevent spillage and damages.
    • Regular charging.
    • Empty contents and turn it upside down on long storage.
    • Should be fitted correctly on the tractor.
      (3 x 1/2 = 11/2 marks)
    Breed Type
    Aberdeen Angus
    Red poll
    Dual purpose
    Dual purpose 
  9. Proper nutrition
    • Prevents nutrient deficiency diseases.
    • Ensures resistance against disease infection.
      (2 x 1/2= 1 mark)
  10. Categories of livestock diseases
    • Bacterial
    • Protozoan
    • Viral
    • Nutritional
      (4 x 1/2= 2 marks)
    • Upgrading.
    • Cross breeding.
      (2 x 1/2= 1 mark)
    • Bloodless castration methods
    • Use of rubber ring and elastrator
    • Use of burdizzo.
      (2 x 1/2 = 1 mark)
    1. recessive gene: An allele whose phenotypic expression is masked by a dominant allele in heterozygous condition.
    2. Epistasis: Gene interaction in which the expression of some alleles is blocked (masked).
      (2 x 1 = 2 marks)
  14. Signs of kindling in a doe.
    • Nest building
    • Plucking of fur from the belly,
    • Lose of appetite.
    • Restlessness.
      (4 x 1/2 = 2 marks)
  15. Developmental stages of liver flukes in a fresh water snail. .
    • Sporocyst. .
    • Cercaria
    • Redia.
      (2 x 1/2= 1 marks)
  16. Four strokes of a tractor engine.
    • induction/inlet
    • compression
    • power
    • exhaust/outlet
      (4 x 1/2= 2 marks)
  17. Signs of mite attack in poultry.
    • Irritation/scratching of the body.
    • Anaemia
    • Presence of mites below the plumage in patches.
    • Falling off of feathers.
    • Dermatitis due to burrowing effects.
    • Formation of crusts.
      (4 x 1/2= 2 marks)
  18. Advantages of natural feeding in calf rearing.
    • Calf takes milk at body temperature.
    • Milk is free from contamination
    • It prevents scouring in calves.
    • Milk is provided ad libitum.
      (3 x = 1 marks)
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