KCSE 2012 Geography Paper 2 with Marking Scheme

Share via Whatsapp
Download PDF for future reference Get on Whatsapp for 50/-

SECTION A
Answer all the questions in this section.

  1.  
    1. What is mining?
    2. State four benefits of soda Ash mining to the economy of Kenya. (4 marks)

  2.  
    1. Name two methods of deep sea fishing. (2 marks)
    2. State three ways in which the Government of Kenya is supporting the fishing industry. (3 marks)

  3.  
    1. Apart from the sun, name three other sources of electricity. (3 marks)
    2. Give three advantages of using solar energy. (3 marks)

  4. Give three reasons why it is necessary for the government of Kenya to carry out a national census. (3 marks)

  5.  
    1. Identify two methods used to control tsetse flies in Kenya. (2 marks)
    2. State three negative effects of uncollected garbage on the environment. (3 marks)

SECTION B
Answer question 6 and any other two questions in this section.

  1. Study the photograph below and answer question

    photograph kcse 2012

    1.  
      1. Identify the type of photograph shown above. (1 mark)
      2. Draw a rectangle measuring 15 by 10 cm to represent the area covered by the photograph. (1 mark)
      3. On the rectangle, sketch and label four main features shown on the photograph. (4 marks)
      4. Using evidence from the photograph, identify two indicators which show that the area receives high rainfall. (2 marks)

    2.  
      1. Name three exotic types of dairy cattle reared in Kenya. (3 marks)
      2. Explain three human factors that favour dairy farming in Kenyan Highlands. (6 marks)

    3. Explain four ways in which dairy farming in Kenya is different from dairy farming in Denmark. (8 marks)


  2.  
    1.  
      1. What is agro-forestry? (2 marks)
      2. Give four reasons why agro-forestry is encouraged in Kenya. (4 marks)

    2. Use the map of Kenya below to answer the questions (b) (i) and (ii).

      map of kenya kcse 2012

      1. Name the reserves marked H,J and K. (3 marks)
      2. Explain four factors that favour the growth of natural forests in the area marked L. (8 marks)

    3. Explain four problems facing forestry in Kenya. (8 marks)

  3.  
    1.  
      1. Name two provinces in Canada where wheat is grown in large scale. (2 marks)
      2. State three physical conditions that favour wheat farming in Canada. (3 marks)

    2. Compare wheat farming in Kenya and Canada under the following subheadings.
      1. research; (2 marks)
      2. government policy; (2 marks)
      3. transport. (2 marks)
    3. Explain four problems that affect wheat farming in Canada. (8 marks)
    4. Your Geography class intends to carry out a field study of wheat harvesting in a farm.
      1. State two reasons for preparing a working schedule. (2 marks)
      2. Outline two problems that face wheat harvesting you are likely to find out. (2 marks)
      3. Suppose during the field study you used the interview method to collect data, state two limitations of the method. (2 marks)

  4.  
    1.  
      1. Identify the three types of inland waterways used for transport in Africa. (3 marks)
      2. Give four reasons why the government of Kenya is expanding pipeline transport. (4 marks)

    2.  
      1. State three advantages of railway transport. (3 marks)
      2. State four conditions of roads of Kenya that may lead to motor vehicle accidents. (4 marks)

    3. The sketch map below shows the Great Lakes and St. Lawrence seaway. Use it to answer question C.

      st lawrence sea ways kcse 2012

      Name:
      1. Ports marked M and P.
      2. The lake marked N.

    4. Explain four benefits of the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence Seaway to the economies of U.S.A and Canada. (8 marks)

  5.  
    1.  
      1. Name two settlement patterns. (2 marks)
      2. Explain four physical factors that influence settlement. (8 marks)

    2.  
      1. Explain how the following factors have led to the development of Thika town.
        1. Location; (2 marks)
        2. Transport; (2 marks)
        3. Land. (2 marks)
      2. Apart from being a transport and communication centre, give three other functions of Thika town. (3 marks)
    3. Explain three positive effects of urbanization to a country. (6 marks)

MARKING SCHEME

SECTION A

  1.  
    1. what is mining?
      • It is the extraction of minerals on or below the earths surface
    2. four benefits of soda ash mining to the economy of Kenya
      • Kenya earns foreign exchange from the exports.
      • it provides employment opportunities
      • it has led to development of related industries
      • it has led to development of Magadi town
      • it has led to development of transport and communication network.
      • Kenya earns revenue through taxation.
      • it has led to the development of social amenities.
        Any 4 × 1 = (4 marks)

  2.  
    1. Name two methods used in deep sea fishing
      • Trawling
      • Drifting
      • Seining
      • Line fishing
        Any 2 × 1 = (2 marks)
    2. State three ways in which the Kenya Government is promoting the fishing industry
      • Encouraging fish farming
      • Restoking overfished areas
      • banning indiscriminate fishing /enforcing the use of standardised nets/ban of fishing to allow breeding.
      • Establishing research stations
      • controlling water hyacinth
      • dredging of silted lakes
      • looking for external markets for fish
      • Establishment of ministry of fisheries
        Any 3 × 1 = (3 marks)
  3.  
    1. Apart from the sun name three other sources of electricity
      • Water
      • Oil
      • steam
      • Coal
      • Wind
      • Uranium
      • tides/waves
        Any 3 × 1 = (3 marks)
    2. Give three advantages of using solar energy
      • it is a cheap source of energy
      • it is an inexhaustible source of energy
      • it is a clean environmentally friendly form of energy
      • it can be stored for future use
      • it is easy to use
      • it can be found anywhere
        Any 3 × 1 = (3 marks)
  4. state three reasons why it is necessary for the government of Kenya to carry out a nation census
    • to plan for basic facilities/to help in distribution of resources
    • to determine the total population
    • to make decisions on new administrative areas
    • to determine the literacy level
    • to project the population growth
    • to determine the trends of the population
  5.  
    1. identify two methods used to control tsetseflies in Kenya
      • Trapping
      • use of chemicals
      • clearing bushes
      • sterilising males
      • Creating Buffer zones.
        Any 2 × 1 = (2 marks)
    2. state three negative effects of uncollected garbage of on the environment.
      • Garbage heaps are unattractive
      • Garbage produces foul smell
      • Garbage washed into water surfaces causes pollution/ cause soil pollution
      • Organisms that thrives in garbage may transmit diseases
      • Some wastes may cause injuries
      • Block drainage system
      • Cause obstruction on roads/pavements
        Any 3 × 1 = (3 marks)

SECTION B

  1.  
    1.  
      1. indentify the type of photograph shown above
        • Ground general view photograph
      2. rectangle measuring 15cm by 10 cm
      3. features shown on the photograph
        MAIN FEATURES SHOWN ON THE PHOTOGRAPH
        KCSE 2012 Geo PP2 Ans 6A
        Key
        1. Grassland/paddock/ fences
        2. Cattle
        3. Footpath
        4. Homestead
        5. Mountain/hill
        6. Forest
        7. Hedges
        8. Sky
        9. Comelets
        10. Snow/ice
      4. using evidence from the photograph ,indentify two indicators that show the area receives high rainfall.
        • presence of a forest/trees
        • Mountain at the background
        • Continuous grass cover/green vegetation
        • Diary cattle/cows
          Any 2 × 1 = (2 marks)
    2.  
      1. name three exotic types of dairy cattle in Kenya
        • Friesian/Holstein
        • Jersey
        • Guernsey
        • Aryshire
        • Sahiwal
        • Flikvieh/Simmendal
        • Swiss brown/ Brown Swiss
          Any 3 × 1 = (3 marks)
      2.  
        • high population in the area offers ready market for milk and other dairy products
        • There are milk processing factories which help in milk processing/ storage
        • many parts of Kenya highland is well served by road network which supports fast transport of milk to processing places
        • provision of veterinary that helped to promote rearing of high quality breeds.
        • Co-operative societies have been set up to market the dairy products
          Any 3 × 2 = 6 marks)
    3. ways in which dairy farming in Kenya is different from that of Denmark
      • in Kenya , cattle mainly depend on naturally growing grass/whereas in Denmark the cattle is fed on fodder and commercial feeds.
      • In Kenya mechanization is limited whereas in Denmark mechanization is idely used
      • In Kenya most farmers practice mixed farming while in Denmark dairy farming is highly specialized
      • In Kenya most of the dairy products are consumed by the domestic market whereas in Denmark the products are mainly exported.
      • In Kenya dairy production is affected by variation in climate whereas in Denmark dairy farming is least affected by variations in climates.
      • In Kenya, dairy cooperative movement is in its infancy whereas in Denmark cooperative movement is highly developed.
      • In Kenya, artificial insemination/extension services is limited to a few farms whereas in Denmark artificial insemination/extension services are widely used.
      • In Kenya, animals graze outdoor throughout the year, whereas in Denmark, animals are kept indoor in winter.
      • In Kenya, dairy farming is mainly in the Highlands whereas in Denmark, it is throughout the country.
      • In Kenya, research on dairy farming is limited whereas in Denmark, it is extensive.
        Any 4 x 2 = (8 marks)
  2.  
    1.  
      1. What is agroforestry?
        • It is the deliberate growing of trees and crops/keeping of animals on a piece of land.
          (2 marks)
      2. Give four reasons why agroforestry is encouraged in Kenya
        • To ensure continuous supply of wood fuel/To conserve forests
        • Provides raw materials for industries.
        • To conserve soil.
        • To provide fruits /food for human consumption.
        • Trees are a source of income to farmers.
        • To provide fodder for animals.
        • Trees act as wind breakers/provide shade to young plants.
          4x1 = (4 marks)
    2. Use the map of Kenya below to answer questions b(i) and (ii). See the question paper
      1. Name the forest reserves marked H, J and K.
        • H - Mt. Elgon
        • J - Mt. Kenya
        • K - Arabuko Sokoke
          3x 1 (3 marks)
      2. Explain four factors that favour the growth of natural forest in the area marked L.
        • The area receives high rainfall/1000 - 1500 mm per year which encourages the growth of trees.
        • The area has deep well drained fertile volcanic soils that allow the roots to penetrate deep into the ground. /uptake/provision of nutrients.
        • The area has moderate to cool temperatures that allow for the growth of a variety of trees.
        • The area is a gazetted forest hence settlement/cultivation is prohibited.
        • Some areas are steep which discourages settlement and allow for forest growth.
        • Enforcement of laws to allow re-establishment of forests.
          Any 4 x 2 = (8 marks)
    3. Explain four problems facing forestry in Kenya.
      • Rapid increase in population has led to encroachment into forest land hence destruction of forests.
      • Occurrence of forest fires which have led to the destruction of large areas under forest.
      • Illegal logging has led to indiscriminate cutting of trees thereby reducing depleting indigenous tree species.
      • Attacks by pest/diseases has led to destruction of valuable tree species.
      • Trees are damaged by some wild animals through debarking/trampling uprooting.
      • At times, the government allocates land to private developers thus reducing the land under forest.
      • Prolonged droughts lead to drying of some trees.
        Any 4 x 2 = (8 marks)
  3.  
    1.  
      1. Name two provinces in Canada where wheat is grown on large scales
        • Manitoba
        • Alberta
        • Saskatchewan
          Any 2 × 1 = (2 marks)
      2. physical conditions that favour wheat farming in Canada
        • Well drained fertile soils
        • Rainfall of about 560mm/moderate rainfall
        • Availability of extensive undulating land.
        • Sunny summers conditions
          Any 3 × 1 = (3 marks)
    2. compare wheat farming in Kenya and in Canada
      1. Research
        • In Kenya, little research is being undertaken on wheat farming while in Canada there is advanced research on wheat farming which produces high yielding seeds/ control of pests and diseases.
          (2 marks)
      2. Government policy
        • In Kenya , government policy on subsidies /incentives to wheat farmers while in Canada the government subsidizes the farmers in case of crop failure.
          (2 marks)
      3. Transport
        • In Kenya , there is poor road network in wheat growing areas while in Canada there is elaborate railway network in wheat growing areas.
          (2 marks)
    3. problems that affects wheat farming in Canada
      • fluctuation in world prices of wheat has led to farmers being uncertain about their earnings hence turning to growing crops with better earnings.
      • the soil has become exhausted due to long use leading to  lower yields/lower quality yields
      • occurrence of summer heat waves/frost/have destroyed wheat crops leading to lower yields
      • Canada faces competition from other wheat producing countries which has reduced the market for their produce
      • due to pests and diseases farmers has to spray the crops hence increasing the cost of production.
        Any 4 × 2 = (8 marks)
    4.  
      1. reasons for preparing a working schedule
        • it ensures all the intended activities are captured.
        • it helps in time management.
        • It helps to monitor the field work exercise while it is still in progress
        • It enables the research group to remain within the scope of the study.
          Any 2 × 1 = (2 marks)
      2. problems that face wheat harvesting
        • shortage of harvesting machinery/combine harvester
        • high cost of labour
        • Unfavourable weather conditions
        • Spillage of wheat grains during harvesting
          Any 2 × 1 = (2 marks)
      3. limitation of methods.
        • The respondent may give inaccurate information.
        • It is time consuming.
        • Some respondent may be unwilling to be interviewed
        • Language barrier may rise
          Any 2 × 1 = (2 marks)
  4.  
    1.  
      1. types of inland water ways used for transport in Africa
        • rivers
        • lakes
        • canals
          (3 marks)
      2. reasons why the government is expanding pipeline transport
        • to reduce congestion on/damage of roads by tankers.
        • to reduce road accidents by tankers
        • to reduce congestion on oil terminus
        • pipeline transport is cheaper than road transport
        • pipeline transport is more reliable/ convenient than road
        • To reduce danage/ loss of the oil products while being transported.
        • It is faster means of transport.
          Any 4 × 1 = (4 marks)
    2.  
      1. advantages of railway station
        • carry heavy bulk goods/large carring capacity
        • it is more reliable /effitient due to fixed time schedules/less traffic jams
        • it is a cheap mode of transport/ low maintainance cost
        • Electric trains are fast.
        • Railways are narrow they thus economical in land space
        • Trains are less prone to accidents
          Any 3 × 1 = (3 marks)
      2. conditions of roads in Kenya that may lead to accidents
        • Some roads have potholes /uneven road surfaces
        • Some roads are steep/ have sharp bends
        • Some roads are slipperly
        • Some roads are unmarked/absence of road signs
        • Some roads have loose surface/dusty
        • Some roads are narrow.
          Any 4 × 1 = (4 marks)
    3.  
      1. ports marked M and N
        • M - Duluth
        • N - Buffalo
      2. Lake marked N
        • N - Lake Huron
    4. benefits of the Great lakes and st. Lawrence seaway to the economies of USA and Canada.
      • they have encouraged trade in both countries by providing cheap means of transport
      • the dams constructed along the route provide hydroelectric power for domestic /industrial use
      • they have led to growth of ports/towns along the route which are focal points for various economic activities.
      • they have created employment opportunities in the transport industry thus raising the standard of living of the people in the area.
      • they are sources of water for domestic/ industrial use
      • they are tourist attractions hence generate income for their attraction
      • cheap/easy movement of raw materials
      • The countries earn revenue from toll charges levied on the ships that use the routes 
        Any 4 × 2 = (8 marks)
  5.  
    1.  
      1. settlement patterns
        • Nucleated settlement/ clustered
        • dispensed settlement /scattered
        • linear settlement
        • radial settlement
          Any 2 × 1 = (2 marks)
      2. Physical factors that influence distribution of settlements
        • Areas that receives (reliable)rainfall attract more people since they can engage in arable farming that receive low rainfall have fewer people as they are unsuitable for arable farming.
        • Areas near water bodies attract dense settlements as the water is available nfor domestic / industrial use/ poorly drained areas discourage settlment.
        • Areas with cool moderate temperature/moderate temperatures are densely settled as they can support agriculture/ human life/ Areas with extreme temperatures are sparsely settled as they are uncomfortable for human beings
        • Areas with fertile soils attract settlement as a wide range of crops can be grown/ poor soils discourage settlement as they are unsuitable for arable farming.
        • Forested areas discourage settlements as they may be habitats for dangeous animals/ disease vectors.
        • Gentle slopes are densely settled steep slopes are sparsely settled.
        • Surfacing slopes are densely settles because they are warmer for human/ crop survival.
          Any 4 × 2 = (8 marks)
    2.  
      1.  
        1. location
          • its proximity to Nairobi has led to industrial expansion as Nairobi acts as market to its products/supplies/people settle in Thika to be able to work in Nairobi/ industries have been set up in Thika due to congestion in Nairobi industrial area
          • Hinterland –Thika town is located in an area with a rich agricultural hinterland which which provides raw materials for industries food for the population hence provides cheap labour.
            Any 2 × 1 = (2 marks)
        2. Transport
          • it has a railway/ road connection which provides easy movement of food/people/raw materials/ finished products (2 marks)
        3. Land
          • There is ample/flat land for development of industries/settlement
          • The cost of land is relatively cheap hence attracts investors
            Any 2 × 1 = (2 marks)
      2. Other function in Thika
        • It is an industrial center
        • It is an educational center
        • It is a commercial center
        • it is a residential centre.
        • It is an administrative center
        • It is recreational center
        • It is a religious/cultural center.
          Any3 × 1 = (3 marks)
    3. positive effects of urbanization to a country
      • it encourage national unity as people of different nationalities/ ethnic backgrounds interact.
      • it promotes links with many areas of transport/ communication networks tend to be focused in urban areas.
      • it provides employment opportunities through establishment of commercial/ industrial activities/attracts large population that provides labour.
      • It leads to development of infrastructure both within the urban centres and the surrounding rural areas.
      • It provides market for agricultural/ industrial goods produced in a country.
        Any 3 × 2 = (6 marks)

Download KCSE 2012 Geography Paper 2 with Marking Scheme.


Tap Here to Download for 50/-





Join our whatsapp group for latest updates
Read 2901 times Last modified on Thursday, 11 November 2021 12:30
Print PDF for future reference